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 Airedale Terrier
The Airedale Terrier (often shortened to "Airedale") is a breed of the terrier type that originated in Airedale, a geographic area in Yorkshire, England. It is traditionally called the "King of Terriers" because it is the largest of the terrier breeds. Bred from a Welsh Terrier and an Otter Hound, the breed has also been called the Waterside Terrier, because it was bred originally to hunt otters in and around the valleys of the River Aire which runs through Airedale. In the United Kingdom this breed has also been used as a police dog.The Airedale is the largest of the British Terriers. They weigh 25–30 kilograms (55–66 lb) and have a height at the withers of 58–61 centimetres (23–24 in) for dogs, with females slightly smaller. The American Kennel Club standard specifies a smaller dog. Larger ADTs, up to 55 kilograms (120 lb) can be found in the New World. They are often called "Oorangs." This was the name of a kennel in Ohio in the early 1900s.The Airedale has a medium-length black and tan coat with a harsh topcoat and a soft undercoat. They are an alert and energetic breed, "not aggressive but fearless." It has been claimed that the large "hunting" type or Oorang airedales are more game than the smaller "show" type airedales. The large type are usually used for big game hunting and as family guardians or as pets, but usually do poorly in AKC conformation shows.Like many terriers, the breed has a 'broken' coat. The coat is hard, dense and wiry, not so long as to appear ragged, and lies straight and close, covering body and legs. The outer coat is hard, wiry and stiff, while the undercoat shorter and softer. The hardest coats are crinkling or just slightly waved. Curly soft coats are highly undesirable.Airedales being shown are generally groomed by hand stripping where a small serrated edged knife is used to pull out loose hair from the dog's coat. With regular grooming, the Airedale may shed very little.The AKC breed standard states that the correct coat color is either a black saddle, with a tan head, ears and legs; or a dark grizzle saddle (black mixed with gray and white).The Airedale's tail is usually docked (surgically shortened) within five days of birth, but this is not a breed standard requirement. To show an Airedale in the United States, the official AKC standard states "The root of the tail should be set well up on the back. It should be carried gaily but not curled over the back. It should be of good strength and substance and of fair length"., while in the UK it is illegal to dock dogs' tails unless it is for the dog's benefit (e.g., if the tail is broken). Traditionally the fluffy tail is left long.Airedale terrier males should measure approximately 24 inches in height at the shoulder; females, slightly less. The standard states that both sexes should be sturdy, well muscled and boned. At 23 to 24 inches, a dog should weigh approximately 50 - 70 pounds, being active and agile enough to perform well, while not too small to function as a physical deterrent, retriever or hunter. Some breeders have produced larger Airedale Terriers, such as the 'Oorang Airedale', developed in the 1920s.Ex-Army captain and Airdale breeder Walter Lingo's monthly magazine "Oorang Comments" (#25, page 81), stated that "When full grown your Airedale dog will weigh from forty to fifty-five pounds and if a female will weigh slightly less. This is the standard weight, but when required, we can furnish over-sized Airedales whose weight will be from sixty to one hundred pounds."Because Lingo tried to fill orders for everyone, the Oorang strain size was never standardized. Airedales weighing from 40 to 100 pounds were produced, but for the most part they were approximately 50 pounds and 22 to 24 inches at the shoulder.The Airedale can be used as a working dog and also as a hunting dog. Airedales exhibit some herding characteristics as well, and have a propensity to chase animals. They have no problem working with cattle and livestock. However, an Airedale that is not well trained will agitate and annoy the animals.The Airedale Terrier, like most Terriers, has been bred to hunt independently. As a result, the dog is very intelligent, independent, strong-minded, stoic, and can sometimes be stubborn. If children and Airedale are both trained correctly, Airedales can be an excellent choice for a family dog.Albert Payson Terhune wrote of the Airedale: "Among the mine-pits of the Aire, the various groups of miners each sought to develop a dog which could outfight and outhunt and outthink the other miner's dogs. Tests of the first-named virtues were made in inter-mine dog fights. Bit by bit, thus, an active, strong, heroic, compactly graceful and clever dog was evolved – the earliest true form of the Airedale.He is swift, formidable, graceful, big of brain, an ideal chum and guard. ....To his master he is an adoring pal. To marauders he is a destructive lightning bolt."
 Korean Jindo
The Korean Jindo Dog (Hangul: ???; Hanja: ???) is a breed of hunting dog known to have originated on Jindo Island in South Korea. Brought to the US with Korean immigrants, it is celebrated in its native land for its fierce loyalty and brave nature. The Jindo breed became recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1998 and by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 2005.Jindos are medium-sized, double-coated spitz-type dogs. Much as the Dingo developed in Australia, the Jindo Gae is the natural or feral dog of a particular island of Korea. Distinguishing the Jindo breed from mixes and other breeds is often done by close examination of cranial and facial features and by analyzing the proportion of the head to the body. In addition, the breed exhibits sexual dimorphism with females having more angular heads than males. The keen and alert appearance of the Jindo gives the impression of intelligence, strength, and agility.The Korean Jindo Dog is well known for its unwavering loyalty and gentle nature. Because of this, there is a misconception that a Jindo will be loyal only to its first owner or the owner they bonded to when young. However, there are many examples of older Jindos being adopted out of shelters in the United States and becoming very loyal friends to their new owners. They are highly active and are certainly not indoor-only dogs. Jindo dogs need reasonable space to roam and run. Jindos require a lot of care and attention. If kept in a yard, the fencing must be at least 6 feet high due to their strong hind legs that enable them to jump high.Because the Jindo is an active and intelligent dog, it requires frequent interaction with people or another dog in the family. For some the Jindo may even be too intelligent, for it will commonly think for itself. The same intelligence that allows the dog to learn commands and tricks very quickly can be a bit too much to handle. If left alone for a long stretch, it finds its own entertainment. A young Jindo may attempt to climb over a fence or wall, even by way of a tree or digging under, or tear up the house if confined indoors. Because of this many Jindo dogs are found in animal shelters, abandoned by owners who often did not know what they were getting into when accepting the responsibility of a Jindo.Jindos serve as excellent watchdogs, able to distinguish family from foe, friends from strangers. The Korean Army is known to use Jindos as guard dogs at major bases. Because Jindos rarely bark aggressively, especially in familiar environments, an owner may lend special credence to the warning of his/her pet. Many Jindos do not take any food from anyone other than their owners.Some Jindos display a curious aversion from running water and avoid situations that might get them wet. They let themselves be washed, although with great reluctance. Some may even be afraid of going out in the rain, which could lead to some difficulties.People adopt Jindo dogs because of their beautiful appearance, high intelligence, loyalty, and sometimes for their fighting spirit, then quickly realize that raising a Jindo dog to be a well-behaved member of the family takes a lot of effort and time. Potential owners who are prepared and determined to have an intelligent, loyal, but independent companion can adopt a Jindo dog from shelters.Desirable height at maturity, measured at the withers, ranges from 19½ to 21 inches(or 48 cm to 53 cm) for males and 18½ to 20 inches(or 45 cm to 50 cm) for females.Weight should be in proportion to the height, giving a well-muscled, lean appearance without being too light or too heavy. The typical weight range for a male Jindo in good condition is 40 to 60 pounds or 18 to 27 kilos; for a female, 35 to 55 pounds or 16 to 25 kilos.
 Akita
The Akita Inu (????) is a Japanese breed of large dog. Named for Akita Prefecture, where it is thought to have originated, it is sometimes called the Akita-ken based on the Sino-Japanese reading of the same kanji. In most countries (with the exception of the Australian, American and Canadian Kennel Clubs), it is considered a separate breed from the American Akita and is also colloquially known as the "Japanese Akita". "Inu" means "dog."Breed standards state that male Akita Inus height should range from 64-70cms (25 ¼-27 ½ ins), and females 58-64 cms (22 ¾-25 ¼ ins) at the withers.The Akita Inu comes in only five colors: Red, Fawn, Sesame, Brindle, and Pure White. All except white must have whitish hair on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, the neck, chest, body and tail, known as "Urajiro". Black masks, as seen in the American Akita, are not permitted in the Japanese Akita Inu. In contrast, all colors are accepted in the American Akita. The Pinto color is not accepted as an Akita Inu color, but is as an accepted American Akita color.There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat, which is not eligible for showing. The long coat, also known as 'Moku' is the result of a autosomal recessive gene and only occurs phenotypically if both sire and dam are carriers.Akita Inu are renowned as loyal dogs and are also intelligent. The loyalty of an Akita named Hachiko established the breed as truly loyal to their owners. The famous Akita Hachiko spent nine years waiting daily at the Shibuya railway station for his deceased master to return home. Hachiko's popularity brought back the Akita from the brink of extinction.Because of their intelligence, Akitas get bored very easily and as a result, they often become destructive and aggressive if not given anything to do. Akita Inu can live happily in apartments as long as they are given plenty of exercise. They need to be socialized as puppies so they are friendly dogs and should have experienced owners. Although they love human companionship, they are quite happy to be outside dogs as well, but should still be taken out for walks to prevent destruction of the yard. Akita Inu often become excitable when seeing their owners, often wiggling around and making happy grunts.Akita Inu are very good with youngsters from their own family, and often quite playful, although they should be watched around other people's children as they could knock them over during play.The Akita Inu have a reputation for sometimes being aggressive towards smaller animals or other dogs, particularly those of the same sex. However, they can live happily with other dogs and animals providing they are socialized well. They are excellent guard dogs and naturally protective of their home and family. The Akita Inu has a reputation for being an excellent house dog. They make great family dogs with the right training and socialization.[
 Labrador Retriever
The Labrador Retriever (also Labrador, or Lab for short) is one of several kinds of retriever, a type of gun dog. A breed characteristic is webbed paws for swimming, useful for the breed's original purpose of retrieving fishing nets. The Labrador is the most popular breed of dog by registered ownership in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States (since 1991). It is also one of the most popular assistance dog breeds in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States and many other countries, as well as being widely used by police and other official bodies for their detection and working abilities. Typically, Labradors are athletic and love to swim, play catch and retrieve games, are good with young children, and for protection.Labradors are relatively large, with males typically weighing 29 to 41 kg (64 to 90 lb) and females 25 to 32 kg (55 to 71 lb). Labradors weighing close to or over 100 lb (45 kg) are considered obese or having a major fault under American Kennel Club standards, although some Labradors weigh significantly more.[18] The majority of the characteristics of this breed, with the exception of colour, are the result of breeding to produce a working retriever.As with some other breeds, the Conformation (typically "English", "show" or "bench") and the Field (typically "American" or "working") lines differ, although both lines are bred in both countries. In general, however, Conformation Labradors tend to be bred as medium-sized dogs, shorter and stockier with fuller faces and a slightly calmer nature than their Field counterparts, which are often bred as taller, lighter-framed dogs, with slightly less broad faces and a slightly longer nose; however Field Labradors should still be proportional and fit within AKC standards. With field Labradors, excessively long noses, thin heads, long legs and lanky frames are not considered standard. These two types are informal and not codified or standardized; no distinction is made by the AKC or other kennel clubs, but the two types come from different breeding lines. Australian stock also exists; though not seen in the west, they are common in Asia.The breed tends to shed hair twice annually, or regularly throughout the year in temperate climates. Some Labradors shed considerably; however, individual Labradors vary. Labrador hair is usually fairly short and straight, and the tail quite broad and strong. The otter-like tail and webbed toes of the Labrador Retriever make them excellent swimmers. The webbing between their toes can also serve as a "snowshoe" in colder climates and keep snow from balling up between their toes- a condition that can be painful to other breeds with hair between the toes. Their interwoven coat is also relatively waterproof, providing more assistance for swimming.Size: Labradors are a medium but compact breed. They should have an appearance of proportionality. They should be as long from the withers to the base of the tail as they are from the floor to the withers. Males should stand 22.5 to 24.5 inches (57 to 62 cm) tall at the withers and weigh 65 to 80 lb (29 to 36 kg). Females should stand 21.5 to 23.5 inches (55 to 60 cm) and weigh 55 to 70 lb (25 to 32 kg). By comparison under UK Kennel Club standards, height should be 22 to 22.5 inches (56 to 57 cm) for males, and 21.5 to 22 inches (55 to 56 cm) for females.The AKC describes the Labrador's temperament as a kind, outgoing and tractable nature. Labradors' sense of smell allows them to hone in on almost any scent and follow the path of its origin. They generally stay on the scent until they find it. Labradors instinctively enjoy holding objects and even hands or arms in their mouths, which they can do with great gentleness (a Labrador can carry an egg in its mouth without breaking it). They are also known to have a very soft feel to the mouth, as a result of being bred to retrieve game such as waterfowl. They are prone to chewing objects (though they can be trained out of this behavior). The Labrador Retriever's coat repels water to some extent, thus facilitating the extensive use of the dog in waterfowl hunting.Labradors have a reputation as a very even-tempered breed and an excellent family dog. This includes a good reputation with children of all ages and other animals. But some lines (particularly those that have continued to be bred specifically for their skills at working in the field rather than for their appearance) are particularly fast and athletic. Their fun-loving boisterousness and lack of fear may require training and firm handling at times to ensure it does not get out of hand—an uncontrolled adult can be quite problematic. Females may be slightly more independent than males. Labradors mature at around three years of age; before this time they can have a significant degree of puppy-like energy, often mislabelled as being hyperactive. Because of their enthusiasm, leash-training early on is suggested to prevent pulling when full-grown. Labradors often enjoy retrieving a ball endlessly and other forms of activity (such as agility, frisbee, or flyball).Although they will sometimes bark at noise, especially noise from an unseen source ("alarm barking"), Labradors are usually not noisy or territorial. They are often very easygoing and trusting with strangers, and therefore are not usually suitable as guard dogs.Labradors have a well-known reputation for appetite, and some individuals may be highly indiscriminate, eating digestible and non-food objects alike. They are persuasive and persistent in requesting food. For this reason, the Labrador owner must carefully control his/her dog's food intake to avoid obesity and its associated health problems.The steady temperament of Labradors and their ability to learn make them an ideal breed for search and rescue, detection, and therapy work. They are a very intelligent breed. They are ranked # 7 in Stanley Coren's book " The Intelligence of dogs". The AKC describes the breed as an ideal family and sporting dog. Their primary working role in the field continues to be that of a hunting retriever.
 Alaskan Malamute
The American Kennel Club (AKC) breed standard calls for a natural range of size, with a desired freighting size of 23 inches (584 mm) and 75 pounds (34 kg) for females, 25 inches (635 mm) and 85 pounds (39 kg) for males. Heavier individuals (90 lb (41 kg)) and dogs smaller than 75 pounds (34 kg) are commonly seen. There is often a marked size difference between males and females. Weights upwards of 120 pounds (54 kg) are occasionally seen, but this is uncommon and such dogs are produced primarily by breeders who market a 'giant Malamute.' These large sizes are not in accordance with show standards.The coat is a dense double northern dog coat, somewhat "harsher" (in a certain sense) than that of the smaller Siberian Husky. The usual colors are various shades of gray and white, sable and white, black and white, red and white, or solid white. Blue and white (slate gray with gray pigment) also is seen in the breed. Eyes are almond-shaped and are always various shades of brown (from dark to light, honey or hazel brown); blue eyed Malamutes will be disqualified in conformation shows, as they would not be a purebred Malamute, but mixed with perhaps a Siberian Husky. The physical build of the Malamute is compact with heavy bone, in most (but not all) cases. In this context 'compact' means that their height to length ratio is slightly longer than tall, unlike dogs like Great Danes which are longer and lankier in their ratios. An adult Alaskan MalamuteAccording to the AKC breed standard, the Malamute's tail is well furred and is carried over the back like a "waving plume". Corkscrew tails are occasionally seen but are faulted in the AKC breed standard (a corkscrew tail is commonly seen in the Akita). The Malamutes' well-furred tails aid in keeping them warm when they curl up in the snow. They are often seen wrapping the tail around their nose and face, which presumably helps protect them against harsh weather such as blowing snow. Their ears are generally upright. They are one of five breeds that still look like wolves.
 Lagotto Romagnolo
The Lagotto Romagnolo is a breed of dog that comes from the Romagna sub-region of Italy. The name means "lake dog from Romagna," coming from the Italian word lago, lake. Its traditional function is a gundog, specifically a water retriever. However, it is often used to hunt for truffles.Lagotto have large round eyes in any shade color ranging from dark yellow to dark brown. The wooly coat is very thick and curly. Solid colors include off-white, white, or brown. They can also be found white with brown or orange patches or Roan (color). They are a medium sized dog that is hypoallergenic. Lagotto often display white markings that grow out in adulthood.SizeMales Height: 43–48 cm (17–19 in)Weight: 13–16 kg (29-35 lb)Females Height: 41–46 cm (16–18 in).Weight: 11–14 kg (24-32 lb).The Lagotto is made to work. They generally have sharp senses, though their eyesight is more sensitive to motion than detail. They are very loyal and loving making them the perfect family companion. Some are easy to train. Many get along with other animals quite easily if socialized from a young age. Lagotto vary in their need for exercise but should always be given stimulation to keep their intelligent brains occupied. Lagotto have a natural instinct for retrieving. The ENCI (Italian Kennel Club) Country of Origin standard indicates that the game hunting instinct has been bred out and Lagotto do not get distracted by game or other wildlife. This was untrue when it was written and is certainly untrue twenty years later. Lagotto have been hunting dogs for at least three thousand years and truffle dogs for maybe a hundred years if that. It must be remembered that the original standard written by those who founded C.I.L. (the Club Italiano Lagotto) in Imola in 1988 were writing a standard to get the Lagotto recognised by ENCI and not necessarily as an absolute true reflection of the breed. It is worth noting that the first pair (Reno & Rosetta) bought to pioneer the Lagotto in the UK in 1996 came from the Mandriole kennels on the edge of the Comaccio where the dogs were still worked from the traditional flat bottomed punts as duck retrievers. Those Lagotto through subsequent exports from the UK which provided the foundation stock for Canada, USA and Australia can be found behind many Lagotto world wide. Visitors to the Lagotto Romagnolo Club of Great Britain breed stand at the world famous Crufts Dog Show in the UK will have seen photographs of GB Lagotto (including Rosetta) retrieving hare, rabbit grouse and various types of wildfowl. It is also worth noting that the photograph on the back of the first official video produced in Italy cica 1996 showed a group of Lagotto going off working - not truffling but duck shooting in a punt. In that punt were the parents and grandparents of Rosetta and Reno. It must always be remembered by new owners that whilst the instinct to hunt, swim and retrieve is inborn and does not have to be encouraged, Lagotto have to be trained from an early age to look for truffle.In modern times the Lagotto has been bred primarily as a truffle searching dog and not as a retriever or hunting dog. Their highly developed nose makes them excellent search dogs.Some Lagotto are excellent swimmers but some will only paddle. Some will retrieve from lakes, streams and other bodies of water without hesitation. They have a waterproof coat. Not all Lagotto are suitable as family companions. Puppies for families with children need to be carefully chosen They can make excellent domestic companions provided they have sufficient exercise.Lagotto love to dig and must be trained not to dig in yards. Many owners give them a sandbox or have a designated place to allow them satisfy their digging urges.Lagotto also love to play seeking games and have very active minds.
 American Water Spaniel
The American Water Spaniel is a gundog little known outside North America. This breed is known for its superior sense of smell and friendly disposition. The AWS is equally adept at retrieving waterfowl, flushing game, and being a companion animal.The AWS stands 15 to 18 inches (38 to 46 cm) high and weighs 25 to 45 pounds (11 to 20 kg); females usually range from 25 to 40 lb (11 to 18 kg) while males weigh 30 to 45 lb (14 to 20 kg). They have a curly to marcell (uniformly wavy) coat that is dense and well-suited to resist cold water and inclement weather. The coat's color is liver (tan), brown, or chocolate. (A small amount of white on the chest or toes is permissible, and spots become smaller in size as pup grows to adulthood.) The AWS should have a rocker-shaped tail and be somewhat compact in size with well-proportioned features that give the dog an air of balance. Its head should be broad and spaniel-like with no topknot. Eyes are yellowish brown to brown, hazel or of dark tone and should harmonize with coat; yellow eyes are a disqualification in the show ring.An American original, this competent retriever also doubles as a flushing spaniel. Like many of the spaniel breeds, it hunts both feather and fur (and even fish) with equal enthusiasm. This dog is very soft-mouthed but can be trained to play tug-of-war.Friendly, intelligent, and often willing to please, this dog is also very protective of its owner. It will become highly attached to the alpha of the house and will think of children as kennel mates until they grow up. Unspayed females will have a mind of their own when in heat (even when very well trained). In old age the dog may become temperamental.This little brown dog also has many of the common spaniel characteristics.
 Lancashire Heeler
The Lancashire Heeler is a small breed of dog developed for use as a drover and herder of cattle. The Lancashire Heeler is listed by the Kennel Club (UK) as a vulnerable breed.The coat is harsh and smooth with an undercoat which keeps the dog dry in all weathers. It may have a slight mane round the neck in winter. The dog is usually black and tan, but liver and tan is now recognised by the Kennel Club. They are slightly longer than height at withers, usually measures between 10–12 inches (25–30 cm) at the shoulder and weighs 6–13 pounds (2.7–5.9 kg). Ears can be tipped or erect.The coat is harsh and smooth with an undercoat which keeps the dog dry in all weathers. It may have a slight mane round the neck in winter. The dog is usually black and tan, but liver and tan is now recognised by the Kennel Club. They are slightly longer than height at withers, usually measures between 10–12 inches (25–30 cm) at the shoulder and weighs 6–13 pounds (2.7–5.9 kg). Ears can be tipped or erect.
 Australian Silky Terrier
The Australian Silky Terrier is a small breed of dog of the terrier dog type. The breed was developed in Australia, although the ancestral types and breeds were from Great Britain. It is closely related to the Australian Terrier and the Yorkshire Terrier. The breed is called the Silky Terrier in North America, but is called the Australian Silky Terrier in its country of origin and in the rest of the world.The Australian Silky Terrier is a small and compact short legged terrier, 23 to 26 cms (9 to 10 ins) at the withers, alert and active. The long silky grey and white or blue and tan coat is an identifying feature, hanging straight and parted along the back, and described as "flat, fine and glossy".[1] All proportions and aspects of the body and head as well as desirable shades of grey and white and placement of markings are extensively described in the breed standard.[2]The Silky Terrier should be slightly longer than tall (about one fifth longer that the height at withers). This is a dog that was historically used for hunting and killing rodents and snakes, so its body should have enough substance to fit this role. The coat requires quite a lot of regular grooming and shampooing to retain its silkiness.Silky terrier has strong and wedge-shaped head. The eyes are small and almond shaped. According to the standards, light-colored eyes are considered a fault. The ears are small and carried erect. Silky terrier has a high-set tail and small, almost catlike, feet. The coat should be long, but not so long to approach floor length. The hair on the face and ears is normally cut.The Australian Silky Terrier is a terrier, but is usually placed in the Toy Group rather than the Terrier Group due to its small size. As breed groupings are done mostly to organise groups of breeds for dog shows, it is safer for the little dogs to be with others their own size, rather than with larger dogs. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale has a special Section of the Terrier Group that includes only the smallest dogs, while other kennel clubs place the breed in the Toy Group, but universally everyone agrees that the breed's type is Terrier.
 Large Munsterlander
The Large Munsterlander (or Großer Münsterländer) is a breed of gun dog originally from the Münster region in Germany.The Kennel Club (KC) in England recognised the breed in 1919 and established the breed standard in 1921.The Large Munsterlander should be athletic, intelligent, noble, and elegant in appearance. Its body should be the same length as its height at the withers. The dog should be muscular without being bulky. Its gait should be fluid and elastic.Large Munsterlander should be 60 to 65 cm (24 to 26 in) at the withers for males, 58 to 63 cm (23 to 25 in) for females. It should weigh approximately 30 kg (66 lb).Loyal, affectionate and trustworthy.
 Australian Terrier
The Australian Terrier is a small sized breed of dog of the terrier dog type. The breed was developed in Australia, although the ancestral types of dogs from which the breed descends were from Great Britain.The Australian Terrier is a small dog with short legs, weighing around approx. 6.5 kg (14 lbs) and standing about 25 cms (10 ins.) at the withers, with a medium length shaggy harsh double coat that is not normally trimmed. Fur is shorter on the muzzle, lower legs, and feet, and there is a ruff around the neck. The coat colours are shades of blue or red with a lighter coloured topknot, and with markings on face, ears, body and legs of a colour described in the breed standard as "tan, never sandy". The tail was traditionally docked. As with most pet dog breeds, all proportions and aspects of the body and head as well as colours and markings are extensively described in the breed standard.The Australian Terrier is descended from the rough coated type terriers brought from Great Britain to Australia in the early 19th century. The ancestral types of all of these breeds were kept to eradicate mice and rats. The Australian Terrier shares ancestors with the Cairn Terrier, Shorthaired Skye Terrier, and the Dandie Dinmont Terrier; Yorkshire Terriers and Irish Terriers were also crossed into the dog during the breed's development.Development of the breed began in Tasmania about 1820, and the dogs were at first called the Rough Coated Terrier. The breed was officially recognised with the founding of the first breed club in 1887, and the breed was recognised as the Australian Terrier in 1892. The Australian Terrier was shown at a dog show for the first time in 1903 in Melbourne, and was also shown in Great Britain about the same time. The Kennel Club (UK) recognised the breed in 1933. The American Kennel Club recognised the Australian Terrier in 1960, and the United Kennel Club (US) in 1969. It is now recognised by all of the major kennel clubs in the English speaking world, and also is listed by various minor kennel clubs and other clubs and registries
 Lhasa Apso
The Lhasa Apso (/?l??s? ?æpso?/ lah-s? ap-sohTemplate:Tibetan ???????????) is a non-sporting dog breed originating in Tibet. It was bred as an interior sentinel in the Buddhist monasteries, who alerted the monks to any intruders who entered. Lhasa is the capital city of Tibet and apso is a word in the Tibetan language meaning "bearded," so Lhasa Apso simply means "long-haired Tibetan dog."Male Lhasa Apsos should ideally be 10.75 inches (27.3 cm) at the withers and weigh about 14-18 pounds, 6–8 kg. The females are slightly smaller, and weigh between 12-14 pounds, 5–7 kg. The breed standard requires dark brown eyes and a black nose, although liver coloured lhasas have a brown nose. The texture of the coat is heavy, straight, hard, neither woolly nor silky, and very dense. They come in a wide variety of colors including black, white, gold, red and parti-colored with various shadings. Lhasas can be with or without dark tips at the end of ears and beard. The tail should be carried well over the dog's back. The breed standard currently used by the American Kennel Club was approved on July 11, 1978.Having been bred as an indoor monastery sentinel dog by Tibetan Buddhist monks, Lhasa Apsos are alert with a keen sense of hearing and a rich, sonorous bark that belies their size. The ideal Lhasa temperament is to be wary of strangers while being loyal to those closest to them. They can be very aggressive to strangers if left untrained. They rank 68th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of fair working/obedience intelligence.[citation needed] Lhasa Apsos are independent as well as companion dogs who want to please their owners. Unique personality characteristics of Lhasa Apsos have gained them a reputation as being a very emotive breed that, in most cases, prove themselves to be completely fearless. Lhasa Apsos often show happiness by rubbing their head on their owners, running and rolling around, or sitting on their owner's feet.A Lhasa Apso responds to exercise and discipline with a calm assertive energy. They are known as fearless in the Tibetan mountain range. These dogs require socialization with dogs and other people early as puppies and throughout their lives. They require patience but in return can be quite comical, entertaining and caring companions. They aim to please their owners and enjoy training. While their personality belies their size, they need a home that is mindful that there is a small dog in the house to prevent injury. They enjoy vantage points in the house where they can view all that is going on.[citation needed] Female Lhasa Apso, seven years old in a pet clip.If properly trained early as a puppy, the Lhasa Apso will come to appreciate bathing, hair combing and clipping, but they generally do not enjoy bathing or swimming as this is not part of their breed traits.The Lhasa Apso is a long-lived breed, with many living in good health into their early 20s. The average age for these dogs is 14. There are few health problems specific to the breed. Their vision may deteriorate with age but they are not sight-oriented dogs and they endure blindness with few noticeable changes in behavior.
 Basenji
The Basenji is a breed of hunting dog that was bred from stock originating in central Africa. Most of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world place the breed in the Hound Group; more specifically, it may be classified as belonging to the sighthound type. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale places the breed in Group 5, Spitz and Primitive types, and the United Kennel Club (US) places the breed in the Sighthound & Pariah Group.The Basenji produces an unusual yodel-like sound commonly called a "barroo", due to its unusually shaped larynx. This trait also gives the Basenji the nickname "Barkless Dog."Basenjis share many unique traits with Pariah dog types. Basenjis, like dingos and some other breeds of dog, come into estrus only once annually, as compared to other dog breeds which may have two or more breeding seasons every year. Both dingos and Basenjis lack a distinctive odor, and are prone to howls, yodels, and other undulated vocalizations over the characteristic bark of modern dog breeds. One theory holds that the latter trait is the result of the selective killing of barkier dogs in the traditional Central African context because barking could lead enemies to humans' forest encampments. While dogs that resemble the basenji in some respects are commonplace over much of Africa, the breed's original foundation stock came from the old growth forest regions of the Congo Basin, where its structure and type were fixed by adaptation to its habitat, as well as use (primarily net hunting in extremely dense old-growth forest vegetation).Basenji are small, elegant-looking, short-haired dogs with erect ears, a tightly curled tail and a graceful neck. Some people consider their appearance similar to that of a miniature deer. A basenji's forehead is wrinkled, especially when the animal is young or extremely old. Basenji eyes are typically almond shaped, which gives the dog the appearance of squinting seriously.Dogs typically weigh 24 pounds (11 kg) and stand 16 inches (40.6 cm) at the withers. They are typically a square breed, which means that they are as long as they are tall. The basenji is an athletic dog and is deceptively powerful for its size. They have a graceful, confident gait like a trotting horse, and skim the ground in a double-suspension gallop, with their characteristic curled tail straightened out for greater balance, when running flat-out at their top speed.The basenji is recognized in the following standard colorations: red, black, tricolor (black with tan in the traditional pattern), and brindle (black stripes on a background of red), all with white, by the FCI, KC, AKC, and UKC. There are additional variations, such as the "trindle", which is a tricolor with brindle points, and several other colorations exist in the Congo such as liver, shaded reds and sables, and "capped" tricolors (creeping tan).
 Maltese
The Maltese is a small breed of dog in the toy group. The breed is descended from dogs originating in the Central Mediterranean Area. The breed name and origins are generally understood to derive from the Mediterranean island of Malta; however, the name is sometimes described with reference to the Adriatic island of Mljet, or a defunct Sicilian town called Melita.The Maltese had been recognized as a FCI breed under the patronage of Italy in 1954, at the annual meeting in Interlaken, Switzerland. The current FCI standard is dated November 27, 1989, and the latest translation from Italian to English is dated April 6, 1998. The American Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1888, its latest standard being from March 10, 1964.Characteristics include slightly rounded skulls, with a finger-wide dome and black nose that is two finger-widths long. The body is compact with the length equaling the height. The drop ears with long hair and very dark eyes, surrounded by darker skin pigmentation (called a "halo"), gives Maltese their expressive look. Their noses can fade and become pink or light brown in color without exposure to sunlight. This is often referred to as a "winter nose" and many times will become black again with increased exposure to the sun.Adult Maltese range from roughly 5 to 12 lb (2.3 to 5.4 kg), though breed standards, as a whole, call for weights between 4 and 7 lb (1.8 and 3.2 kg). There are variations depending on which standard is being used. Many, like the American Kennel Club, call for a weight that is ideally less than 7 lb with between 4 and 6 lb preferred.Maltese are bred to be cuddly companion dogs, and thrive on love and attention. They are extremely lively and playful, and even as a Maltese ages, his or her energy level and playful demeanor remain fairly constant. Some Maltese may occasionally be snappish with smaller children and should be supervised when playing, although socializing them at a young age will reduce this habit. The Maltese is very active within a house, and, preferring enclosed spaces, does very well with small yards. For this reason, the breed also fares well in apartments and townhouses, and is a prized pet of urban dwellers. Maltese also suffer from separation anxiety, so potential owners should be cognizant of this behavior.An Australia-wide (not including Tasmania) research project carried out in conjunction with RSPCA found owners likely to dump their Maltese terriers, citing the tendency of Maltese to bark constantly. This breed is Australia's most dumped dog. In addition, figures released in 2010 by the Korean National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service show that some 1,208 Maltese were abandoned between January and August 2010, making it the most abandoned breed in Seoul, Korea
 Basset Bleu de Gascogne
The Basset Bleu de Gascogne (French pronunciation: [b?s? blø d? ?as?k??]), also known as the Blue Gascony Basset, is a long-backed, short legged breed of dog of the hound type. A breed with origins in the Middle Ages which descends from the Grand Bleu de Gascogne however it nearly went extinct around the early 19th century and its saviour was attributed to Alain Bourbon. A French native breed, it is rare outside of its homeland. It is recognized internationally by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, in the UK by The Kennel Club, and by the United Kennel Club in the United States. The "bleu" of its name is a reference to its coat which has a ticked appearance.The color of their coat is predominantly white, ticked so as to give a bluish appearance, with brown spots and tan markings above the eyes and on the ears. They are a smooth-coated breed. Height at the withers is usually between 34–42 centimetres (13–17 in) although the Kennel Club standard specifies 30–38 centimetres (12–15 in).[1][3] Their general appearance is usually not too heavy, and they weight between 16–18 kilograms (35–40 lb). They have dark brown eyes and low-set ears that can reach at least the end of their muzzle. Because of their working nature as a hunting hound, effects of this work such as scars, nicks, notches on the ears and so on are not considered a fault in the show ring.The Basset Bleu de Gascogne descended directly from the old breed of Grand Bleu de Gascogne. They have been recorded in paintings from the 14th century in Gascony, southwest France. The exact origin of the breed is debated, one theory is that it is a cross of the Grand Bleu with the Saintongeois Basset, another theory is that the Basset Bleu is a natural mutation of the Grand combined with selective breeding for shorter legs in order to slow down the breed. It is thought that Gaston III of Foix-Béarn kept a pack of these dogs to hunt wild boar and wolves. He is known as the writer of the Livre de chasse, considered the classic treatise on medieval hunting.Prior to the French Revolution, hunting was reserved for the nobility who generally hunted on horseback. Following the French Revolution, hunting was opened up to the common people who would hunt on foot and found following a large hunting dog difficult. From this the slower, shorter legged Basset Bleu de Gascogne may have been created.During the early 19th century the breed nearly went extinct with a declining popularity in hunting. However, the breed was saved and revived by the work of Alain Bourbon.Today, the Basset Bleu is one of six types of Basset Hound recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale
 Manchester Terrier
The Manchester Terrier is a breed of dog of the smooth-haired terrier type.Manchester Terriers are considered by most to be the oldest of all identifiable terrier breeds, finding mention in works dating from as early as the 16th century. In 1570 Dr. Caius (Encyclopedia of Dogs) gives mention to the 'Black and Tan Terrier,' though he referred to a rougher coated, shorter legged dog than we are now accustomed to.By the early 19th century a closer facsimile to the current Manchester Terrier had evolved. In The Dog in Health and Disease by J. A. Walsh a full chapter was devoted to the Black and Tan, for the first time recognising it as an established breed. The description Walsh set forth might, in fact, serve well today: Smooth haired, long tapering nose, narrow flat skull, eyes small and bright, chest rather deep than wide, only true colour black and tan.This breed has maintained consistency in type and appearance for nearly two centuries (at the very least).In its native England, The Kennel Club recognises the Manchester Terrier in the Terrier Group and the closely related English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) in the Toy Group.In North America the Manchester Terrier is divided into two varieties. The Toy Manchester Terrier was originally recognised as a separate breed in 1938, bred down in size from the Manchester Terrier. The Toy Manchester Terrier weighs less than 12 lb (5.4 kg) and has naturally erect ears, never cropped. It is placed in the Toy Group by the Canadian Kennel Club and the American Kennel Club, although the Manchester Terrier is placed in the Terrier Group. The Manchester Terrier non-toy variety weighs 12 to 22 lb (5.4 to 10.0 kg) and has three allowable ear types (naturally erect, button, or cropped). Other than size differences and ear type, the Manchester Terrier and the Toy Manchester Terrier have the same over all appearance, and since 1958 have been varieties of the same breed.
 Basset Fauve de Bretagne
The Basset Fauve de Bretagne is a short legged hunting breed of dog of the scent hound type, originally from Brittany, a historical kingdom of France.The Basset Fauve de Bretagne is a smallish hound, built along the same lines as the Basset Hound, but lighter all through and longer in the leg. Wire-coated, the coat is very harsh to the touch, dense, red-wheaten or fawn. He measures 32 – 38 cm in height and weighs between 36 - 40 lbs but some become very tall like a Labrador. They have coarse, dense fur which may require stripping. The hair on the ears is shorter, finer and darker than that on the coat. The ears just reach the end of the nose rather than trailing on the ground and should be pleated. They should have dark eyes and nose and ideally no crook on the front legs. The French standard says these are the shortest backed of all the basset breeds so they generally do not appear as exaggerated as the British Basset.The breed was developed in France as a hunting dog from the larger Grand Fauve de Bretagne, a breed that is now extinct. There was a rumour that the Basset Fauve de Bretagne was also close to extinction after the Second World War, and the breed was recreated using the remaining examples of the breed and crossing in Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen and standard wirehaired Dachshunds. However, the French club denies this, and says that Basset Fauve numbers were never so low. The middle breed, the Griffon Fauve de Bretagne, still exists but it is certainly rarer than the Basset. The breed in the UK is mainly seen as a show dog and family pet, finally coming off the Kennel Club's rare breed register in 2007. It can also be found in other parts of Europe where it is used to scent trail and also as a family pet. They are loving, happy, outgoing dogs and are good with children, but it must be remembered that they are scent hounds and do retain their love of the hunt so may not suit every family. In the UK the breed has no hereditary faults; however, epilepsy has been identified in some breeding lines in France and other parts of Europe. Some Fauves are born with black in the coat; this may or may not go with maturity. It is less common to see them with white patches but when they do occur it is generally confined to the chest and top of the head. However, even though the black ticking and white patches are not accepted colours, of course it does not interfere with their hunting ability, which is their prime job, and so these colour Fauves are still seen and occur fairly often in litters. The correct colour for a Fauve is anything from fawn to red but it should be solid with darker shaded ears.
 Miniature Pinscher
Germany. The breed's earliest ancestors were a mix of Italian Greyhounds and Dachshunds. The international kennel club, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, lists the Miniature Pinscher in Group 2, Section 1.1 Pinscher, along with the Dobermann, the German Pinscher, the Austrian Pinscher, and the other toy pinscher, the Affenpinscher. Other kennel clubs list the Miniature Pinscher in the Toy Group or Companion Group. The Miniature Pinscher is colloquially known as the "King of the Toys".The Miniature Pinscher is a working breed and not a toy dog as they were first bred to hunt small mammals, especially rats. The Miniature Pinscher tends to have relatively long legs and a small body, which can sometimes make it look quite comical with cat-like grace. As a result of its flexible, agile body, a Miniature Pinscher is able to curl up into almost any position and to almost always be comfortable.Miniature Pinscher breed standard calls for 10 to 12.5 inches at the withers (shoulders) with any dog under 10 or over 12.5 not eligible to be shown. The original Miniature Pinscher actually had more variance as being a cross between a smooth-coated Dachshund and a Miniature Greyhound (known today as the Italian Greyhound) led to some carrying the Dachshund leg while others carried the Italian Greyhound leg creating some short and some tall. After many years of breeding in Germany an average was established, though today's standard is smaller than the original. Germans bred Miniature Pinschers until they could not stand due to small size and frailty, but there was good breeding stock left in Sweden.The miniature pinscher is a loyal dog that thrives on interaction. They are a "family dog". They need to feel involved, putting them in a yard and walking them 20 minutes a day is not enough, and a bored Miniature Pinscher may eventually become destructive.
 Basset Griffon Vendeeen Grand
The Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen is a long-backed, short legged hunting breed of dog of the hound type, originating in the Vendée region of France. They are still used today to hunt boar, deer, and to track rabbit and hare, but are more commonly kept as a domestic pet.They are pack dogs, so owners should either spend a lot of time with them or get a second dog or cat. They have a happy and confident personality, which can sometimes manifest itself as disobedience, but they are great companions.The UK Kennel Club conducted a health survey of Basset Griffon Vendéens (Petit and Grand varieties combined) in 2004. This is apparently the only completed health survey (as of July 16, 2007) that might include Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen, but it is unclear what proportion of dogs in the survey were Grand Basset Griffon Vendéens instead of the more common Petit.
 Miniature Schnauzer
The Miniature Schnauzer is a breed of small dog of the Schnauzer type that originated in Germany in the mid-to-late 19th century. Miniature Schnauzers developed from crosses between the Standard Schnauzer and one or more smaller breeds such as the Poodle and Affenpinscher.The breed remains one of the most popular world wide, primarily for its temperament and relatively small size. Globally, the Miniature Schnauzer comes in four colors: black, salt-and-pepper, black-and-silver, and white. As of 2008 it is the 11th most popular breed in the U.S, though the American Kennel Club recognizes only three colors and considers solid white a disqualification. Colors such as chocolate, liver, and parti (multi-color or spotted) are available on the pet trade and can be registered as pure-breds by some organizations, but are not currently recognized by any legitimate clubs for conformation shows.Miniature Schnauzers normally have a small, squarely proportioned build, measuring 12 to 14 inches (30 to 36 cm) tall and weighing 11 to 15 pounds (5.0 to 6.8 kg) for females and 14 to 18 pounds (6.4 to 8.2 kg) for males. They have a double coat. The exterior fur is wiry and the undercoat is softer. The coat is trimmed short on the body, but the hair on ears, legs, and edge of the body, a.k.a. the "furnishings", are retained. The first Breed Standard for the Schnauzer, established in 1907, required specific color formation: "Color: All salt and pepper color shades or similar bristly equal color mixtures and solid black. Faults: ...All white, speckled, brindles, red, or bran colors."Miniature Schnauzers are often described as non-shedding dogs, and while this is not entirely true, their shedding is minimal and generally unnoticeable. They are characterized by a long head with bushy beard, mustache and eyebrows; teeth that meet in a "scissor bite"; oval and dark colored eyes; and v-shaped, natural forward-folding ears. (When cropped, the ears point straight upward and come to a sharp point.) Their tails are naturally thin and short, and may be docked (where permitted). They will also have very straight, rigid front legs, and feet that are short and round (so-called "cat feet") with thick, black pads.The Official Standard of the Miniature Schnauzer describes temperament as "alert and spirited, yet obedient to command. He is friendly, intelligent and willing to please. He should never be overaggressive or timid." Usually easy to train, they tend to be excellent watchdogs, with a good territorial instinct, but more inclined toward vocal notification than attack (more bark than bite). They are often guarded towards strangers until the owners of the home welcome the guest, upon which they are typically very friendly to them; unlike some of their terrier cousins, they are not typically aggressive. However, they will express themselves vocally, and may bark to greet their owner, or to express joy, excitement, or displeasure.Proper socialization with other dogs and people is important. The breed is generally good with children, but as with any dog, play with small children should be supervised. They are highly playful dogs, and if not given the outlet required for their energy they can become bored and invent their own "fun." Schnauzers have a "high prey drive" (appropriate for a ratting dog), which means they may attack other small pets such as birds, snakes, and rodents. Many will also attack cats, but this may be curbed with training, or if the dog is raised with cats.
 Bearded Collie
The Bearded Collie, or Beardie, is a herding breed of dog once used primarily by Scottish shepherds, but now mostly a popular family companion.An average Bearded Collie weighs 40–60 pounds (18–27 kg) and is 20–22 inches (51–56 cm) tall.The Bearded Collie's history is a mix of fact and legend. Kazimierz Grabski, a Polish merchant, reportedly traded a shipment of grain for sheep in Scotland in 1514 and brought six Polish Lowland Sheepdogs to move them. A Scottish shepherd was so impressed with the herding ability of the dogs that he traded several sheep for several dogs. The Polish sheepdogs were bred with local Scottish dogs to produce the Bearded Collie.It is generally agreed that Mrs. G. Olive Willison founded the modern Bearded Collie with her brown bitch, Jeannie of Bothkennar. Jeannie was supposedly a Shetland Sheepdog, but Mrs. Willison received a Bearded Collie by accident. She was so fascinated by the dog that she wanted to begin breeding, so she began searching for a dog for Jeannie. While walking along the beach, Mrs. Willison met a man who was emigrating from Scotland; she became the owner of his grey dog, David, who became Bailie of Bothkennar.Bailie and Jeannie of Bothkennar are the founders of the modern breed; there are only a few other registrable blood lines, preserved in large part by the perseverance of Mr. Nicolas Broadbridge (Sallen) and Mrs. Betty Foster (Bredon). These are based on Turnbull's Blue—a Bearded Collie from pure working stock, registered in ISDS when ISDS still registered non-Border Collies. He sired three litters of registerable Bearded Collies.The breed became popular during the last half of the 20th century—propelled, in part, by Potterdale Classic at Moonhill, a Bearded Collie who won Best in Show at Crufts in 1989. The Bearded Collie Club celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 2005.The Bearded Collie ranks 104 out of 155 breeds in popularity in the United States, according to the American Kennel Club's yearly breed ranking. A Bearded Collie is best obtained from a reputable breeder or a dog rescue. Bearded Collies make excellent pets for those willing to accommodate their high energy level and grooming requirements. Weekly brushing is mandatory for keeping their long hair mat-free. Some Bearded Collie owners opt to keep their pets in a "puppy cut" haircut, which reduces (but does not eliminate) the need for brushing. Bearded Collies are an energetic breed, originally intended to work in the Scottish Highlands herding sheep; they also excel at dog agility trials. A loyal and family-friendly dog, the Beardie can add years of pet-ownership enjoyment to the home. They have keen problem-solving abilities, and are entertaining to watch. Female Beardies are often more outgoing and headstrong than males. In training, males are more likely to follow instructions and females are more independent. Females often become the alpha dog if there is a male and female Beardie in the household. Regardless of the Beardie's sex, they are a very active breed. One of the most common problems for new Beardie owners is the breed's advanced age of maturity; standard puppy issues last longer, and Beardies frequently fail "puppy school" if entered at the same age as other breeds.Adopting a Beardie should be done through an authorised breeder. The pup's parents should have pedigree papers. There are Beardie rescue associations, such as Beardie Collie Rescue and "Rescue Me". These organisations attempt to place unwanted puppies and dogs into appropriate, loving homes.
 Neapolitan Mastiff
The Neapolitan Mastiff, Italian Mastiff, (Mastino Napoletano in Italian) is a large, ancient dog breed. This massive breed is often used as a guard and defender of family and property due to their protective instincts and their fearsome appearance. The breed is reported to have been used to fight alongside the Roman Legions, by having bladed and spiked leather harnesses tied to their backs and being trained to run under the bellies of enemy horses, to disembowel them.According to the American Kennel Club (AKC) standards , male Neapolitan Mastiffs should measure 26–31 inches (66–79 cm) at the withers, weighing between 130 and 155 pounds (60-70 kg), while females should be 24–29 inches (61–74 cm) and weigh between 110 and 130 pounds (50–60 kg). Body length should be 10-15% more than that of the height.The Neapolitan Mastiff is fearless and extremely protective of its home and family. They prefer to be with their family and to remain in and around the home at all times. The Neapolitan Mastiff rarely barks unless under provocation, renowned for sneaking up on intruders as opposed to first alerting them of their presence.Neopolitan Mastiffs, as a breed, are extremely intelligent dogs with a tendency to be independent thinkers. They learn quickly, which is both good and bad, since this guardian breed needs extensive proper socialization to learn to accept strangers, especially within the home; without proper early socialization and training, these dogs are likely to become aggressive towards strangers and unfamiliar dogs. Like with other breeds, forceful training methods, "alpha roles", and a general "dominance" mentality will not work with these dogs, especially since it is difficult to try to physically dominate a dog that is as large as an adult; if you want a well mannered dog, prevent problems before they happen by using positive training methods, beginning socializing early, and continuing socializing throughout life.The Neapolitan Mastiff is not a breed for most people, and certainly not a dog for beginners. Neapolitans must be well socialized with people, especially children, as Neos are large, powerful dogs and do not always know their own strength. Additionally, young children have young friends, and even with extensive socialization and training, Neapolitans will be wary of strangers and protective of their family, which can be disastrous for small children.Additional protection training is unnecessary because they are natural guard dogs and always have been. As with every breed, obedience training is very important. The Mastino is very tolerant of pain due to the breed's early fighting background and the fact the skin is loose on the body, so it is important to routinely check for health problems, as a Neo may not behave differently when injured or ill. They also are renowned for drooling especially after drinking or if they get excited. Their temperament and protective instincts are noticeably sharper as compared to allied "heavy molosser" breeds such as the Dogue de Bordeaux, the English Mastiff, the Mastín Españ?ol etc. and therefore they have been used as a breed component in the development of many modern protection breeds such as the Swinford Bandog (also known as the American Bandog Mastiff) and others. This breed is not particularly dog-aggressive, but males are known to be very dominant and, at times, confrontational.
 Beauceron
The Beauceron is a guard dog and herding dog breed falling into the working dog category whose origins lie in the plains of Northern France. The Beauceron is also known as Berger de Beauce (sheepdog from Beauce) or Bas Rouge (red-stockings).This breed stands 61 to 70 cm (24 to 27.5 inches) in height and weighs 30 to 45 kg (66 to 100 pounds). Its standard colouring is black and tan (referred to in French as "rouge ecureil", squirrel-red) or tan and grey (harlequin). Other colours, such as the once prevalent tawny, grey or grey/black, are now banned by the breed standard. The outer coat is harsh while the undercoat is soft and silky. It comes in black with distinct tan markings and in a less common harlequin coat with patches of gray, black and tan. The harlequin coats should have more black than gray with no white. In the black and tan dogs the tan markings appear in two dots above the eyes, on the sides of the muzzle, fading off to the cheeks, but do not reach the underside of the ears. Also on the throat, , under the tail and on the legs and the chest. Tan markings on the chest should appear as two spots but a chest plate is acceptable.Although most breeds may or may not have dewclaws (many owners of other breeds remove dewclaws, especially if the dog is used for field and hunting), an important feature of the Beauceron is the double dewclaw. A beauceron must have double dewclaws, which form well separated “thumbs” with nails on each rear leg, anything less will result in disqualification.Ear cropping is no longer allowed in the UK or Europe.The Beauceron is known in France as a guard dog, a helper around the farm (herding sheep or cattle), and/or a ring sport dog (primarily protection training). This athletic, healthy and long-lived breed has been bred to be intelligent, calm, gentle, and fearless. Adults are typically suspicious of strangers and are excellent natural guard dogs. On the other hand they typically take their cue from their handlers when it comes to greeting strangers, and are neither sharp nor shy. They do best when raised within the family but they can sleep outside, the better to act as guards (their weatherproof coats make them ideal dog kennel users even in the coldest winters). They are eager learners and can be trained to a high level. However, their physical and mental development is slow, relative to other similar breeds (e.g. German and other large shepherds): they are not mentally or physically mature until the age of about three years, so their training should not be rushed. Several five- or ten-minute play-training exercises per day in the early years can achieve better results than long or rigorous training sessions.
 Newfoundland
The Newfoundland is a breed of large dog. Newfoundlands can be black, brown, gray, or black and white. They were originally bred and used as a working dog for fishermen in the Dominion of Newfoundland, now part of Canada. They are known for their giant size, tremendous strength, calm dispositions, and loyalty. Newfoundland dogs excel at water rescue/lifesaving due to their muscular build, thick double coat, webbed feet, and innate swimming abilities.Newfoundlands ('Newfs', 'Newfies') have webbed feet and a water-resistant coat. Males weigh 60–70 kg (130–150 lb), and females 45–55 kg (100–120 lb), placing them in the "Giant" weight range. Some Newfoundland dogs have been known to weigh over 90 kg (200 lb). The largest Newfoundland on record weighed 120 kg (260 lbs) and measured over 6 feet from nose to tail, ranking it among the biggest Molossers. They may grow up to 22–28 inches tall at the shoulder.The American Kennel Club (AKC) standard colors of the Newfoundland dogs are: black, brown, gray, and landseer (black or brown head and white and black or brown body); The Kennel Club (KC) permits only black, brown, and landseer; the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) permits are only black and landseer. The Landseer is named after the artist Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, who featured them in many of his paintings. AKC, CKC, and KC all treat Landseer as part of the breed. Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) consider the Landseer to be a separate breed; others consider it only a Newfoundland color variation.The Newfoundland's extremely large bones give it mass, while its large musculature gives it the power it needs to take on rough ocean waves and powerful tides. These dogs have great lung capacity for swimming extremely long distances, and a thick, oily and waterproof double coat which protects them from the chill of icy waters. The droopy lips and jowls make the dog drool.In the water, the dog's massive webbed paws give it maximum propulsion. The swimming stroke is not an ordinary dog paddle. Unlike other dogs, the Newfoundland moves its limbs in a down-and-out motion, which can be seen as a modified breaststroke. This gives it more power with every stroke.The Newfoundland dog is legendary for its calm and docile nature and its strength. It is for this reason that this breed is known as "the gentle giant". International kennel clubs generally describe the breed as having a sweet temper. It typically has a deep loud bark, is easy to train if started young, makes a fine guardian or watchdog. It is exceptionally good with children, giving it the nickname "the nanny dog." The breed was memorialized in "Nana," the beloved dog guardian in Peter Pan.The Newfoundland dog is also extremely good with other animals. Its caring and gentle nature comes out in play and interaction with humans and animals alike. As with any breed, the Newfoundland can have dominance issues, but this is unusual for the breed.
 Belgian Shepherd Dog Groenendael
The Belgian Shepherd Dog (Groenendael) is recognized by all major kennel clubs. In the United States it is recognized under the name Belgian Sheepdog.Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Groenendael is a medium-sized, hard-working, square-proportioned breed of dog in the sheepdog family. The Groenendael is recognized by its distinctive black coat.The Groenendael should be athletic, strong, imposing, rustic, and balanced in appearance. It should look natural, never as though it has been prepared just for the show ring. Its coat should be profuse, but never look as though it would inhibit the dog's working ability in any way. The colour is always black, with small white markings being allowed on the chest. When being shown, its handler should never have to force it into position; ideally the handler should not have to touch the dog at all.The Groenendael should be 24-26 in. (60–66 cm) at the withers for males, and 22-24 in (56–62 cm) for females. The weight should be approximately 25 – 30 kg for males, and 20 – 25 kg for females.The Groenendael is (very) intelligent, active, loyal and quietly affectionate. Groenendaels are not a breed for the faint of heart. However for those who have plenty of time, energy, confidence and love, they are wonderful friends. Training and socializing is essential. They are wary of strangers and protective. They love children as long as they are introduced to them at an early age. The Groenendael bonds deeply to its people and cannot live outdoors or in a kennel. It needs to spend time with its family every day and may experience separation anxiety if left alone for long periods of time.
 Norfolk Terrier
The Norfolk Terrier is a breed of dog. Prior to gaining recognition as an independent breed in 1960, it was a variety of the Norwich Terrier, distinguished from the "prick eared" Norwich by its "drop ears" (or folded ears). Together, the Norfolk and Norwich Terriers are the smallest of the working terriers.The Norfolk Terrier has a wire-haired coat which, according to the various national kennel clubs' breed standards, can be "all shades of red, wheaten, black and tan, or grizzle."They are the smallest of the working terriers. They are active and compact, free moving, with good substance and bone. Good substance means good spring of rib and bone that matches the body such that the dog can be a very agile ratter, the function for which it was bred.Norfolk terriers are moderately proportioned dogs. A too heavy dog would not be agile. A too refined dog would make it a toy breed. Norfolks generally have more reach and drive and a stronger rear angulation, hence cover more ground than their Norwich cousins. Norfolk have good side gait owed to their balanced angulation front and rear and their slightly longer length of back.The ideal height is 9 to 10 in (23 to 25 cm) at the withers and weight is about 11 to 12 lb (5.0 to 5.4 kg).Norfolks are described as fearless, but should not be aggressive despite being capable of defending themselves if need be. They, along with Norwich Terriers and Border Terriers, have the softest temperaments of the Terrier Group. Norfolks work in packs and must get along with other dogs.As companions, they love people and children and do make good pets. Their activity level is generally reflective of the pace of their environment. This breed should not be kept or live outside since they thrive on human contact. Generally, Norfolks are not given to digging but, like any dog, will dig out of boredom when left alone for too long a period. Norfolks can be barkers and are very vocal. They generally cohabit well with other household pets when introduced as a puppy. Outdoors, they are natural hunters with a strong prey drive for small vermin.Norfolks are self confident and carry themselves with presence and importance, holding their heads and tails erect. A Norfolk that is shy or that carries its tail between its legs is atypical, as is a dog that is hot tempered and aggressive with other dogs; these traits are not the standard. A Norfolk's typical temperament is happy, spirited, and self confident. The greatest punishment to a dog is for his owner to ignore him.
 Belgian Shepherd Dog Laekenois
The Belgian Shepherd Dog (Laekenois) is a breed of dog, sometimes classified as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog rather than as a separate breed. The Laekenois is not fully recognized in the United States. However, they can be shown in Britain, Canada, Australia, and throughout Europe, along with all three of the closely related breeds which share a heritage with the Laekenois: the Tervuren, the Malinois, and the Groenendael, the last being shown in the U.S. as the Belgian Sheepdog.Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Laekenois is a medium-sized, hard-working, square-proportioned dog in the sheepdog family with sharply triangular ears. The Laekenois is recognized by its woolly brown and white coat, intermixed so as to give a tweedy appearance. Most kennel clubs' standards allow for black shading, principally in muzzle and tail, indicating the presence of the melanistic mask gene.The Belgian Laekenois originated as a sheep herding dog at the Royal Castle of Laeken. It is considered both the oldest and the most rare of the Belgian Shepherd Dogs. Until the advent of dog shows in the early 1900s, the four varieties were freely intermixed, in fact, there are only three genes (short/long coat, smooth/wire coat, fawn/black coat) that separate the varieties genetically. Purebred Laekenois occasionally give birth to smooth-coated puppies, which, depending on the pure-bred registry, can be registered as Malinois.
 Norwich Terrier
The Norwich Terrier is a breed of dog. It originates in the United Kingdom and was bred to hunt small vermin or rodents.These terriers are one of the smallest terriers (11-12 lb, 5-5.4 kg; 9-10 inches (24-25.5 cm) at the withers), with prick ears and a double coat, which come in red, tan, wheaten, black and tan, and grizzle.These small but hardy dogs are courageous, remarkably intelligent and wonderfully affectionate. They can be assertive but it is not typical for them to be aggressive, quarrelsome or shy. They are energetic and thrive on an active life. They are eager to please but have definite minds of their own. They are sensitive to scolding but 100% Terrier. They should never be kept outside or in a kennel setting because they love the companionship of their owners too much. Norwich are not given to unnecessary barking, but they will warn of a stranger approaching. Norwich are good with children. If introduced to other household pets as a puppy they generally co-habit peacefully, though caution should be observed around rodent pets as they may be mistaken for prey.
 Belgian Shepherd Dog Tervueren
The Tervuren (pronounced /t?r?vj?r?n/, and sometimes spelled Tervueren), is a member of the Belgian Shepherd Dog family of dog breeds. Its classification varies, being classified under some breed standards as a breed in its own right, and in others as one of several acceptable variations of the Belgian. It is usually listed within breed standards under one or other, or a combination, of these names.In the United States, since 1960, the AKC recognizes it under the name Belgian Tervuren. Prior to that date, all recognized varieties of the Belgians were called Belgian Sheepdog.In Canada, the Canadian Kennel Club recognizes the Tervuren as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog (prior to 2005, Belgian Shepherd Dogs were called Belgian Sheepdogs).Like all four of the Belgian Shepherds, the Tervuren is a medium-sized, square-proportioned dog in the Herding dog group. Males stand between 24 and 26 inches, and weigh approximately 65lb. Bitches are finer and smaller. It is recognized by its thick double coat, generally sable with varying degrees of black overlay (completely missing overlay on males is a serious fault), including a black mask. A small patch of white on the chest is permissible, as well as white tips on toes. The Tervuren may also be sable or grey, but this may be penalized in the show ring in some countries according to the standard of the registering body.Tervurens are highly energetic, intelligent dogs who require a job to keep them occupied. This can be herding, obedience, agility, flyball, tracking, or protection work. They are also found working as Search and Rescue (SAR) dogs, finding missing persons and avalanche victims. Tervurens that are not kept sufficiently busy can become hyperactive or destructive.As companion animals, Tervurens are loyal and form strong bonds with their family, leading some to be shy around strangers. They are good watch dogs, being very observant and attentive to the slightest change in their environment. Some can be nervous, depending on breeding and early experiences, so care must be taken to adequately socialize Tervuren puppies to a wide variety of people and situations.As with all the Belgian Shepherd Dogs, Tervurens are not generally recommended to first-time dog owners due to their high maintenance level.Adult males are distinctly masculine and females are likewise feminine. Their appearance projects alertness and elegance. The breed is known for its loyalty and versatility. Those who own them, report being charmed by their intelligence, trainability, and, perhaps most of all, their sense of humor. They excel in many kinds of activities. Today the breed is still relatively rare in the United States, but it is well-established.
 Old English Sheepdog
The Old English Sheepdog (OES) is a large breed of dog which was developed in England from early herding types of dog. The Old English Sheepdog has very long fur covering the face and eyes.The Old English Sheepdog is nicknamed the Bobtail, since tail docking was traditional in the old sheepdogs.The Old English Sheepdog is a large dog, immediately recognizable by its long, thick, shaggy grey and white coat, with fur covering their face and eyes. The ears lie flat to the head. Historically, the breed's tail was commonly docked (resulting in a panda bear-like rear end), but tailed Old English sheepdogs are now common, as many countries have outlawed cosmetic docking. When the dog has a tail, it has long fur (feathering), is low set, and normally hangs down. The Old English Sheepdog stands lower at the shoulder than at the loin, and walks with a "bear-like roll from the rear".Height at the withers is at least 61 cms (24 ins), with females slightly smaller than males. The body is short and compact, and ideal weights are not specified, but may be as much as 46 kg (101 lbs) for large males.Colour of the double coat may be any shade of grey, grizzle, black, blue, or blue merle, with optional white markings. The undercoat is water resistant. Puppies are born with a black and white coat, and it is only after the puppy coat has been shed that the more common grey or silver shaggy hair appears.The breed standards describe the ideal Old English Sheepdog as never being nervous or aggressive. The New Zealand Kennel Club adds that "they are sometimes couch potatoes" and "may even try to herd children by gently bumping them." This breed's temperament can be described as intelligent, social and adaptable. The American Kennel Club adds that the breed has "a clownish energy" and "may try to herd people or other objects."With wide open spaces being the ideal setting for an Old English Sheepdog, the breed is a natural fit in a rural setting, such as working on a farm; although they are perfectly comfortable with a suburban or urban lifestyle (with proper exercise). Their remarkable, inherent herding instincts, sense of duty, and sense of property boundaries may be nurtured and encouraged accordingly, or subdued by their owners. Old English Sheepdogs should not be deprived of the company and the warmth of people.
 Bernese Mountain Dog
The Bernese Mountain Dog, called in Swiss German the Berner Sennenhund, is a large breed of dog, one of the four breeds of Sennenhund-type dogs from the Swiss Alps. The name Sennenhund is derived from the German "Senne" (alpine pasture) and "hund" (dog), as they accompanied the alpine herders and dairymen called Senn. Berner (or Bernese in English) refers to the area of the breed's origin, in the Canton of Bern in Switzerland. This Mountain dog was originally kept as general farm dogs. Large Sennenhunds in the past were also used as draft animals, pulling carts. The breed was officially established in 1907. In 1937, the American Kennel Club recognised it as a member of the Working Group.Like the other Sennenhunds, the Bernese Mountain Dog is a large, heavy dog with a distinctive tricolored coat, black with white chest and rust colored markings above eyes, sides of mouth, front of legs, and a small amount around the white chest. An ideal of a perfectly-marked individual gives the impression of a white horse shoe shape around the nose and a white “Swiss cross” on the chest, when viewed from the front. A Swiss Kiss is a white mark located typically behind the neck, but may be a part of the neck. A full ring would not meet type standard. Both males and females have a broad head with smallish, v-shaped drooping ears. Height at the withers is 23–27.5 in (58–70 cm) and weight is 65–120 lb (29–54 kg). Females are slightly smaller than males. The breed standard lists, as disqualifications, a distinctly curly coat, along with wry mouth and wall eye. Exact color and pattern of the coat are also described as important.The breed standard for the Bernese Mountain Dog states that dogs should not be "aggressive, anxious or distinctly shy," but rather should be "good natured," "self-assured," "placid towards strangers," and "docile." Temperament of individual dogs may vary, and not all examples of the breed have been carefully bred to follow the Standard. All large dogs should be well socialized when young, and given regular training and activities throughout their lives.Bernese are outdoor dogs at heart, though well-behaved in the house; they need activity and exercise, but do not have a great deal of endurance. They can move with amazing bursts of speed for their size when motivated. If they are sound (no problems with their hips, elbows, or other joints) they enjoy hiking and generally stick close to their people.The Bernese temperament is a strong point of the breed. They are affectionate, loyal, faithful, stable, intelligent, but sometimes shy. The majority of Bernese are friendly to people, and other dogs. They often get along well with other pets such as cats, horses, etc. They do not respond well to harsh treatment, although Bernese are willing and eager to please their master. Bernese love to be encouraged with praise and treats. The breed is sweet and good with children, despite their great size. Overall, they are stable in temperament, patient, and loving. Bernese Mountain Dogs are slow to mature, and may display noticeable puppy-like tendencies until 1½ years of age.
 Papillon
The papillon (from the French word for butterfly, pronounced: [papi?j??]), also called the Continental Toy Spaniel, is a breed of dog of the Spaniel type. One of the oldest of the toy Spaniels, it derives its name from its characteristic butterfly-like look of the long and fringed hair on the ears. A papillon with dropped ears is called a phalène (French for moth). The small head is slightly rounded between the ears with a well defined stop. The muzzle is somewhat short, thin tapering to the nose. The dark, medium sized, round eyes have thin black rims, often extending at the junction of the eyelids towards the ears. The large ears can either be erect or dropped with rounded tips. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The long tail is set high carried over the body, and covered with long, fine hair. Dewclaws are sometimes removed. The straight, long, fine, single coat has extra frill on the chest, ears, back of the legs and the tail. Coat color is white with patches of any color. A mask of a color other than white covers both ears and eyes from back to front.The most distinct aspect of the papillon is its ears which are large and well fringed giving them a butterfly wing-like appearance. Papillons are parti-colored or white with patches of any color. An all-white dog or a dog with no white is disqualified from the conformation show ring. A blaze (area of white extending down between the eyes) and noseband is preferred over a solid-colored head, but not required. Nose, eye-rims, and lips should be black. Paw pads vary in color from black to pink, depending on the coloring of the dog.Papillons can be registered with the American Kennel Club as the following colors and markings, with types indicated as S-standard or A-alternate for show purposesThe American Kennel Club goes on to indicate in the breed standard, the following faults shall be severely penalized: Color other than white not covering both ears, back and front, or not extending from the ears over both eyes. A slight extension of the white collar onto the base of the ears, or a few white hairs interspersed among the color, shall not be penalized, provided the butterfly appearance is not sacrificed.There are two ear variations of this breed, the completely upright ears of the more common papillon, and the dropped spaniel-like ears of the Phalène. The American Kennel Club and the Fédération Cynologique Internationale consider the Phalène and the papillon the same breed.The papillon's coat is abundant, long, fine, silky and flowing. It should also have a resilient quality and be flat on both the back and sides. There is no undercoat. Papillon puppy fur is very long, plush and soft to touch until about three months old and it may take up to two years for a papillon to develop the long fringes of hair that sprout off of its ears and chest.Ears are well-fringed with the inside covered with silken fur of medium length. Tail is long, well-fringed, set on high, arched over back with fringes falling to side to form plume. The head is slightly rounded between the ears, and the muzzle is fine, tapering, and narrower than the skull with an abrupt stop. Height: 20–28 cm (8-11 inches), over 11 inches is a fault and over 12 inches is a disqualification from the conformation show ring. Weight: 5-10 pounds (3–5 kg).The proper temperament of a papillon is a happy, friendly, adventurous dog. They should not be shy or aggressive.
 Border Collie
The Border Collie is a herding dog breed developed in the Anglo-Scottish border region for herding livestock, especially sheep. It is the most widespread of the collie breeds.Typically extremely energetic, acrobatic, and athletic, they frequently compete with great success in dog sports, in addition to their success in sheepdog trials, and are often cited as the most intelligent of all dogs. In January 2011, a Border Collie was reported to have learned 1,022 words, and acts consequently to human citation of those words.[In general, Border Collies are medium-sized dogs without extreme physical characteristics and with a moderate amount of coat, which means not much hair will be shed. Their double coats vary from slick to lush, and come in many colours, although black and white is the most common. Black tricolour (black/tan/white or sable and white), red (chocolate) and white, and red tricolour (red/tan/white) also occur regularly, with other colours such as blue, lilac, red merle, blue merle, brindle and "Australian red"/gold seen less frequently. Border Collies may also have single-colour coats.Eye colour varies from deep brown to amber or blue, and occasionally eyes of differing colour occur. (This is usually seen with "merles"). The ears of the Border Collie are also variable — some have fully erect ears, some fully dropped ears, and others semi-erect ears (similar to those of the rough Collie or sighthounds). Although working Border Collie handlers sometimes have superstitions about the appearance of their dogs (handlers may avoid mostly white dogs due to the unfounded idea that sheep will not respect a white or almost all white dog), in general a dog's appearance is considered by the American Border Collie Association to be irrelevant. It is considered much more useful to identify a working Border Collie by its attitude and ability than by its looks.Dogs bred for showing are more homogeneous in appearance than working Border Collies, since to win in conformation showing they must conform closely to breed club standards that are specific on many points of the structure, coat and colour. Kennel clubs specify, for example, that the Border Collie must have a "keen and intelligent" expression, and that the preferred eye colour is dark brown. In deference to the dog's working origin, scars and broken teeth received in the line of duty are not to be counted against a Border Collie in the show ring.Height at withers: Males from 19 to 22 in (48 to 56 cm), females from 18 to 21 in (46 to 53 cm).Border Collies require considerable daily physical exercise and mental stimulation.Border Collies are an intelligent breed. It is widely considered to be one of the most intelligent dog breeds. Although the primary role of the Border Collie is that of the working stock dog, dogs of this breed are becoming increasingly popular as pets.True to their working heritage, Border Collies make very demanding, energetic pets that are better off in households that can provide them with plenty of play and exercise with humans or other dogs. Due to their demanding personalities and need for mental stimulation and exercise, many border collies develop neurotic behaviors in households that are not able to provide for their needs. They are famous for chewing holes in walls and digging holes out of boredom. As a result, an alarming number of border collies end up in shelters and rescues every year. One of the prime reasons for getting rid of a border collie is their unsuitability for families with small children, cats, and other dogs, due to their intense desire to herd, bred into them for hundreds of years and still one of their chief uses outside the household.Border Collies are now also being used in showing, especially agility, where their speed and agility comes to good use.Though they are common choice for household pets, Border Collies have attributes that make them less suited for certain people who have small children and cannot give them the exercise they need. As with many working breeds, Border Collies can be motion-sensitive and they may chase vehicles occasionally or a small child in the garden running around as these are both very similar to herding sheep.
 Parson Russell Terrier
The Parson Russell Terrier is a breed of small white terrier that originates from the Fox Terriers of the 18th century. The breed is named after the person credited with the creation of this type of dog, the Reverend John "Jack" Russell. It is the recognised conformation show variety of the Jack Russell Terrier and was first recognised in 1990 in the United Kingdom as the Parson Jack Russell Terrier. In America, it was first recognised as the Jack Russell Terrier in 1997. The name was changed to its current form in 1999 in the UK and by 2008 all international kennel clubs recognised it under the new name.A mostly white breed with either a smooth or broken coat, it conforms to a narrower range of sizes than the Jack Russell. It is a feisty, energetic terrier, suited to sports and able to get along with children and other animals. It has a range of breed related health issues, mainly relating to eye disorders.The Parson Russell Terrier is bred to conform to a conformation show standard. It is a predominantly white breed with black, tan or tricolour markings and an easy to groom coat which is either smooth or broken (similar to a smooth coat, but with some longer hair on the head, face, legs or body). The breed standard does not recognise a Parson Russell with a curly or rough coat. There is a clear outline with only a hint of eyebrows and beard should the dog be broken coated. They possess moderately thick small "V" shaped drop ears with the tip pointed towards the eyes. The nose of the dog should be black. The normal range of sizes is between 13–14 inches (33–36 cm) tall at the withers, with a weight around 13–17 pounds (5.9–7.7 kg).The Parson Russell has a relatively square outline, with a body about as long as the dog is tall. Compared to the Jack Russell Terrier, the Parson Russell has a longer head and a larger chest along with overall a slightly larger body size. The Parson retains the flat skull but not the elongated shape of the Fox Terrier, and with lower set ears In addition, the Jack Russell Terrier has a greater variation in size, ranging between 10–15 inches (25–38 cm) in height at the withers.Two hands should be able to span the chest of the dog behind its elbows, with the thumbs at the withers. This is required in show judging, with the judge lifting the dog's front legs gently off the ground in this motion in order to measure the size of the chest. The judges fingers should meet under the chest and the thumbs on top of the spine. The American Kennel Club describes this as a "significant factor and a critical part of the judging process." It is not done to measure the size of the chest, but rather to feel for the correct shape.Under the show standard, there are several physical points which would be treated as faults in the show ring. These are for the height of the dog at the withers to be outside of the standard range, or for the dog to possess either pricked up ears, a liver or brown coloured nose, an overshot or undershot jawline or to have brindle markingsThe Parson is a feisty and energetic type of Terrier. They can excel in dog sports such as flyball or agility and require vigorous exercise in order to prevent them from becoming bored and potentially destructive in the home. They can be suited to live with children but as they have a typical Terrier temperament, they will not tolerate rough handling. The AKC describes them as being single minded, tenacious and courageous when at work, while at home they can be exuberant, playful and affectionate. However, it is unusual for dogs of this breed to be involved in work, such as fox hunting, typical of a small white terrier, as they are more adapted to the show bench.They can be playful with other dogs, and get along with horses. The breed standard requires that shyness be treated as a fault, although it states that this should not be confused with submissiveness which is not treated as such. Overt aggression towards another dog is not accepted and is a criteria for disqualification in the show ring.
 Border Terrier
A Border Terrier is a small, rough-coated breed of dog of the terrier group. Originally bred as fox and vermin hunters, Border Terriers share ancestry with Dandie Dinmont Terriers and Bedlington Terriers.Though the breed is much older, the Border Terrier was officially recognized by The Kennel Club in Great Britain in 1920, and by the American Kennel Club (AKC) in 1930.In 2006, the Border Terrier ranked 81st in number of registrations by the AKC, while it ranked 10th in the United Kingdom.In 2008, the Border Terrier ranked 8th in number of registrations by the UK Kennel Club.Identifiable by their otter-shaped heads, Border Terriers have a broad skull and short (although many be fairly long), strong muzzle with a scissors bite. The V-shaped ears are on the sides of the head and fall towards the cheeks. Common coat colors are grizzle-and-tan, blue-and-tan, red, or wheaten. Whiskers are few and short. The tail is naturally moderately short, thick at the base and tapering.Narrow-bodied and well-proportioned, males stand 13 to 16 in (33 to 41 cm) at the shoulder, and weigh 13 to 15.5 lb (5.9 to 7.0 kg); females 11 to 14 in (28 to 36 cm) and 11.5 to 14 pounds (5.2 to 6.4 kg).[4]The Border Terrier has a double coat consisting of a short, dense, soft undercoat and harsh, wiry weather and dirt resistant, close-lying outer coat with no curl or wave. This coat usually requires hand-stripping twice a year to remove dead hair. It then takes about eight weeks for the top coat to come back in. For some dogs, weekly brushing will suffice. Most Border Terriers are seen groomed with short hair but longer hair can sometimes be preferred.Though sometimes stubborn and strong willed; border terriers are, on the whole very even tempered, and are friendly and rarely aggressive.The mood changes depending on the dog. Border Terriers generally get along well with other dogs and are often good with children, but may chase cats and any other small pets.Borders do well in task-oriented activities and have a surprising ability to jump high and run fast given the size of their legs. The breed has excelled in agility training, but they are quicker to learn jumps and see-saws than weaving poles. They take training for tasks very well, but appear less tractable if being taught mere tricks.They are intelligent and eager to please, but they retain the capacity for independent thinking and initiative that were bred into them for working rats and fox underground. Their love of people and even temperament make them fine therapy dogs, especially for children and the elderly, and they are occasionally used to aid the blind or deaf. From a young age they should be trained on command.Borders can adapt to different environments and situations well, and are able to deal with temporary change well. They will get along well with cats that they have been raised with, but may chase other cats and small animals such as mice, rabbits, squirrels, rats, and guinea pigs.Borders love to sit and watch what is going on. Walks with Borders will often involve them sitting and lying in the grass to observe the environment around them.
 Pharaoh Hound
The Pharaoh Hound is a breed of dog and the national hound of the Mediterranean nation of Malta. Its native name is Kelb tal-Fenek (plural: Klieb tal-Fenek) in Maltese, which means "rabbit hound". The dog is the traditional hunting companion of Maltese outdoorsmen. The breed has no conclusive links with Ancient Egypt and its name in English is a 20th century fabrication. It has variously been classified as a member of the sighthound group, yet its fieldwork description clearly determines it as a hound. It is indigenous to the islands and as such remains rare outside of Malta.At first glance, the Pharaoh Hound should appear both graceful and elegant as well as powerful and athletic. Its build should be one of strength without bulkiness or excessive musculature. Its head is elegant without being fine or extreme. The skull should resemble a blunt wedge, and is long and chiseled with only a slight stop and a muzzle of good length. Its eyes are oval with a keen, noble, alert, and intelligent expression. It has a long, lean, and muscular neck that is slightly arched. Its body is slightly longer than its height at the withers. It has a deep chest that extends down to the elbows and a moderate tuck up. Its shoulders are long and well laid back. Its front legs are long and straight. The back legs are moderately angled, parallel to each other, and must be in balance with the forelegs. It has a long, fine, straight tail that should reach down to a bit below the point of the hocks. The tail is carried down when relaxed but must not tuck between the legs. When the dog is in motion or is excited, the tail is carried up; either level with, or loosely curled above, the back. Its dewclaws may be removed.It stands between 21 to 25 inches at the withers and weighs between 40 to 60 lbs. Males are typically larger than females.The coat is fine and short with no feathering. The texture varies from silky to somewhat hard and it must never be so profuse as to stand away from the dog's skin. The only color accepted by most kennel clubs is red; though the shades of red color varies, and accepted shades range from a tan to a deep chestnut and all shades in between. White markings on the chest, toes, tail-tip, center of forehead, and the bridge of the muzzle are accepted, but not required. A white tail-tip is desired by some kennel clubs. In contrast, any white markings on the back of the neck, the sides, or the back of the dog are unacceptable by most standards. Pharaoh's eyes are always amber, and should compliment the coat colour. They are born with blue eyes, which change to a light gold or yellow color during early puppyhood and then begin to darken well into adulthood. The nose, whiskers, nails, paw-pads, and eye-rims should also be the same colour as the coat. Pharaohs also have a unique trait of "blushing" when excited or happy, with their ears and nose becoming bright pink.The Pharaoh Hound is an intelligent, trainable, playful, and active breed. It is sociable with other dogs and with people; however, it can be aloof or reserved with strangers. It is typically very open and affectionate with its family and those it knows. It is an independent-minded, occasionally stubborn breed, yet can be submissive when appropriate positive training methods are used. It has a strong hunting instinct, and caution should be observed when it is around small pets such as cats, birds, and rodents. It is not a demonstrative breed but rather is quietly affectionate. It is a vocal breed without being yappy or barking just for the sake of barking. It makes a good watch dog; however, it is not well suited as guard dog as it is rarely aggressive with people. This is not a breed suited for kennel situations due to its intelligence and activity level. The breed tends to bond deeply with its people and thrives best when it feels included as a member of the family.
 Boston Terrier
The Boston Terrier is a breed of dog originating in the United States of America. This "American Gentleman" was accepted in 1893 by the American Kennel Club as a non-sporting breed. Color and markings are important when distinguishing this breed to the AKC standard. They should be either black, brindle or seal with white markings. Bostons are small and compact with a short tail and erect ears. They are intelligent and friendly and can be stubborn at times. The average life span of a Boston is around 11 to 13 years, though some can live well into their teens.Boston Terriers are typically small, compactly built, well proportioned dogs with erect ears, short tails, and a short muzzle that should be free of wrinkles. They usually have a square sort of face. The smooth coats of the Boston Terriers are mainly brindle, seal or black with even white markings.According to international breed standard, the dog should weigh no less than 10 pounds and no more than 25 pounds. Boston Terriers usually stand 15-17 inches at the withers.The Boston Terrier is a gentle breed that typically has a strong, happy-go-lucky and friendly personality. Bostons are generally eager to please their owner and can easily be trained given a patient owner.While originally bred for fighting, they were later down bred for companionship. The modern Boston Terrier can be gentle, alert, expressive and well-mannered. It must be noted however, that they are not considered terriers by the American Kennel Club, but are part of the non-sporting group. So the terrier part of their name is something of a misnomer.Both females and males are generally quiet and bark only when necessary. Their usually sensible attitude towards barking makes them excellent choices for apartment dwellers. Having been bred as a companion dog, they enjoy being around people, and if properly socialized, get along well with children, the elderly, other canines, and non-canine pets. Some Boston Terriers are very cuddly, while others are more independent.
 Poodle (Standard)
The Standard Poodle is regarded as the second most intelligent breed of dog after the Border Collie, and before the German Shepherd Dog. The poodle breed is found officially in toy, miniature, and standard sizes, with many coat colors. Originally bred as a type of water dog, the poodle is skillful in many dog sports, including agility, obedience, tracking, and even herding. Poodles have taken top honors in many conformation shows, including "Best in Show" at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1991 and 2002, and at the World Dog Show in 2007 and 2010.Poodles are retrievers or gun dogs, and can still be seen in that role most of the time. The poodle is believed to have originated in Germany, where it is known as the Pudel. The English word "poodle" comes from the Low German pudel or puddeln, meaning to splash in the water. The breed was standardized in France, where it was commonly used as a water retriever.The American Kennel Club states that the large, or Standard, Poodle is the oldest of the three varieties and that the dog gained special fame as a water worker. So widely was it used as retriever that it was bred with a moisture-resistant coat to further facilitate progress in swimming. All of the Poodle's ancestors were acknowledged to be good swimmers, although one member of the family, the truffle dog (which may have been of Toy or Miniature size), it is said, never went near the water. Truffle hunting was widely practiced in England, and later in Spain and Germany, where the edible fungus has always been considered a delicacy. For scenting and digging up the fungus, the smaller dogs were favored, since they did less damage to the truffles with their feet than the larger kinds. So it is rumored that a terrier was crossed with the Poodle to produce the ideal truffle hunter.Despite the standard poodle's claim to greater age than the other varieties, there is some evidence to show that the smaller types developed only a short time after the breed assumed the general type by which it is recognized today. The smallest, or Toy variety, was developed in England in the 18th century, when the Havanese became popular there. This was a sleeve dog attributed to the West Indies from whence it traveled to Spain and then to England. The continent had known the poodle long before it came to England. Drawings by the German artist, Albrecht Durer, establish the breed in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was the principal pet dog of the later 18th century in Spain, as shown by the paintings of the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. France had toy poodles as pampered favorites during the reign of Louis XVI at about the same period
 Boxer
Developed in Germany, the Boxer is a breed of stocky, medium size, short-haired dog. The coat is smooth and fawn, brindled, white, or even reverse brindled with or without white markings. Boxers are brachycephalic (they have broad, short skulls), and have a square muzzle, mandibular prognathism (an underbite), very strong jaws and a powerful bite ideal for hanging on to large prey. The Boxer was bred from the Old English Bulldog and the now extinct Bullenbeisser and is part of the Molosser group.Boxers were first exhibited in a dog show for St. Bernards at Munich in 1895, the first Boxer club being founded the next year. Based on 2009 American Kennel Club statistics, Boxers are the sixth most popular breed of dog in the United States for the third year in a row—moving up in 2007 from the seventh spot, which they'd held since 2002The head is the most distinctive feature of the Boxer. The breed standard dictates that it must be in perfect proportion to the body and above all it must never be too light. The greatest value is to be placed on the muzzle being of correct form and in absolute proportion to the skull. The length of the muzzle to the whole of the head should be a ratio of 1:2. Folds are always present from the root of the nose running downwards on both sides of the muzzle, and the tip of the nose should lie somewhat higher than the root of the muzzle. In addition a Boxer should be slightly prognathous, i.e., the lower jaw should protrude beyond the upper jaw and bend slightly upwards in what is commonly called an underbite or "undershot bite".Boxers were originally a docked and cropped breed, and this tradition is still maintained in some countries. However, due to pressure from veterinary associations, animal rights groups and the general public, both cropping of the ears and docking of the tail have been prohibited in many countries around the world. There is a line of naturally short-tailed (bobtail) Boxers that was developed in the United Kingdom in anticipation of a tail docking ban there; after several generations of controlled breeding, these dogs were accepted in the Kennel Club (UK) registry in 1998, and today representatives of the bobtail line can be found in many countries around the world. However, in 2008, the FCI added a "naturally stumpy tail" as a disqualifying fault in their breed standard, meaning those Boxers born with a bobtail are no longer able to be shown (or, in some cases, bred) in FCI member countries. In the United States and Canada as of 2009, cropped ears are still more common in show dogs. In March 2005 the AKC breed standard was changed to include a description of the uncropped ear, but to severely penalize an undocked tail. Although a Boxer may not be as big as another breed, make no mistake, what a Boxer may lack in size or weight, it makes up for in near unmatchable strength.Boxers are a bright, energetic and playful breed and tend to be very good with children. They are active and incredibly strong dogs and require adequate exercise to prevent boredom-associated behaviors such as chewing, digging, or licking. Boxers have earned a slight reputation of being "headstrong," which can be related to inappropriate obedience training. Owing to their intelligence and working breed characteristics, training based on corrections often has limited usefulness. Boxers, like other animals, typically respond better to positive reinforcement techniques such as clicker training, an approach based on operant conditioning and behaviorism, which affords the dog an opportunity to think independently and to problem-solve. Stanley Coren's survey of obedience trainers, summarized in his book The Intelligence of Dogs, ranked Boxers at #48 - average working/obedience intelligence. Many who have worked with Boxers disagree quite strongly with Coren's survey results, and maintain that a skilled trainer who uses reward-based methods will find Boxers have far above-average intelligence and working ability.The Boxer by nature is not an aggressive or vicious breed but, when provoked, is a formidable guardian of any family or home and, like all dogs, requires socialization. Boxers are generally patient with smaller dogs and puppies, but difficulties with larger adult dogs, especially those of the same sex, may occur. More severe fighting can also occur among female boxers.[14] Boxers are generally more comfortable with companionship, in either human or canine form.
 Portuguese Pointer
A Portuguese Pointer, (Portuguese: Perdigueiro Português) is a breed of dog developed as a gun dog. It is one of several pointing breeds and is mainly used in Red-legged Partridge hunting. The Portuguese pointer (perdigueiro Português) arose from the ancient Iberian hunting dogs with his presence in Portugal traceable to the early Twelfth Century. Initially the dog was bred in the royal kennels and later became a very popular hunting dog for the lower classes of society. In the Eighteenth Century, many English families established a presence in the region of Oporto in the business of wine production and came to know the Portuguese hunting breed which was taken to England where they played a part in the origin of the English pointer. However, during the Nineteenth Century when Portugal was experiencing considerable social hardships, the breed began a progressive decline. It was not until the 1920s when some breeders made an effort to salvage the breed by locating some of the ancient Portuguese dogs in the inaccessible north of Portugal. The Portuguese pedigree book was then established in 1932 and breed standard in 1938. For at least a thousand years, this dog has always had the same square head, a marked stop, triangular ears and compact look.
 Bulldog (English Bulldog)
A Bulldog is the common name for a breed of dog also referred to as the English Bulldog. Other Bulldog breeds include the American Bulldog and the French Bulldog. The Bulldog is a muscular heavy dog with a wrinkled face and a distinctive pushed-in nose. The American Kennel Club (AKC), The Kennel Club (UK) and the United Kennel Club (UKC) oversee breeding standards.The Bulldog is a breed with characteristically wide shoulders and a matching head. There are generally thick folds of skin on a Bulldog's brow, followed by round, black, wide-set eyes, a short muzzle with characteristic folds called "rope" above the nose, with hanging skin under the neck, drooping lips, and pointed teeth. The coat is short, flat and sleek, with colors of red, fawn, white, brindle (mixed colors, often in waves or irregular stripes), and piebald.In the US, the size of a typical mature male is about 55-60 pounds and that for mature females is about 45 pounds for a Standard English Bulldog. In the United Kingdom, the breed standard is 55 pounds for a male and 50 pounds for a female.While some canine breeds have their tails cut or docked soon after birth, Bulldogs are one of very few breeds whose tail is naturally short and curled.Despite their famous "sourpuss" expression, Bulldogs are generally docile and easy to please. They can move quickly over short distances. Bulldogs do not need a lot of physical exercise, so they are well-suited for living in apartments and other urban environments. They are friendly and gregarious, but occasionally willful and well trained if training is done right. The phrase "stubborn as a Bulldog" is loosely rooted in fact. They rank 78th out of 80 in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of lowest degree working/obedience intelligence.Breeders have worked to breed aggression out of the breed, and as such, the dog is known to be of generally good temperament. Due to their friendly, patient nature, Bulldogs are known for getting along well with children, other dogs, and pets. Bulldogs can be so attached to home and family that they will not venture out of the yard without a human companion.
 Portugese Water Dog
The Portuguese Water Dog is a breed of working dog as classified by the American Kennel Club. Portuguese Water Dogs are originally from the Portuguese region of the Algarve, from where the breed expanded to all around Portugal's coast, where they were taught to herd fish into fishermen's nets, to retrieve lost tackle or broken nets, and to act as couriers from ship to ship, or ship to shore. Portuguese Water Dogs rode in bobbing fishing trawlers as they worked their way from the warm Atlantic waters of Portugal to the frigid fishing waters off the coast of Iceland where the fleets caught cod to bring home. Portuguese Water Dogs were often taken with sailors during the Portuguese discoveries.In Portugal, the breed is called Cão de Água (pronounced Kow-the-Ah-gwa; literally "water dog"). In its native land, the dog is also known as the Algarvian Water Dog ("Cão de Água Algarvio"), or Portuguese Fishing Dog (Cão Pescador Português). Cão de Água de Pêlo Ondulado is the name given the wavy-haired variety, and Cão de Água de Pêlo Encaracolado is the name for the curly-coated variety.The Portuguese Water Dog is a fairly rare breed; only 15 entrants for Portuguese Water Dogs were made to England's Crufts competition in 2002. Though some breeders claim they are a hypoallergenic dog breed, there is no scientific evidence to support the claim that hypoallergenic dog breeds exist. However, their non-shedding qualities have made them more popular in recent years.The closest relatives of the PWD are widely thought to be the Kerry Blue Terrier, Barbet and Standard Poodle. Like Poodles and several other water dog breeds, PWDs are highly intelligent, can have curly coats, have webbed toes for swimming, and do not shed.[5] However, Portuguese Water Dogs are more robustly built, with stout legs, and can have a wavy coat instead of tightly curled. If comparing the structure to that of a Poodle, there are significant differences between the two breeds. The Portuguese Water Dog built of strong substantial bone; well developed, neither refined nor coarse, and a solidly built, muscular body. The Portuguese Water Dog is off-square, slightly longer than tall when measured from prosternum to rearmost point of the buttocks, and from withers to ground. Portuguese Water Dog eyes are black or various tones of brown, and their coats can be black, brown, black and white or brown and white.Male Portuguese Water Dogs usually grow to be about 20 to 23 inches (51 cm to 58 cm) tall, and they weigh between 40 and 60 pounds (18 kg to 27 kg), while the females usually grow to be about 17 to 21 inches (43 cm to 53 cm) tall, and they weigh between 35 and 50 pounds.PWDs have a single-layered coat that does not shed[6] (see Moult), and therefore their presence is tolerated extremely well among many people who suffer from dog allergies. Some call PWDs hypoallergenic dogs, but any person with dog allergies who would like a dog with these qualities should actually spend time with the animals before purchasing, to test whether the dog is truly non-allergenic to them.Most PWDs, especially those shown in conformation shows, are entirely black, black and white, brown, or silver-tipped; it is common to see white chest spots and white paws or legs on black or brown coated dogs. "Parti" or "Irish-marked" coats, with irregular white and black spots, are rare but visually striking. "Parti" dogs are becoming more common in the United States. However, in Portugal the breed standard does not allow more than 30% white markings. Overall, white is the least common Portuguese Water Dog color, while black with white markings on the chin ("milk chin") and chest is the most common color combination.
 Bullmastiff
The Bullmastiff is a breed of large dog. A member of the Working Group, it is large and solidly built, with a short muzzle. The Bullmastiff shares the characteristics of Molosser dogs like it, and was originally developed by 19th-century gamekeepers to guard estates and immobilize poachers. The breed's bloodlines are drawn from the English Mastiff and Old English Bulldog; it was recognized as a purebred dog by the English Kennel Club in 1924. It is an athletic and muscular dog, yet docile and obedient, traits which have made the breed popular as a family pet.A Bullmastiff should be confident, yet docile. A Bullmastiff is courageous, extremely loyal to its family, calm, and loving. Bullmastiffs become intensely attached to their families.[citation needed]Bullmastiffs can get along with other dogs, though, like many animals it is common for males not to get along with other males. They also may get along with the family house cat but not with other strange animals. The Bullmastiff can get along extremely well with children provided the dog has been properly trained and socialized. Parental supervision must be maintained when they are with children; as with most large dogs, they may knock smaller children down accidentally.A Bullmastiff, because of its history, is a very independent dog, and likes to make its own decisions. However, with good training, a Bullmastiff will look to its owner for "permission" to act on its instincts. Early socialization and obedience training with all members of the family will teach the dog to look to them before taking action. They are very athletic and muscular, making them incredibly fast and agile.They were never bred for hunting purposes, and rarely show signs of aggression. The Bullmastiff is considered a sweet-natured breed, although potentially dangerous due to its great size and strength.
 Rhodesian Ridgeback
The Rhodesian Ridgeback is a dog breed developed in Southern Africa where it was used (among other things) to hunt lions. This is most likely why this dog is known for its bravery. Its European forebears can be traced to the early pioneers of the Cape Colony of southern Africa, who crossed their dogs with the semi-domesticated, ridged hunting dogs of the Khoikhoi.In the earlier parts of its history, the Rhodesian Ridgeback has also been known as Van Rooyen's Lion Dogs, the African Lion Hound or African Lion Dog—Simba Inja in Ndebele, Shumba Imbwa in Shona—because of their ability to distract a lion while awaiting their master to make the kill.The original breed standard was drafted by F.R. Barnes, in Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), in 1922. Based on that of the Dalmatian, the standard was approved by the South African Kennel Union in 1926. This dog is now used to help athletes train.The Khoikhoi people occupied the Cape Peninsula during the mid 17th century when the Dutch began trading with the area and set up a trading station. These people had a dog which was used for hunting; described as ugly, but noted for its ferocity when acting as a guard dog. This dog measured 18 inches (46 cm) at the withers, with a lean but muscular frame. The ears have been described both as erect and hanging, but the most distinct feature was the length of hair growing in the reverse direction along its back. Within 53 years of the Dutch settlement, the Europeans were using these local dogs themselves.By the 1860s, European settlers had brought a variety of dog breeds to this area of Africa, including Bloodhounds, Greyhounds, terriers, and Foxhounds. These breeds were bred with the indigenous African dogs, including the dog of the Khoikhoi people, which resulted in the Boer hunting dogs, a forerunner to the modern Rhodesian Ridgeback.Reverend Charles Helm traveled to the Hope Fountain Mission in Southern Rhodesia in the 1870s, taking two ridged dogs with him. It was there that Cornelius van Rooyen, a big–game hunter saw them, and decided to breed his own dogs with them to incorporate their guarding abilities. The offspring were dogs with red coats and ridges, and became the foundation stock of a kennel which developed dogs over the next thirty five years with the ability to bay lions. This term was used as the dogs were meant to hold it at bay, while the hunter made the kill. The dogs were not limited to lions, but were also used for other game including wild pigs and baboons, with a Ridgeback having the ability to kill a baboon independent of a hunter. The first breed standard was written by Mr F.R. Barnes in Bulawayo, Rhodesia in 1922. Based on that of the Dalmatian, it was approved in 1926 by the South African Kennel Union.The first Rhodesian Ridgebacks in Britain were shown by Mrs. Edward Foljambe in 1928. The breed was admitted into the American Kennel Club in 1955 as a member of the Hound Group.
 Cairn Terrier
The Cairn Terrier is one of the oldest terrier breeds, originating in the Scottish Highlands and recognized as one of Scotland's earliest working dogs. It is used for hunting and burrowing prey among the cairns.Although the breed had existed long before, the name Cairn Terrier was a compromise suggestion after the breed was originally brought to official shows in the United Kingdom in 1909 under the name Short-haired Skye terriers. This name was not acceptable to The Kennel Club due to opposition from Skye Terrier breeders, and the name Cairn Terrier was suggested as an alternative. They are usually left-pawed, which has been shown in dogs to correlate to superior performance in tasks related to scent. Cairn Terriers are ratters. In Scotland they would search the cairns (man-made pile of stones) for rats and other rodents. Thus if one is kept as a household pet it will do the job of a cat, specifically catching and killing mice, rabbits, and squirrels.The Cairn Terrier has a harsh, weather-resistant outer coat that can be cream, wheaten, red, sandy, gray, or brindled in any of these colours. Pure black, black and tan, and white are not permitted by many kennel clubs. While registration of white Cairns was once permitted, after 1917 the American Kennel Club required them to be registered as West Highland White Terriers. A notable characteristic of Cairns is that brindled Cairns frequently change colour throughout their lifetime. It is not uncommon for a brindled Cairn to become progressively more black or silver as it ages. The Cairn is double-coated, with a soft, dense undercoat and a harsh outer coat. A well-groomed Cairn has a rough-and-ready appearance, free of artifice or exaggeration.Referred to as a "big dog trapped in a small dog's body" Cairn Terriers are adventurous, intelligent, strong, loyal and tough not a delicate lapdog. Like most terriers, they love to dig after real or imagined prey. They are vermin hunters. Cairns have potential aggression toward other animals with strong chasing instincts but will co-exist with them more readily than some other terriers. However, strange animals may be a different story, as the Cairn Terrier was bred to hunt and will chase anything that moves. They are protective of their families, and will defend their territory with courage and devotion, but they are also people-oriented and are friendly with everyone they meet. They generally do well with other dogs, but will stand their ground if challenged and also have been known to harass, and sometimes hurt cats. There is very little a Cairn cannot learn if his owner takes the time to teach him. Cairn Terriers have a strong prey instinct and will need comprehensive training. However, they are intelligent and, although wilful, can be trained. Training of the Cairn Terrier has the best results when training as a puppy, as they become wilfully stubborn. Although it is often said that they are disobedient, this is not the case provided correct training is applied. They've been called "the best little pal in the world" and they are always a work in progress. If there is no fenced yard, the Cairn must be exercised on a leash, as it is impossible to train a Cairn to resist the urge to chase squirrels, cats, rabbits, other dogs, etc. (Cairns were bred to hunt). Walking is excellent exercise for Cairns and their owners. A brisk walk daily, on leash, is ideal. From the Cairn's point of view, the longer the walk the better. Although small in size at nine to ten inches at the shoulder with weight ranging from thirteen to fourteen pounds, the Cairn is a big dog trapped in a little dog's body. There has been cases for Cairns to take on a much larger and fiercer dogs only to come out on the losing end because they do not know when to back down. For that reason the Cairn must be kept in a suitable enclosure. Cairn Terriers generally are gentle and adapt well to children and are suitable family dogs, but will not tolerate mistreatment. They are not usually problem barkers, but will bark if bored or lonely.
 Rottweiler
The Rottweiler is a medium to large size breed of domestic dog that originated in Rottweil, Germany. The dogs were known as "Rottweil butchers' dogs" (German: Rottweiler Metzgerhund) because they were used to herd livestock and pull carts laden with butchered meat and other products to market. Some records indicate that earlier Rottweilers may have also been used for hunting, although the modern Rottweiler has a relatively low hunting instinct.The Rottweiler was employed in its traditional roles until the mid-19th century when railroads replaced droving for getting livestock to market. While still used in herding, Rottweilers are now also used in search and rescue, as guide dogs for the blind, as guard or police dogs, and in other roles.Although a versatile breed used in recent times for many purposes, the Rottweiler is primarily known as one of the oldest herding breeds. A multi-faceted herding and stock protection dog, it is capable of working all kinds of livestock under a variety of conditions.The breed's history dates to the Roman Empire. In those times, the Roman legion travelled with their meat on the hoof and required the assistance of working dogs to herd the cattle. One route the army travelled was through Württemberg and on to the small market town of Rottweil. The principal ancestors of the first Rottweilers during this time are believed to be the Roman droving dog, local dogs the army met on its travels, and dogs with molosser appearance coming from England and the Netherlands.[citation needed]This region was eventually to become an important cattle area, and the descendants of the Roman cattle dogs proved their worth in both driving and protecting the cattle from robbers and wild animals. Rottweilers were said to have been used by travelling butchers at markets during the Middle Ages to guard money pouches tied around their necks. However, as railroads became the primary method for moving stock to market, the breed had declined so much that by 1900 there was only one female to be found in the town of Rottweil.[citation needed]The build up to World War I saw a great demand for police dogs, and that led to a revival of interest in the Rottweiler. During the First and Second World Wars, Rottweilers were put into service in various roles, including as messenger, ambulance, draught, and guard dogs.Deutscher Rottweiler-Klub (DRK, German Rottweiler Club), the first Rottweiler club in Germany, was founded January 13, 1914, and followed by the creation of the Süddeutscher Rottweiler-Klub (SDRK, South German Rottweiler Club) on April 27, 1915 and eventually became the IRK (International Rottweiler Club). The DRK counted around 500 Rottweilers, and the SDRK 3000 Rottweilers. The goals of the two clubs were different. The DRK aimed to produce working dogs and did not emphasize the morphology of the Rottweiler.The various German Rottweiler Clubs amalgamated to form the Allgemeiner Deutscher Rottweiler Klub (ADRK, General German Rottweiler Club) in 1921. This was officially recorded in the register of clubs and associations at the district court of Stuttgart on January 27, 1924.[ The ADRK is recognised worldwide as the home club of the Rottweiler.In 1935 the Rottweiler was officially recognized by the American Kennel Club. In 1936, Rottweilers were exhibited in Britain at Crufts. In 1966, a separate register was opened for the breed. In fact, in the mid 1990s, the popularity of the Rottweiler reached an all time high with it being the most registered dog by the American Kennel Club
 Cardigan Welsh Corgi
The Cardigan Welsh corgi (pronounced /?k?r?i/) is one of two separate dog breeds known as Welsh corgis that originated in Wales, the other being the Pembroke Welsh corgi. It is one of the oldest herding breeds.Cardigan Welsh corgis can be extremely loyal family dogs. They do, however, need daily physical and mental stimulation. For their size, they need a surprising amount of exercise. Cardigans are a very versatile breed and a wonderful family companion. They can live in a variety of settings, from apartments to farms.The Cardigan is a long, low dog with upright ears and a bottle brush tail. The old American Kennel Club standard called it an "Alsatian on short legs". The Cardigan's tail is long (unlike the Pembroke Welsh corgi, whose tail may be long, short, naturally bobbed or docked. Cardigans can be any shade of red, sable, or brindle; they can also be black with or without tan brindle or blue merle with or without tan or brindle points. They usually have white on the neck, chest, legs, muzzle, underneath, tip of the tail, and as a blaze on the head, known as the "Irish pattern." Other markings include ticking on the legs and muzzle, smutty muzzles, monk's hoods, and others. A few other unofficial colors can occur, such as red merle. These colors are not considered an acceptable color per the Cardigan standard. An average Cardigan is around 10.5 to 13 inches (260 to 315 mm) tall at the withers and weighs from 30 to 38 lb. (13.6 to 17.2 kg) for the male and 25 to 34 lb. (11.3 to 15.4 kg) for the female.Originally bred for farm work, including herding sheep and cattle, they have proven themselves as excellent companion animals and are also competitive in sheepdog trials dog agility, competitive obedience and rally obedience. Cardigan Welsh corgis were bred long and low to make sure that any kicks by cattle would travel safely over the dogs' heads without touching them. Like most herding breeds, Cardigans are highly intelligent, active, athletic dogs. Affectionately known as "a big dog in a small package," Cardigans are affectionate, devoted companions that can also be alert and responsible guardians. Some Cardigan corgis are 'one-man dogs'. They tend to be wary of strangers and to reserve their affection for a select few with whom they are familiar. If socialized at a young age, they can be nice with other dogs and housepets.Cardigans are typically excellent watchdogs, as they are highly alert to the approach of strangers to their territory, and will be very vocal until they and/or their owner are assured that the stranger poses no threat.
 Rough Collie
The Rough Collie (also known as the Long-Haired Collie) is a long coated breed of medium to large size dog that in its original form was a type of collie used and bred for herding in Scotland. Originating in the 1800's, it is now well known through the works of author Albert Payson Terhune, and through the Lassie novel, movies, and television shows. There is also a smooth-coated variety; some breed organisations, including both the American and the Canadian Kennel Clubs, consider the smooth-coat and rough-coat dogs to be variations of the same breed. Rough Collies generally come in shades of sable, merles, and bi- or tri-coloured. This breed is very similar to the smaller Shetland Sheepdog which is partly descended from the Rough Collie.Both Rough and Smooth collies are descended from a localised variety of herding dog originating in Scotland and Wales. The Scottish variety was a large, strong, aggressive dog, bred to herd highland sheep. The Welsh variety was small and nimble, domesticated and friendly, and also herded goats. When the English saw these dogs at the Birmingham market, they interbred them with their own variety of sheepdogs producing a mixture of short and long haired varieties. After the industrial revolution, dog ownership became fashionable, and these early collies were believed to have been crossed with the Borzoi (Russian Wolfhound) to get a more "noble" head, which is today one of the true characteristics of the Rough Collie. Though it is not known conclusively if the Borzoi cross made it into the mainstream of the breed. When Queen Victoria acquired a Rough Collie, after seeing one at Balmoral Castle, they were transformed into something of a fashion item. Continued breeding for show purposes drastically changed the appearance of the dogs; in the 1960s, it was a much taller dog than it is today (in the UK; in the US, the size standard has not been revised downward and dogs have remained between 24-26"). Earlier dogs were also more sturdy in build and reportedly capable of covering up to 100 miles in one day. In the UK the Rough Collie is no longer used for serious herding, having been replaced by the Border Collie. Though in the United States and a number of European countries, there has been a resurgence in the use of the Collie as a working and performance dog.
 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small breed of Spaniel-type dog, and is classed as a toy dog by most kennel clubs. It is one of the most popular breeds in the United Kingdom. Since 2000, it has been growing in popularity in the United States. It is a smaller breed of spaniel, and Cavalier adults are often the same size as adolescent dogs of other spaniel breeds. It has a silky coat and commonly an undocked tail. The breed standard recognizes four colours (Blenheim, Tricolour [black/white/tan], Black and Tan, and Ruby). The breed is generally friendly, affectionate and good with both children and other animals.The King Charles changed drastically in the late 17th century, when it was interbred with flat-nosed breeds. Until the 1920s, the Cavalier shared the same history as the smaller King Charles Spaniel. Breeders attempted to recreate what they considered to be the original configuration of the breed, a dog resembling Charles II's King Charles Spaniel of the Restoration.Various health issues affect this particular breed, most notably mitral valve disease, which leads to heart failure. This will appear in most Cavaliers at some point in their lives and is the most common cause of death. The breed may also suffer from Syringomyelia, in which cavities are formed in the spinal cord, possibly associated with malformation of the skull that reduces the space available for the brain. Cavaliers are also affected by ear problems, a common health problem among spaniels of various types, and they can suffer from such other general maladies as hip dysplasia, which are common across many types of dog breeds.The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is one of the largest toy breeds. Historically it was a lap dog, and modern day adults can fill a lap easily. Nonetheless, it is small for a spaniel, with fully grown adults comparable in size to adolescents of other larger spaniel breeds. Breed standards state that height of a Cavalier should be between 12 to 13 inches (30 to 33 cm) with a proportionate weight between 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg). The tail is usually not docked, and the Cavalier should have a silky coat of moderate length. Standards state that it should be free from curl, although a slight wave is allowed. Feathering can grow on their ears, feet, legs and tail in adulthood. Standards require this be kept long, with the feathering on the feet a particularly important aspect of the breed's features.The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and the English Toy Spaniel can be often confused with each other. In the United Kingdom, the English Toy Spaniel is called the King Charles Spaniel while in the United States, one of the colours of the Toy Spaniel is known as King Charles. The two breeds share similar history and only diverged from each other about 100 years ago. There are several major differences between the two breeds, with the primary difference being the size. While the Cavalier weighs on average between 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg), the King Charles is smaller at 9 to 12 pounds (4.1 to 5.4 kg). In addition their facial features while similar, are different, the Cavalier's ears are set higher and its skull is flat while the King Charles's is domed. Finally the muzzle length of the Cavalier tends to be longer than that of its King Charles cousin
 Saluki
The Saluki, also known as the Royal Dog of Egypt and Persian Greyhound (Persian: ?????, Arabic: ?????) is one of the oldest known breeds of domesticated dog. From the period of the Middle Kingdom onwards, Saluki-like animals appear on the ancient Egyptian tombs of 2134 BC. They have connections both to the Bible and Imperial China. Modern breeding in the west began in 1895 when Florence Amherst imported a breeding pair of Salukis from Lower Egypt and began working to popularize the breed. Salukis were recognized by The Kennel Club in 1923, and by the American Kennel Club in 1929.The Saluki is a sighthound and historically travelled throughout the Middle East with nomadic desert tribes over an area stretching from the Sahara to the Caspian Sea. Accepted as clean by the Islamic faith, they have been used to hunt quarry such as gazelles in the Middle East. Shaped like a typical sighthound, they come in two varieties, smooth and feathered. The feathered variety is more common, and the breed is known for the hair on its ears, tail and the back of its legs. Though they are an independent breed that needs patient training, they are gentle and affectionate with their owners. Health issues include cancer and cardiac problems.
 Cesky Terrier
The Cesky Terrier is a small terrier type dog originating in Czechoslovakia. The name is pronounced /?t??ski/ chess-kee (after its Czech name ?eský teriér, literally Czech Terrier).The ?eský Terrier was created by a Czech breeder, František Horák, in 1948, as a cross between a Sealyham Terrier and a Scottish Terrier, to create a terrier suitable for hunting in the forests of Bohemia. Although not a trained scientist, Horák worked for many years as a research assistant at the Czechoslovak Academy of Science, and used knowledge gained there in his dog breeding. Czechoslovakia was ruled by a Communist regime, and as Horák's dogs became more popular around the world, he received visits from the secret police due to the large volume of mail he was getting from outside the country. František Horák died in 1997.The ?eský Terrier was recognized for international competition by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1963 as breed number 246 in Group 3, Terriers. The breed is now recognized by all of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world. The cesky terrier is one of the six most rare dog breeds worldwide.The Cesky Terrier is short-legged (achondroplastic dwarf) and moderately long-bodied, resembling the Sealyham Terrier and the Scottish Terrier.The Cesky Terrier has a long head, bushy beard, mustache, and eyebrows. The body is solid, but not heavy. The wavy, silky coat usually comes in various shades of gray-blue with tan, gray, white, or yellow furnishings or light coffee, though puppies are born black. The coat lightens between birth and two years of age.The Cesky Terrier's eyes are brown in gray-blue dogs and yellow in brown dogs. The noses and lips of blue-gray dogs are black; for brown dogs it is liver. The ears are triangular, folding forward close to the head. The head is long, but not too wide, with a well-defined stop.The breed standard calls for a calm dog, and aggression is a disqualifying fault. Cesky terriers are reputed to be less active and quieter than other terriers. This may or may not make them suitable pets for families with children.
 Samoyed
The Samoyed dog (pronounced /?sæm?j?d/ sam-?-yed or /s??m??.?d/ s?-moy-ed; Russian: ?????????? ??????) takes its name from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. An alternate name for the breed, especially in Europe, is Bjelkier. These nomadic reindeer herders bred the fluffy, white dogs to help with the herding, to pull sleds when they moved.Males typically weigh between 23–30 kg (50–65 lbs), while females typically weigh 17–25 kg (40–55 lbs).Height:AKC Standard : 21–23.5 inches (53–60 cm) at the shoulder for males, 19–21 inches (48–53 cm) for females.UK Kennel Club Standard : 51–56 cm (20–22 inches) for males, 46–51 cm (18–20 inches) for females.Samoyed eyes are usually black or brown and are almond in shape. Blue or other color eyes can occur but are not allowed in the show ring.Samoyed ears are thick and covered with fur, triangular in shape, and erect. They are almost always white but can occasionally have a light brown tint, usually around the tips of ears.The Samoyed tail is one of the breed's more distinguishing features. Like the Alaskan Malamute, their tail is carried curled over their backs; however, unlike the Malamute, the Samoyed tail is held actually touching the back. It should not be a tight curl or held "flag" like, it should be carried lying over the back and to one side. In cold weather, Samoyeds may sleep with their tails over their noses to provide additional warmth. Almost all Samoyeds will allow their tails to fall when they are relaxed and at ease, as when being stroked or while eating, but will return their tails to a curl when more alert.NZKC Standard: Tail: Long and profuse, carried over the back when alert; sometimes dropped when at rest.UK Kennel Club Standard : Tail : Long and Profusely coated, carried over the back and to side when alert, sometimes dropped when at rest.Samoyeds have a dense, double layer coat. The topcoat contains long, coarse, and straight guard hairs, which appear white but have a hint of silver coloring. This top layer keeps the undercoat relatively clean and free of debris. The under layer, or undercoat, consists of a dense, soft, and short fur that keeps the dog warm. The undercoat is typically shed heavily once or twice a year, and this seasonal process is sometimes referred to as "blowing coat". This does not mean the Samoyed will only shed during that time however; fine hairs (versus the dense clumps shed during seasonal shedding) will be shed all year round, and have a tendency to stick to cloth and float in the air. The standard Samoyed may come in a mixture of biscuit and white coloring, although pure white and all biscuit dogs are common. Males typically have larger ruffs than females.Samoyeds' friendly disposition makes them poor guard dogs; an aggressive Samoyed is rare. With their tendency to bark, however, they can be diligent watch dogs, barking whenever something approaches their territory. Samoyeds are excellent companions, especially for small children or even other dogs, and they remain playful into old age. When Samoyeds become bored they may begin to dig. With their sled dog heritage, a Samoyed is not averse to pulling things, and an untrained Samoyed has no problem pulling its owner on a leash rather than walking alongside. Samoyeds were also used to herd reindeer. They will instinctively act as herd dogs, and when playing with children, especially, will often attempt to turn and move them in a different direction. The breed is characterized by an alert and happy expression which has earned the nicknames "Sammy smile" and "smiley dog."
 Chihuahua
The Chihuahua’s history is puzzling and there are many theories surrounding the origin of the breed. Both folklore and archeological finds show that the breed originated in Mexico. The most common theory and most likely is that Chihuahuas are descended from the Techichi, a companion dog favored by the Toltec civilization in Mexico; however, no records of the Techichi are available prior to the 9th century. It is probable that earlier ancestors were present prior to the Mayans as dogs approximating the Chihuahua are found in materials from the Pyramids of Cholula, predating 1530 and in the ruins of Chichen Itza on the Yucatán Peninsula. Some historians believe that the Chihuahua came from the island of Malta in the Mediterranean. More evidence for this theory lies in European paintings of small dogs that resemble the Chihuahua. One of the most famous paintings is a fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Sandro Botticelli dated 1480-1482. The fresco, depicting the Trials of Moses, shows a boy holding a tiny dog with round head, large eyes, big ears, and other characteristics similar to those of the Chihuahua. The painting was finished ten years before Columbus returned from the New World. It would have been impossible for Botticelli to have seen a Mexican dog, yet he depicted an animal strikingly similar to a Chihuahua.A progenitor of the breed was reputedly found in 1850 in old ruins near Casas Grandes in the Mexican state of Chihuahua from which the breed gets its name, although most artifacts relating to its existence are found around Mexico City. The state borders Texas, Arizona and New Mexico in the United States, where Chihuahuas first rose to prominence. Since that time, the Chihuahua has remained consistently popular as a breed, particularly in America when the breed was first recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1904. In terms of size, the present day Chihuahua is much smaller than its ancestors, a change thought to be due to the introduction of miniaturized Chinese dogs, such as the Chinese crested dog, into South America by the Spanish.Breed standards for this dog do not generally specify a height, only a weight and a description of their overall proportions. As a result, height varies more than within many other breeds. Generally, the height ranges between six and ten inches; however, some dogs grow as tall as 12 to 15 inches (30 to 38 cm). Both British and American breed standards state that a Chihuahua must not weigh more than six pounds for conformation. However, the British standard also states that a weight of two to four pounds is preferred and that if two dogs are equally good in type, the more diminutive one is preferred. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) standard calls for dogs ideally between 1.5 and 3.0 kg (3.3 to 6.6 lbs.), although smaller ones are acceptable in the show ring. Pet-quality Chihuahuas (that is, those bred or purchased as companions rather than show dogs) often range above these weights, even above ten pounds if they have large bone structures or are allowed to become overweight. This does not mean that they are not purebred Chihuahuas; they do not meet the requirements to enter a conformation show. Oversized Chihuahuas are seen in some of the best, and worst, bloodlines. Typically the breed standard for both the long and short coat chihuahua will be identical except for the description of the coat.
 Schnauzer ( Standard)
The Standard Schnauzer is the original breed of the three breeds of Schnauzer, and despite its wiry coat and general appearance, is not related to the British terriers. Rather, its origins are in old herding and guard breeds of Europe. Generally classified as a working or utility dog, this versatile breed is a robust, squarely built, medium-sized dog with aristocratic bearing. It has been claimed that it was a popular subject of painters Sir Joshua Reynolds, Albrecht Dürer and Rembrandt, but actual proof remains elusive.Standard Schnauzers are either salt-and-pepper or black in color, and are known for exhibiting many of the "ideal" traits of any breed. These include high intelligence, agility, alertness, reliability, strength and endurance. This breed of dog has been very popular in Europe, specifically Germany where it originated. The breed was first exhibited at a show in Hanover in 1879, and since then have taken top honors in many shows including the prestigious "Best in Show at Westminster Kennel Club" in the United States in 1997.Inside the US and Canada, ears and tail and dewclaws are typically docked as a puppy. Veterinarians or experienced breeders will cut tails and dewclaws between 3 and 7 days of age. Tails are traditionally docked to around three vertebrae. Ear cropping is usually performed at about 10 weeks of age in a veterinary clinic. Many breeders inside North America have begun to crop only those puppies retained for show purposes, or those puppies whose owners request it. There is still somewhat of a bias against natural ears in the North American show ring. However, there is a growing sentiment among breeders and judges that both ear types are equally show-worthy, and many North American show breeders enjoy both cropped and natural eared dogs in their kennels. However, unlike in Europe, the majority of North American breeders believe that the choice of whether to cut ears and/or tails should continue to remain with the breeders and owners. Outside of North America, most Standard Schnauzers retain both their natural ears and tail as docking is now prohibited by law in many countries.The smallest of the working breeds, the Standard schnauzer makes loyal family dog with guardian instincts. Most will protect their home from uninvited visitors with a deep and robust bark. Originally a German farmdog, they adapt well to any climatic condition, including cold winters. In general, they typically are good with children and were once known in Germany as "kinderwachters". If properly trained and socialized early to different ages, races, and temperaments of people, they can be very patient and tolerant in any situation. Like other working dogs, Standard Schnauzers require a fairly strong-willed owner that can be consistent and firm with training and commands.Standard Schnauzers also widely known to be intelligent and easy to train. They have been called "the dog with a human brain", and in Stanley Coren's book The Intelligence of Dogs, they are rated 18th out of 80 breeds on the ability to learn new commands and to obey known commands. Standard Schnauzers are extremely versatile, excelling at dog sports such as agility, obedience, tracking, Disc dog, Flyball and herding. Members of the breed have been used in the last 30 years in the United States as for bomb detection, search and rescue, and skin and lung cancer-detection.Like most working dogs, Standard Schnauzers will be rambunctious until about the age of two; and lots of exercise will keep them busy. Owners must be prepared to mentally and physically stimulate their Schnauzer every day, even into their old age. Like other high-intelligence breeds, a bored Schnauzer is a destructive Schnauzer.According to the Standard Schnauzer Club of America, “The Standard Schnauzer is considered a high-energy dog. They need ample exercise not only for physical well-being, but also for emotional well-being. The minimum amount an adult dog should get is the equivalent of a one long walk a day. This walk should be brisk enough to keep the dog at a steady trotting pace in order to keep the dog in prime physical condition. The Standard Schnauzer puppy is constantly exploring, learning and testing his limits. As adults, they are always ready for a walk in the woods, a ride in the car, a training session or any other activity that allows them to be with their owner. This is a breed that knows how to be on the alert, even when relaxing by the feet of their owner.
 Clumber Spaniel
The Clumber Spaniel is a breed of dog of the spaniel type, developed in the United Kingdom. It is the largest of the spaniels, and comes in predominantly one colour. The name of the breed is taken from Clumber Park in Nottinghamshire. It is a gundog that specialises in hunting in heavy cover. They are gentle and loyal, and can act aloof with strangers. They have several habits which could be considered disadvantages, including a constant shedding of its coat, snoring and the production of excessive drool.The history of the breed is uncertain prior to the mid-19th century with two theories being prevalent. Clumber Spaniels have been kept and bred by various British Monarchs, including Prince Albert, King Edward VII and King George V. They were introduced into Canada in 1844, and in 1884 became one of the first ten breeds recognised by the American Kennel Club. The breed can suffer from a variety of breed-specific ailments varying in severity from temporary lameness due to bone growth whilst young to hip dysplasia or spinal disc herniation.The Clumber Spaniel is the largest of the spaniels, and is long and heavy-bodied, standing only 17 to 20 inches (43 to 51 cm) in height but weighing from 55 to 85 pounds (25 to 39 kg). It is similar in shape to the smaller Sussex Spaniel. The Clumber has a heavy bone structure, has a massive 'melting' head with a mournful and sleepy expression, a square nose and muzzle, and large vine-leaf shaped ears. Freckles on the muzzle and front legs are common. Its coat is dense, weather-resistant, straight, and flat with feathering around the ears, belly and legs. Clumbers are predominantly white in colour with lemon, brown, or orange markings around the eyes, and at the base of the tail
 Scottish Terrier
The Scottish Terrier (also known as the Aberdeen Terrier), popularly called the Scottie, is a breed of dog. Initially one of the highland breeds of Terrier that were grouped under the name of Skye Terrier, it is one of five breeds of terrier that originated in Scotland, the other four being the modern Skye, Cairn, Dandie Dinmont, and West Highland White Terrier. They are an independent and rugged breed with a wiry outer coat and a soft dense undercoat. The Fourth Earl of Dumbarton nicknamed the breed "the diehard." The modern breed is said to be able to trace its lineage back to a single female, named Splinter II.They are a small breed of Terrier with a distinctive shape and have had many roles in popular culture. They have been owned by a variety of celebrities, including the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose Scottie "Fala" is included with FDR in a statue in Washington, DC, as well as the 43rd President George W. Bush. They are also well known for being a playing piece in the board game Monopoly. Described as a territorial, feisty dog, they can make a good watchdog and tend to be very loyal to their family. Healthwise, Scottish Terriers can be more prone to bleeding disorders, joint disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergies, and cancer than some other breeds of dog and there is a condition named after the breed called Scotty cramp. They are also one of the more successful dog breeds at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show with a recent best in show in 2010.
 Dalmatian
The Dalmatian (Croatian: Dalmatinac, Dalmatiner) is a breed of dog whose roots are often said to trace back to Dalmatia, a region of Croatia where the first illustrations of the dog have been found. The Dalmatian is noted for its unique black- or brown-spotted coat and was mainly used as a carriage dog in its early days. Today, this dog remains a well loved family pet and many dog enthusiasts enter their pets into the competitions of many kennel clubs.Dalmatians are a mid-sized, well defined, muscular dog with excellent endurance and stamina. When full grown, these dogs' weight normally ranges between 35 to 70 pounds (16 to 32 kg) and they stand anywhere from 19 to 24 inches (48 to 61 cm), with males usually slightly larger than females. The body is as long from forechest to buttocks as it is tall at the withers, and shoulders are laid back. The Dalmatians' feet are round with well arched toes and nails are usually white or the same color as the dog's spots. Their thin ears taper towards the tip and set fairly high and close to the head. Eye color varies between brown, amber, or blue with some dogs having one blue eye and one brown eye, or other combinations.Dalmatian puppies are born with a plain white coat, and their first spots usually appear within a week after birth. After about a month the Dalmatian has most of its spots although they continue to develop throughout life at a much slower rate. Spots usually range in size of a quarter to a half-dollar and are most commonly black or brown (called liver-spots) on a white background. Other more rare colors include blue (a blue-grayish color), brindle, mosaic, tri-colored (with tan spotting on the eyebrows, cheeks, legs, and chest), and orange or lemon (dark to pale yellow). Patches of color appear anywhere on the body, mostly on the head or ears, and are usually consist of a solid color. A brown liver-spotted Dalmatian.The Dalmatian coat is usually short, fine, and dense although smooth-coated Dalmatians occasionally produce long-coated offspring which shed less often. They shed considerably as well as year-round. The short, stiff hairs often weave into clothing, upholstery and nearly any other kind of fabric and can be difficult to remove. Weekly grooming with a hound mitt or curry can lessen the amount of hair that Dalmatians shed although nothing can completely prevent shedding. Due to the minimal amount of oil in their coat, Dalmatians lack a "dog" smell and stay fairly clean.
 Sealyham Terrier
The Sealyham Terrier is a dog breed, of the terrier type. The Sealyham Terrier was originally developed in Wales.Sealyhams measurements vary by breed standard according to particular countries. In general, the breed should measure between 101?2 up to 12 inches high, measured at the wither, or top of the shoulder blade. Sealyhams should never exceed 12 inches at the withers. They should weigh between 23 and 25 pounds, males being heavier. Length of back should approximate the height. Length of back is measured from the top of the withers to the front edge of the tail. The coat is always white and can come with or without markings in colors including lemon, black, brown, blue, and badger, which is a mix of brown and black. Ticking (speckled markings) on the body is faulted by the UKC, but acceptable in other kennel clubs. Heavy body markings and excessive ticking are discouraged.A Sealyham puppy is normally very active. As the Sealyham matures, it becomes a couch potato, "displaying an even temper and a calm and relaxed attitude". Sealyhams are not busy dogs so it is necessary to manage their weight through calorie management and occasional exercise, such as a daily walk.
 Dobermann Pinscher
The Doberman Pinscher (alternatively spelled Dobermann in many countries) or simply Doberman, is a breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. Dobermann Pinschers are among the most common of pet breeds, and the breed is well known as an intelligent, alert, and loyal companion dog. Although once commonly used as guard dogs or police dogs, this is less common today.[citation needed]In many countries, Dobermann Pinschers are one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media attention (see temperament). Careful breeding has improved the disposition of this breed, and the modern Dobermann Pinscher is an energetic and lively breed suitable for companionship and family life.Kennel club standards describe Doberman Pinschers as dogs of medium size with a square build and short coat. They are compactly built and athletic with endurance and speed. The Doberman Pinscher should have a proud, watchful, determined, and obedient temperament. The dog was originally intended as a guard dog, so males should have a masculine, muscular, noble appearance. Females are thinner, but should not be spindly.Two different color genes exist in the Doberman, one for black and one for color dilution (D). There are nine possible combinations of these allelles (BBDD, BBDd BbDD BbDd, BBdd, Bbdd, bbDD, bbDd, bbdd), which result in four different color phenotypes: black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella). The traditional and most common color occurs when both the color and dilution genes have at least one dominant allele (i.e., BBDD, BBDd, BbDD or BbDd), and is commonly referred to as black or black and rust (also called black and tan). The red, red rust or brown coloration occurs when the black gene has two recessive alleles but the dilution gene has at least one dominant allele (i.e., bbDD, bbDd). "Blue" and "fawn" are controlled by the color dilution gene. The blue Doberman has the color gene with at least one dominant allele and the dilution gene with both recessive alleles (i.e., BBdd or Bbdd). The fawn (Isabella) coloration is the least common, occurring only when both the color and dilution genes have two recessive alleles (i.e., bbdd). Thus, the blue color is a diluted black, and the fawn color is a diluted red.Expression of the color dilution gene is a disorder called Color Dilution Alopecia. Although not life threatening, these dogs can develop skin problems Since 1994 the blue and fawn colors have been banned from breeding by the Dobermann Verein in Germany and under FCI regulations Blue and Fawn are considered disqualifying faults in the international showing.In 1976, a "white" Doberman Pinscher was whelped, and was subsequently bred to her son, who was also bred to his litter sisters. This tight inbreeding continued for some time to allow the breeders to "fix" the mutation. White dobermans are a cream color with pure white markings and icy blue eyes. Although this is consistent with albinism, the proper characterization of the mutation is currently unknown. The animals are commonly known as tyrosinase-positive albinoids, lacking melanin in oculocutaneous structures, but no known mutation has been identified.The Doberman Pinscher's natural tail is fairly long, but individual dogs often have a short tail as a result of docking, a procedure in which the majority of the tail is surgically removed shortly after birth.The practice of docking has been around for centuries, and is older than the Doberman as a breed. The putative reason for docking is to ensure that the tail does not get in the way of the dog's work. Docking has always been controversial. The American Kennel Club standard for Doberman Pinschers includes a tail docked near the 2nd vertebra. Docking is a common practice in North America, Russia and Japan (as well as a number of other countries with Doberman populations), where it is legal. In many European countries, docking has been made illegal, and in others it is limited.Doberman Pinschers will often have their ears cropped, as do many other breeds, a procedure that is functionally related to breed type for both the traditional guard duty and effective sound localization. Like tail docking, ear cropping is illegal in some countries, and in these Doberman Pinschers have natural ears. Doberman Pinscher ear cropping is usually done between 7 and 9 weeks of age. Cropping done after 12 weeks has a low rate of success in getting the ears to stand. Some Doberman Pinscher owners prefer not to have their pet's ears cropped because they are concerned the procedure is painful for the animal.The process involves trimming off part of the animal's ears and propping them up with posts and tape bandages, which allows the cartilage to develop into an upright position as the puppy grows. The incision scabs fall off within a week and stitches are removed a week after that. The puppy will still have the ability to lay the ears back or down. The process of posting the ears generally takes about a month, but longer show crops can take several months. Posting techniques and the associated discomfort vary from one posting technique to the next.In some countries' conformation shows, Doberman Pinschers are allowed to compete with either cropped or natural ears. In Germany a cropped or docked dog cannot be shown regardless of country of origin. Special written exception to this policy does occur when Germany is the location for international eventsAlthough they are considered to be working dogs, Doberman Pinschers are the target of a stereotype of ferocity and aggression. As a personal protection dog, the Doberman was originally bred for these traits: it had to be large and intimidating, fearless and willing to defend its owner, but sufficiently obedient and restrained to only do so on command. These traits served the dog well in its role as a personal defense dog, police dog or war dog, but were not ideally adapted to a companionship role. In recent decades, the Doberman Pinscher's size, short coat, and intelligence made it a desirable house dog. Although these dogs are known for their aggression, they are also extremely loyal. They can easily learn to 'Respect and Protect' their owners.In response, they are excellent guard dogs that protect their loved ones. They are generally sociable towards humans and can be with other dogs, ranking among the more-likely breeds to show aggressive behaviour toward strangers and other dogs but not among the most likely. They are very unlikely to show aggressive behaviour towards their owners, an unlikely behaviour that can only be allowed to grow up in the puppy if the owner doesn't has some previous dog experience. There is evidence that Doberman Pinschers in North America are calmer than their European counterparts because of these breeding strategies. Because of these differences in breeding strategies, different lines of Doberman Pinschers have developed different traits. Although many contemporary Doberman Pinschers in North America are gentle, loyal, loving, and intelligent dogs, some lines are bred more true to the original personality standard.Although the stereotype is largely mistaken, the personality of the Doberman Pinscher is peculiar to the breed. There is a great deal of scientific evidence that Doberman Pinschers have a number of stable psychological traits, such as personality factors and intelligence. As early as 1965, studies have shown that there are several broad behavioral traits that significantly predict behavior and are genetically determined. Subsequently, there have been numerous scientific attempts to quantify canine personality or temperament by using statistical techniques for assessing personality traits in humans. These studies often vary by identifying different personality factors, and by ranking breeds differently along these dimensions. One such study found that Doberman Pinschers, compared to other breeds, rank high in playfulness, average in curiosity/fearlessness, low on aggressiveness and low on sociability. Another such study ranked Doberman Pinschers low on reactivity/surgence, and high on aggression/disagreeableness and openness/trainability.Although they are considered to be working dogs, Doberman Pinschers are the target of a stereotype of ferocity and aggression. As a personal protection dog, the Doberman was originally bred for these traits: it had to be large and intimidating, fearless and willing to defend its owner, but sufficiently obedient and restrained to only do so on command. These traits served the dog well in its role as a personal defense dog, police dog or war dog, but were not ideally adapted to a companionship role. In recent decades, the Doberman Pinscher's size, short coat, and intelligence made it a desirable house dog. Although these dogs are known for their aggression, they are also extremely loyal. They can easily learn to 'Respect and Protect' their owners.In response, they are excellent guard dogs that protect their loved ones. They are generally sociable towards humans and can be with other dogs, ranking among the more-likely breeds to show aggressive behaviour toward strangers and other dogs but not among the most likely. They are very unlikely to show aggressive behaviour towards their owners, an unlikely behaviour that can only be allowed to grow up in the puppy if the owner doesn't has some previous dog experience.There is evidence that Doberman Pinschers in North America are calmer than their European counterparts because of these breeding strategies. Because of these differences in breeding strategies, different lines of Doberman Pinschers have developed different traits. Although many contemporary Doberman Pinschers in North America are gentle, loyal, loving, and intelligent dogs, some lines are bred more true to the original personality standard.Although the stereotype is largely mistaken, the personality of the Doberman Pinscher is peculiar to the breed. There is a great deal of scientific evidence that Doberman Pinschers have a number of stable psychological traits, such as personality factors and intelligence. As early as 1965, studies have shown that there are several broad behavioral traits that significantly predict behavior and are genetically determined. Subsequently, there have been numerous scientific attempts to quantify canine personality or temperament by using statistical techniques for assessing personality traits in humans. These studies often vary by identifying different personality factors, and by ranking breeds differently along these dimensions. One such study found that Doberman Pinschers, compared to other breeds, rank high in playfulness, average in curiosity/fearlessness, low on aggressiveness and low on sociability. Another such study ranked Doberman Pinschers low on reactivity/surgence, and high on aggression/disagreeableness and openness/trainability.Canine intelligence is an umbrella term that encompasses the faculties involved in a wide range of mental tasks, such as learning, problem-solving, and communication. The Doberman Pinscher has ranked amongst the most intelligent of dog breeds in experimental studies and expert evaluations. For instance, Psychologist Stanley Coren ranks the Doberman as the 5th most intelligent dog in the category of obedience command training, based on the selective surveys he performed of some trainers (as documented in his book The Intelligence of Dogs). Additionally, in two studies, Hart and Hart (1985) ranked the Doberman Pinscher first in this category. and Tortora (1980) gave the Doberman the highest rank in trainability,. Although the methods of evaluation differ, these studies consistently show that the Doberman Pinscher, along with the Border Collie, German Shepherd and Standard Poodle, is one of the most trainable breeds of dog.
 Segugio Italiano
The Segugio Italiano is an Italian breed of dog of the scenthound family. It comes in both short-haired and wire-haired varieties. It is thought to be an ancient breed, descended in pre-Roman eras from progenitor scenthounds in ancient Egypt.The Segugio is a square dog, whose length should be equal to its height at the withers. It is fawn-coloured or black and tan. The dogs are 45–52 cm tall at the withers and roughly 20–23 kg in weight. Its determination to track a scent is similar to that of a Bloodhound, but unlike the Bloodhound the Segugio is also interested in the capture and kill of its victim. In 2009 ENCI (the Italian Kennel Club) registered 4,500 specimens of the short-haired variety and 1,740 wire-haired specimens [1], making this one of the top ten breeds in Italy. Its popularity in Italy is due to its outstanding performance as a hunter of game. Although Italians also use other hound breeds, such as Ariegeois, Petit Gascon Santongeois, Porcelaine, Posavatz and Istrian Hounds, the Segugio Italiano has remained the choice of most Italian hunters due to its exceptional abilities. Hunters who hunt hare alone or in small groups find this dog to be ideal. The Segugio Italiano can also hunt larger game, such as wild boar (although it not considered a specialist for this quarry), wild sheep or goats or ungulates of the deer family. The Segugio Italiano works alone or in packs, depending on the quarry. This dog is first and foremost a working dog, and it is rarely kept as only a pet.
 Dogue De Bordeaux
The Dogue de Bordeaux, Bordeaux Mastiff or French Mastiff or Bordeauxdog is a breed of dog that is strong, powerful, and imposing. The Dogue de Bordeaux is one of the most ancient French breeds. They are a typical brachycephalic molossoid type. Bordeaux are very powerful dogs, with a very muscular body yet retaining a harmonious temperament. The breed has been utilized in many different forms, from using their brawn to pull carts or haul heavy objects, to guarding flocks and used to protect castles of the European elite.Dogue de Bordeaux, also called French Mastiff or Bordeaux Bulldog, is lower to the ground than it is long, and is a well muscled and stocky Molosser breed with a heavy, broad head.The breed standards by European FCI and the American Kennel Club specify a minimum weight of 100 lbs for a female and 115 lbs for a male. There is no formally stated maximum weight but dogs must be balanced with regard to their overall type and the conformation standards of the breed.The standard states that the desirable height, at maturity, should range between 23½ inches to 27 inches (58-67.5 cm) for male dogs and from 22½ inches to 25½ inches (57 cm-65 cm) for females. Deviation from these margins is considered a fault.The massive head is a crucial breed characteristic. The Dogue de Bordeaux is claimed to have the largest head in the canine world, in proportion to the rest of the body. For males the circumference of the head, measured at the widest point of the skull, is roughly equal to the dog's height at the withers (shoulders). For females the circumference may be slightly less. When viewed from the front or from above, the head of the Dogue forms a trapezoid shape with the longer top-line of the skull, and the shorter line of the underjaw, forming the parallel sides of the trapezoid. The jaw is undershot and powerful. The Dogue should always have a black or red mask that can be distinguished from the rest of the coat around and under the nose, including the lips and eye rims. The muzzle should be at most 1/3 the total length of the head and no shorter than 1/4 the length of the head, the ideal being between the two extremes. The upper lips hang thickly down over the lower jaw. The skin on the neck is loose, forming a noticeable dewlap, but should not be excessive like that of a Neapolitan Mastiff. Small pendant ears top the head, but should not be long and houndy.The Dogue de Bordeaux is even-tempered, protective by nature, and is vigilant but without aggressiveness. Dogues de Bordeaux are extremely attached and devoted to their family. They are calm and balanced with high stimulus thresholds. The Dogue is intelligent and can also be stubborn, arrogant, and dominant. Early socialization for this breed is an absolute must.
 Shar Pei
The Shar Pei, or Chinese Shar-Pei, is a breed of dog known for its distinctive features of deep wrinkles and a blue-black tongue. The breed comes from China. The name (??, pinyin: sh? pí; English name probably derived from British spelling of the Cantonese equivalent, s? pèih) translates to "sand skin" and refers to the texture of its short, rough coat. As puppies, Shar Pei have numerous wrinkles, but as they mature, these wrinkles disappear as they "grow into their skin". Shar Pei were in 1978 named as the world's rarest dog breeds by Time magazine and the Guinness Book of World Records, and the American Kennel Club did not recognize the breed until 1991.Small, triangular ears, a muzzle shaped like that of a hippopotamus, and a high-set tail also give the Shar Pei a unique look. For show standard, "the tail is thick and round at the base, tapering to a fine point" (AKC standard February 28, 1998).The Shar Pei is often suspicious of strangers, which pertains to their origin as a guard dog. In general, the breed has proved itself to be a loving, devoted family dog. They are also a very independent and reserved breed. Nevertheless, the Shar Pei is extremely devoted, loyal and affectionate to its family and is amenable to accepting strangers given time and proper introduction at a young age. If poorly socialized or trained, it can become especially territorial and aggressive. Even friendly and well-socialized individuals will retain the breed's watch dog proclivities (such as barking at strangers). It is a largely silent breed, barking only when playing or when worried. The Shar Pei were originally bred as palace guards in China. This breed is also very protective of its home and family, a powerful dog that is willing to guard its family members. The breed is amenable to training but can get bored from repetition. Overall, the Shar Pei is a dog that is loyal and loving to its family while being very protective and independent
 English Cocker Spaniel
The English Cocker Spaniel is a breed of gun dog. The English Cocker Spaniel is an active, good-natured, sporting dog, standing well up at the withers and compactly built. There are "field" or "working" cockers and "show" cockers. It is one of several varieties of spaniel and somewhat resembles its American cousin, the American Cocker Spaniel, although it is closer to the working-dog form of the Field Spaniel and the Springer Spaniel.Outside the US, the breed is usually known simply as the Cocker Spaniel, as is the American Cocker Spaniel within the US. Due to the breed's happy disposition and continuously wagging tail, it has been given the cute nickname "merry cocker". They can be also dominant and loyal to their companion. Their health issues are typical for a purebred dog breed; however they are closely associated with rage syndrome even though cases are really quite rare. The word cocker is commonly held to stem from their use to hunt woodcock.Spaniel type dogs have been found in art and literature for almost 500 years. Initially, spaniels in England were divided among land spaniels and water spaniels. The differentiation among the spaniels that led to the breeds that we see today did not begin until the mid-19th century. During this time, the land spaniels became a bit more specialised and divisions among the types were made based upon weight. According to the 1840 Encyclopedia of Rural Sports, Cockers were 12–20 lb (5.5–9 kg). At this time it was not uncommon for Cockers and Springers to come from the same litter. Even a puppy from a “Toy” sized lineage could grow to be a springer.There is no indication from these early sources that spaniels were used to retrieve game. Rather they were used to drive the game toward the guns.During the 1850s and 1860s, other types of Cockers were recorded. There were Welsh Cockers and Devonshire Cockers. Additionally, small dogs from Sussex Spaniel litters were called Cockers. In 1874 the first stud books were published by the newly formed kennel club. Any spaniel under 25 lb (11 kg) was placed in the Cocker breeding pool, however the Welsh Cocker was reclassified as a Springer in 1903 due to its larger size and shorter ear. "...in those days only those dogs up to a hard day’s work and sensible specimens were allowed to live, as absolute sporting purposes were about their only enjoyment and dog shows were hardly heard of..." Cocker Spaniel circa 1915The sport of conformation showing began in earnest among spaniels after the Spaniel Club was formed in 1885. When showing, the new Springer and Cocker, both were in the same class until The Spaniel Club created breed standards for each of the types. The Kennel Club separated the two types eight years later. Since then, the Springer and Cocker enthusiasts have bred in the separate traits that they desired. Today, the breed differ in more ways than weight alone.At Crufts, the English Cocker Spaniel has been the most successful breed in winning Best in Show, winning on a total of seven occasions between 1928 and 2009, with wins in 1930, 1931, 1938, 1939, 1948, 1950 and 1996. In addition, the breed make up three of the four winners who have won the title on more than one occasion with all three coming from H.S. Lloyd's Ware kennel. Due to World War II, the English Cocker Spaniel managed to be the only breed to have won the title between 1938 and 1950, although the competition was only held on four occasions during that period. The most recent best in show was Sh. Ch. Canigou Cambrai in 1996.[The English Cocker Spaniel can be stubborn, but can be easily trained and make a good medium-sized family pet. The breed does not like being alone, and will bond strongly to an individual person in a family. Known for optimism, intelligence and adaptability, the breed is extremely loyal and affectionate. They rank 18th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of excellent working/obedience intelligence.A link between coat colour and temperament has been proposed. This link could be the colour pigment melanin, which is biochemically similar to chemicals that act as transmitters in the brain. A study made by the University of Cambridge involving over 1,000 Cocker Spaniel households throughout Britain concluded that solid colour Cockers were more likely to be aggressive in 12 out of 13 situations. Red/golden Cockers were shown to be the most aggressive of all, in situations involving strangers, family members, while being disciplined, and sometimes for no apparent reason. A study by Spanish researchers at the Autonomous University of Barcelona revealed a similar link between golden Cockers and aggression. Males were also more likely to be aggressive. The study found the English Cocker Spaniel to have the highest level of owner- and stranger- directed aggression compared to other breeds.
 Shetland Sheepdog
The Shetland Sheepdog, often known as the Sheltie, is a breed of herding dog.They are small to medium dogs, and come in a variety of colors, such as sable/white, tri-color, and blue merle. They are vocal, excitable, energetic dogs who are always willing to please and work hard. They are partly derived from dogs used in the Shetland Isles for herding and protecting sheep.The breed was formally recognized by the Kennel Club in 1909.The Shetland Sheepdog's early history is not well-known. They were originally a small mixed-breed dog, often 8–10 inches (200–250 mm) in height and it is thought that the original Shetland herding dogs were of Spitz type, and were crossed with collie-type sheepdogs from mainland Britain. In the early 20th century, James Loggie added a small Rough Collie to the breeding stock, and helped establish what would become the modern Shetland sheepdog. The original name of the breed was "Shetland Collie", but this caused controversy among Rough Collie breeders at the time, so the breed's name was formally changed to Shetland Sheepdog.The general appearance of the Sheltie is that of a miniature Rough Collie. They are a small, double coated, working dog, agile and sturdy. Blue merle and the undesirable white Shelties may have blue eyes, but all others have dark coloured eyes. Their expression should be that of alertness with a gentle and sometimes reserved nature. They carry their tail down low, only lifted when alert and never carried over the back. They are an intensly loyal breed, sometimes reserved with strangers but should not be shy or showing timidness as per the AKC breed standard.Shelties normally weigh around 5–14 kilograms (11–31 lb)[citation needed]. In general males are taller and heavier than females. Accepted height ranges may differ depending on country and standard used. In the USA and Canada, breed standards state that males and females can be between 33–41 centimetres (13–16 in), all other standards (Australia, New Zealand and U.K.) specify Males: 37 cm ± 2½ cm, Females: 35.5 cm ± 2½ cm except F.C.I. which specifies Females: 36 cm ± 2½ cm at the shoulder (withers), however, some shelties can be found outside of these ranges but are not considered truly representative of the breed.The Shetland sheepdog is lively, intelligent, playful, trainable, and willing to please and obey. They are loving, loyal, and affectionate with their family, but are naturally aloof with strangers; for this reason Shelties must be socialized. The Shetland Sheepdog Standard from the AKC allows them to be reserved to strangers, but they should not show fear. Shelties do well with children if they are reared with them from an early age; however, their small size makes it easy for a child to accidentally injure them, so supervision is necessary. Shelties are vocal dogs.The average Sheltie is an excellent watch dog.The herding instinct is strong in many Shelties. They love to chase and herd things, including squirrels, ducks, children, and if an owner is not watchful, cars. Shelties love to run in wide-open areas. They do well with a sensitive, attentive owner. Neglecting a Sheltie's need for exercise and intellectual stimulation can result in undesirable behaviors, including excessive barking, phobias, and nervousness. Fortunately, the reverse is also true; annoying behaviors can be lessened greatly by an hour of exercise that engages the dog with its owner.Shelties have a high level of intelligence. According to Dr. Stanley Coren, an expert on animal intelligence, the Shetland sheepdog is one of the brightest dogs, ranking 6th out of 132 breeds tested. His research found that an average Sheltie could understand a new command in less than 5 repetitions and would obey a command the first time it was given 95% of the time or better.
 English Toy Terrier
The English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) is a small breed of terrier in the toy dog group.According to the Kennel Club, the English Toy Terrier should be 25–30 cm (10–12 in) in height and 2.7–3.6 kg (6–8 lb) in weight. The only permitted color is black with defined tan markings on the legs, chest and face. The movement is described as being like the extended trot of a horse.The ETT is on the UK Kennel Club's list of vulnerable native breeds and great effort is being made to boost the popularity of the breed and develop a viable gene pool. The Kennel Club (UK) has opened the stud book, allowing the North American Toy Manchester Terrier to be re-registered as English Toy Terrier (Black & Tan) provided it is certified to be a Toy and not of the Standard variety. Some owners in Great Britain are against this decision; others see it as a positive way to preserve the breed.
 Shih Tzu
The Shih Tzu ( /??i?tsu?/ sheet-soo; Mandarin: [???ts?]) is a breed of dog weighing 4–7.25 kilograms (8.8–16.0 lb) with long silky hair. The breed originated in China and is among the earliest breeds. Shih Tzu were officially recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1969. The name is both singular and plural.Shih Tzu (simplified Chinese: ???; traditional Chinese: ???; pinyin: Sh?zi G?u; Wade–Giles: Shih-tzu Kou; literally "Lion Dog"), is the Chinese name rendered according to the Wade-Giles system of romanization in use when the breed was first introduced in America; the Chinese pronunciation is approximately shirr-ts?. The name translates as Lion Dog, so named because the dog was bred to resemble "the lion as depicted in traditional oriental art," such as the Chinese guardian lions. The Shih Tzu is also often known as the "Xi Shi quan" (???), based on the name of Xi Shi, regarded as the most beautiful woman of ancient China, and, less often, the Chrysanthemum Dog, a nickname coined in England in the 1930s. The dog may also be called the Tibetan Lion Dog, but whether or not the breed should be referred to as a Tibetan or Chinese breed is a source of argument, the absolute answer to which "may never be known".A small dog with a short muzzle and large deep dark eyes, with a soft long, double coat, the Shih Tzu stands no more than 26.7 cm (101?2 in.) at the withers and with an ideal weight of 4.5 to 7.3 kg (10 to 16 lbs). Drop ears are covered with long fur, and the heavily furred tail is carried curled over the back. The coat may be of any color, although a blaze of white on the forehead and tail-tip is frequently seen. The Shih Tzu is slightly longer than tall, and dogs ideally should carry themselves "with distinctly arrogant carriage." A very noticeable feature is the underbite, which is required in the breed standard.The traditional long silky glossy coat that reaches the floor requires daily brushing to avoid tangles. Because of their long coat and fast growing hair, regular grooming is necessary which may be a costly expense and should be considered when looking at this breed. Often the coat is clipped short to simplify care, in a "puppy clip". For conformation showing, the coat must be left in its natural state, although trimming for neatness around the feet and anus is allowed.
 Entlebucher Mountain Dog
The Entlebucher Sennenhund or Entlebucher Mountain Dog is the smallest of the four Sennenhunds, a dog type that includes four regional breeds. The name Sennenhund refers to people called Senn, herders in the Swiss Alps. Entlebuch is a municipality in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The breed is also known in English as the Entelbuch Mountain Dog, Entelbucher Cattle Dog, and similar combinations.All of the Sennenhund breeds are believed to be descended from large molossers brought to Switzerland by the Romans in the first century B.C. However, the Entlebucher was only described as a separate breed in 1889, although for many years little distinction was made between the Appenzeller Sennenhund and the Entlebucher Sennenhund. In 1913, four bobtail Entlebucher Sennenhund were shown to Albert Heim, an advocate for the increasingly rare Sennenhund breeds. The breed was entered into the Swiss Kennel Club stud book, but World War I intervened, and at first after the war no examples of the breed could be found. The first breed club was not formed until 1926, sixteen dogs of the type were found in 1927, and the breed slowly was restored. Although originally kept for guarding and herding, today the breed is usually kept as a lively companion.The Entlebucher Sennenhund is a square, sturdy, medium-sized dog. It has small, triangular ears and rather small brown eyes. The head is well proportioned to the body, with a strong flat skull. The long jaw is well formed and powerful. The feet are compact supporting its muscular body. The smooth coat is close and harsh with symmetrical markings of black, tan, and white. This tricolor coat has white on its toes, tail-tip, chest and blaze; the tan always lies between the black and the white. It has muscular broad hips. The hocks are naturally well angled. The tail is sometimes docked, a practice which is now prohibited by law in many countries, or it may have a natural bobtail. Height at the withers is 19-20 ins (48–50 cm) and weight is 45-65 lbs (20.5–30 kg).As with all large, active working dogs, this breed should be well socialized early in life with other dogs and people, and be provided with regular activity and training. Temperament of individual dogs may vary, the Standard says that the breed is "Good-natured and devoted towards people familiar to him, slightly suspicious of strangers
 Smooth Fox Terrier
The Smooth Fox Terrier is a breed of dog, one of many terrier breeds. It was the first breed in the fox terrier family to be given official recognition by The Kennel Club (circa 1875; breed standard 1876). It is well known, and although not a widely popular breed today outside of hunting and show circles, it is extremely significant due to the large number of terriers believed descended from it.The Smooth Fox Terrier is a balanced, well-proportioned terrier with a distinctive head that has a tapering muzzle, fiery dark eyes, and folded v-shaped ears set well up on the head, but not prick. It is a sturdy dog in that it is well-muscled and exhibits endurance, but should not appear in any way coarse or cloddy.The male Fox terrier is tame but it will also respond to your commands. Shoulder height of a male Smooth Fox Terrier should be no taller than 15.5" with females proportionally less, and a male in show condition should weigh approximately 18 lbs.The tail should be set well up on the back and be straight or slightly curved, but not carried over the back or curled like an Akita's.Its coat is hard, flat, and abundant. This breed does shed somewhat. In color they should be predominantly white—some are even all white—but typically have markings of black and tan. Red, liver, or brindle are objectionable and disqualifying faults in the show ring. Heads are usually solid colored, but a variety of white markings are permissible, including half or split faces, blazes, or color only over the eyes and/or ears. It is commonly tri-colored.Smooth Fox Terriers make excellent family pets. Because this is an intelligent and active breed, they must be kept exercised, and interested, and a part of the family. They are affectionate and playful. They have well-developed hunting instincts. Left to their own devices and deprived of human companionship, undesirable behaviour may be exhibited, including chasing of small animals, or escaping if ignored.
 Eurasier
The Eurasier, sometimes referred to as Eurasian, is a breed of dog of spitz type that originated in Germany. It is widely known as a wonderful companion that maintains its own personality, has a dignified reserve to strangers, a strong bond to its family and that is relatively easy to train.The Eurasier is a balanced, well-constructed, medium-sized Spitz (Spitzen) type dog with prick ears. It comes in different colors: fawn, red, wolf-grey, solid black, and black and tan. All color combinations are allowed, except for pure white, white patches, and liver color. Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) standards call for the Eurasier to have a thick undercoat and medium-long, loosely lying guard hair all over the body, with a short coat on the muzzle, face, ears, and front legs. The tail and the back of the front legs (feathers) and hind legs (breeches) should be covered with long hair. The coat on the Eurasier's neck should be slightly longer than on the body, but not forming a mane. The breed may have a pink, blue-black or spotted tongue.The male has a height of 52 to 60 cm (20-23.5 inches) at the withers and weighs approximately 23 to 32 kg (50-70 lb).The female has a height of 48 to 56 cm (19-22 inches) at the withers and weighs anywhere from 18 to 26 kg (40-57 lb).Eurasiers are calm, even-tempered dogs. They are watchful and alert, yet reserved towards strangers without being timid or aggressive. From Chow Chows, the Euraiser gets the affectionate teddy bear personality. Eurasiers form a strong link to their families. For the full development of these qualities, the Eurasier needs constant close contact with its family, combined with understanding, yet consistent, training. They are extremely sensitive to harsh words or discipline and respond best to soft reprimand. The Eurasier is a combination of the best qualities of the Chow Chow, the Wolfspitz, and the Samoyed (dog), resulting in a dignified, intelligent breed.Eurasiers were bred as companion dogs; as such they do poorly in a kennel environment such as those commonly used for institutionally trained service dogs, nor are they well suited for the social stresses of working as a sled or guard dog. Training should always be done through family members, not through strangers or handlers. Eurasiers should never be restricted to only a yard, kennel, crate, or chained up. They would pine and become depressed. Within these limitations, Eurasiers can work very well as service or therapy dogs. This breed enjoys all kinds of activities, especially if the activities involve their family. Eurasiers are calm and quiet indoors, outdoors they are lively and enjoy action. Eurasiers rarely bark but if they do, they usually have a good reason.
 Staffordshire Bull Terrier
The Staffordshire Bull Terrier (informally: Staffie, Stafford, Staffy or Staff) is a medium-sized, short-coated, old-time breed of dog. It is an English dog, where it is the 5th most popular breed, and related to the bull terrier.The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a medium-sized, stocky, and very muscular dog with athletic ability, with a similar appearance to the American Staffordshire terrier and American pit bull terriers sharing the same ancestor. They have a broad head, defined occipital muscles, a relatively short foreface, dark round eyes and a wide mouth with a clean scissor-like bite (the top incisors slightly overlap the bottom incisors). The ears are small. The cheek muscles are very pronounced. Their lips show no looseness. From above, the head loosely resembles a triangle. The head tapers down to a strong well-muscled neck and shoulders placed on squarely spaced forelimbs. They are tucked up in their loins and the last 1-2 ribs of their ribcage are usually visible. Their tail resembles an old fashioned pump handle. Their hind quarters are well-muscled and are what give the Stafford drive when baiting. They are coloured brindle, black, red, fawn, blue, white, or any blending of these colors with white. White with any other colour broken up over the body is known as pied. Liver-colored and black and tan dogs can occur but are rare and not desirable due to it being believed having a different terrier mixed into it resulting in this colour. The coat is smooth and clings tightly to the body giving the dog a streamlined appearance.The dogs stand 36 to 42 cm (14 to 17 in) at the withers and weigh 14 to 18 kg (31 to 40 lb) for males; bitches are 11 to 15.4 kg (24 to 34 lb).Although individual differences in personality exist, common traits exist throughout the Staffords. Due to its breeding, the modern dog is known for its character of indomitable courage, high intelligence, and tenacity. This, coupled with its affection for its friends, its off-duty quietness and trustworthy stability, make it a foremost all-purpose dog. It has been said that "No breed is more loving with its family" It is the only breed to have the words 'totally reliable' in its breed standard. Furthermore, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier is one of only two breeds from over 190 recognized by the UK Kennel Club to have a mention of the breed's suitability with children.[citation needed]The breed is naturally muscular and may appear intimidating; however, because of their natural fondness for people, most Staffords are temperamentally ill-suited for guard or attack-dog training. Staffordshire Bull Terrier puppies are very easy to house train
 Field Spaniel
The Field Spaniel is a medium-sized breed dog of the spaniel type. They were originally developed to be all black show dogs in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and were unpopular for work as a hunting dog. However during the mid 20th century they were redeveloped as a longer legged dog that was more suitable to be used for field work. They are now considered to be a rare breed, and are registered as a Vulnerable Native Breed by The Kennel Club.Their fur is lighter than other spaniels and have no undercoat. Their coats come mostly in solid colours with some occasional markings on the chest. They can make good family dogs and are patient with children, but can require some sort of The standard size for a Field Spaniel is 17–18 inches (43–46 cm) tall at the withers, and a weight of between 40–55 pounds (18–25 kg). This places it roughly between the English Cocker Spaniel and the English Springer Spaniel in size. Its long, silky coat comes in solid colours of black, liver, or roan. Tan points, white markings on the throat and the chest can be ticked or the same colour as the rest of the body.They have a moderately long single coat with no undercoat. Feathering of the fur appears on the chest, belly, ears and on the back of the legs. The coat is not as heavy as that of a Cocker Spaniel but will require grooming in order to prevent mats from appearing in the fur.The Field Spaniel can be a good family dog while it has a job to do. They are suitable for dog agility and hunting. Without some sort of purpose, the dog can often try to amuse itself and cause mischief. However, they are patient with children and like to stay close to their family. When socialised, they are good with other dogs. They are generally docile and independent, and are not as excitable as Cocker Spaniels. Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs lists the breed as being above average in working intelligence.
 Sussex Spaniel
The Sussex Spaniel is a breed of dog developed in Sussex in southern England. It is a low, compact spaniel and is similar in appearance to the Clumber Spaniel. They can be slow paced, but can have a clownish and energetic temperament. They suffer from health conditions common to spaniels and some large dogs, as well as a specific range of heart conditions and spinal disc herniation.First bred in 1795 in Hastings, East Sussex for specific hunting conditions, they nearly became extinct during the Second World War. They are now more popular in the United States than any other country and are recognised by all major kennel clubs. Notably, a Sussex Spaniel won the best in show in 2009 at the 133rd Westminster Kennel Club.The Sussex Spaniel is a low compact spaniel similar in appearance to a small, dark Clumber Spaniel. It is normally no taller than 13–15 in (33–38 cm) at the withers and the usual weight range is between 35–45 lb (16–20 kg) with a roughly rectangular appearance. The Clumber Spaniel meanwhile is normally between 17–20 in (43–51 cm) high at the shoulder, and weighing 55–85 lb (25–39 kg).One of the noticeable features is their golden liver-coloured coat which is unique to the breed. Historically however, there have also been examples of both black and sandy coloured Sussex Spaniels. The coat is thick (sometimes with a slight wave to it), feathering on the chest, legs and ears and consists of a weather resistant undercoat with a silky outer coat. The eyes are hazel in colour. The silky ears are lobe-shaped typical of the Spaniel, and set moderately low.The Sussex Spaniel is a slow paced, calm breed with somewhat clownish behaviour that normally keeps his energy and enthusiasm in check. He is always eager to be around people, is excellent around children, and can be quite protective of the family. They make excellent candidates for therapy dog work. Most Sussex Spaniels are primarily family pets, but they are competent enough to aid a hunter though quite stubborn to train. They tend to have a natural ability to quarter in the field, have excellent noses, and can be used to retrieve, given training. The breed is the only spaniel to howl once a game's scent is picked up.
 Finnish Lapphund
The Finnish Lapphund is a hardy, easy going, medium-size breed of Spitz type. Traditionally it has been used for herding reindeer. Although it is one of the most popular dog breeds in its native country, Finland, it is not very numerous outside of the Nordic countries.The Finnish Lapphund is a medium sized, strongly built dog. It is slightly longer than it is high at the withers. It has a profuse coat with pricked, highly mobile ears. It usually has long hair, and a bit of a long snout.The breed standard is 46 to 52 centimetres (18 to 20 in) at the withers for a male, and a slightly smaller 41 to 47 centimetres (16 to 19 in) for a female. However, some variation is allowed, since the breed standard states that the type is more important than the size.A typical male of 49 cm height normally weighs 17 to 19 kilograms (37 to 42 lb), but the breed has a weight range of 15–24 kg 15 to 24 kilograms (33 to 53 lb), depending on size of the dog.The Finnish Lapphund is a very intelligent and active breed. Finnish Lapphunds take well to training due to their intelligence. Some owners and fanciers claim that "Lappies" even have the ability to think through actions first. Although small in number worldwide, a noticeable number of Finnish Lapphunds have excelled in activities such as obedience trials, agility, herding trials, and pet therapy.The breed is friendly and alert, and makes a good watch dog, due to its tendency to bark at unfamiliar things. The breed was originally used to herd reindeer by droving, and barking helped it to be distinguished from wolves. Even when not herding, the Finnish Lapphund tends to bark with a purpose, and more rare cases of problem barking can normally be controlled by training.The breed makes the ideal outdoor companion. It is active, cold-proof, and water-proof, and will gladly accompany people on walking or running trips. It is one of two breeds permitted to live outdoors in Finland.Lappies are ideal choice for a family with small children. This is a very friendly breed and it normally avoids and flees from threatening situations. The breed is very curious, however, so some watching after them is necessaryIn Finland, at least two dogs have won national championships for obedience (Obedience Champion Hiidenparran Tielkka and Fin and Nordic Obedience Ch Kettuharjun Elle, both owned and trained by Rauno Nisula).Finnish Lapphunds are also suitable for agility. In the UK, Elbereth Taika has been awarded an agility warrant, and has represented England at the 2005 Kennel Club Nations cup, where she achieved a second place.The breed adapts well to family life, including being responsive to children. Finnish Lapphunds have a gentle nature with children, people with disabilities, and the elderly.
 Tibetan Mastiff
The Tibetan Mastiff (Do-khyi) is an ancient breed and type of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) originating with nomadic cultures of Central Asia.Currently, some breeders differentiate between two "types" of Tibetan Mastiff: The Do-khyi and the "Tsang-khyi". The "Tsang-khyi" (which, to a Tibetan, means only "dog from Tsang") is also referred to as the "monastery type", described as generally taller, heavier, more heavily boned, with more facial wrinkling and haw than the "Do-khyi" or "nomad type". Both "types" are often produced in the same litter.Males can reach heights up to 31+ inches (80+cm) at the withers, although the standard for the breed is typically in the 25 to 28 inch (61 to 72 cm) range. The heaviest TM on record may be one weighing over 130 kg (286.6 Lbs)[citation needed] but dogs bred in the West are more typically between 140 lb (64 kg) to 180 lb (82 kg)—especially if they are in good condition and not overweight. The enormous dogs being produced in some Western and some Chinese kennels would have "cost" too much to keep fed to have been useful to nomads; and their questionable structure would have made them well-nigh useless as livestock guardians.The Tibetan Mastiff is considered a primitive breed. It typically retains the instincts which would be required for it to survive in Tibet, including canine pack behaviour. In addition, it is one of the few primitive dog breeds that retains a single oestrus per year instead of two, even at much lower altitudes and in much more temperate climates than its native climate. This characteristic is also found in wild canids such as the wolf. Since its oestrus usually takes place during late fall, most Tibetan Mastiff puppies are born between December and January. Tibetan Mastiff at an international dog show in Poland.Its double coat is long, subject to climate, and found in a wide variety of colors, including solid black, black & tan, various shades of gold / "blonde", blue/gray, chocolate brown, red, the rarest being solid white.The coat of a Tibetan Mastiff lacks the unpleasant "big-dog smell" that affects many large breeds. The coat, whatever its length or color(s), should shed dirt and odors. Although the dogs shed somewhat throughout the year, there is generally one great "molt" in late winter or early spring and sometimes another, lesser molt in the late summer or early fall. (Sterilization of the dog or bitch may dramatically affect the coat as to texture, density, and shedding pattern.)Tibetan Mastiffs are shown under one standard in the West, but separated by the Indian breed standard into two varieties:[citation needed] Lion Head (smaller; exceptionally long hair from forehead to withers, creating a ruff or mane) and Tiger Head (larger; shorter hair).The native type of dog, which still exists in Tibet and the Himalayas (in Bhutan, Nepal, and North India), and the Westernized purebred breed can vary in temperament—but so can dogs of identical breeding, within the same litter, raised in the same household. Elizabeth Schuler states, "The few individuals that remain in Tibet are ferocious and aggressive, unpredictable in their behavior, and very difficult to train. But the dogs bred by the English are obedient and attached to their masters." However, other observers have found the dogs remaining in Tibet to be quite approachable under the right circumstances—and some Western-bred dogs to be completely unapproachable.Some Western and Asian breeders are seeking to create a replica of the legendary dog which they identify as the "true Tibetan Mastiff" or "Tsang-khyi". Some breeders appear to select primarily for appearance (great size, profuse coat, heavy wrinkling, jowls, haw) while others also select for "soft" temperament (in the West) and fierce temperament (in Asia where the dogs' "ferocity" is much vaunted and encouraged).As a flock guardian dog in Tibet and in the West, it is tenacious in its ability to confront predators the size of wolves and leopards. As a socialized, more domestic dog, it can thrive in a spacious, fenced yard with a canine companion, but it is generally not an appropriate dog for apartment living. The Western-bred dogs are generally more easy-going, although somewhat aloof with strangers coming to the home. Through hundreds of years of selective breeding for a protective flock and family guardian, the breed has been prized for being a nocturnal sentry, keeping would-be predators and intruders at bay, barking at sounds throughout the night. Leaving a Tibetan Mastiff outside all night with neighbors nearby is not recommended. They often sleep during the day to be more active, alert and aware at night.Like all flock guardian breeds, they are intelligent and stubborn to a fault, so obedience training is recommended (although only mildly successful with some individuals) since this is a strong-willed, powerful breed. Socialization is also critical with this breed because of their reserved nature with strangers and guardian instincts. They are excellent family dogs—for the right family. Owners must understand canine psychology and be willing and able to assume the primary leadership position. Lack of consistent, rational discipline can result in the creation of dangerous, unpredictable dogs (although this is true of virtually every dog breed).Newspaper reports have suggested that a pair of these Mastiffs have killed tigers while guarding sheep in the highlands of Nepal.
 Finnish Spitz
A Finnish Spitz (Finnish language: Suomenpystykorva) is a breed of dog originating in Finland. The breed was originally bred to hunt all types of game from squirrels and other rodents to bears. It is a "bark pointer", indicating the position of game by barking to attract the hunter's attention. Its original game hunting purpose was to point to game that fled into trees, such as grouse, and capercaillies, but it also serves well for hunting moose and elk. Some individuals have even been known to go after a bear. In its native country, the breed is still mostly used as a hunting dog. The breed is friendly and in general loves children, so it is suitable for domestic life. The Finnish Spitz has been the national dog of Finland since 1979.The Finnish Spitz resembles a fox. The proper conformation is a square build, meaning that the length of the body is the same or slightly shorter than the height of the withers to the ground. The length of the body is measured from the point of the shoulder or forechest in front of the withers to the rump. Females are usually a little longer in the back than males. Both sexes should appear slightly longer in the leg than the back.Dew claws can appear on front and/or back feet. If back claws appear, they should be removed. The front dewclaws can be removed, but they generally are not since they are usually small.Males: 17½ to 20 inches (44.5 to 50.8 cm)Females: 15½ to 18 inches (39.4 to 45.7 cm)Weight:Males: 47-53 lb (21–24 kg)Females: 40-47 lb (18–21 kg)This breed is active, alert and lively. They need one or two long walks each day and will be fairly inactive indoors. This breed will not adapt well to a strictly kenneled living situation; they need a balance of outdoor exercise and indoor play time with the family.Finnish Spitzes are considered to interact well with people and they are especially good with children. They are always ready to play with children but if ignored, they will usually walk away. As with all dogs, young children and dogs should always be supervised when together. It is an independent breed and will be attached to its family while remaining aloof with strangers. The Finnish Spitz tends to be protective; males have more domineering traits than females.Most Finnish Spitzes get along well with other dogs in the home. They are bred as a hunting dog and thus are unreliable around small animals, but on an individual basis may live well with cats.
 Poodle (Toy)
Most poodles have a curly, non-shedding coat that requires regular grooming. Since poodles do not have the plush double coat of many breeds, their fur is often referred to as "hair", a term usually reserved for humans. Most poodles are solid-colored, and many registries allow only solid colors in conformation shows. Poodles come in a wide variety of solid colors including white, black, blue, gray, silver, brown, cafe-au-lait, apricot, red and cream. "Parti" (short for parti-colored) poodles have large patches of colors different from the main body color. "Phantom" poodles have tan points, a pattern similar to that of a Doberman Pinscher or Rottweiler.Unlike most breeds, poodles can come in a variety of sizes, distinguished by adult shoulder (withers) height. The exact height cutoffs among the varieties vary slightly from country to country. Non-F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale kennel clubs generally recognize three sizes, standard, miniature, and toy, sometimes as sizes of the same breed, and sometimes as separate breeds. The F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale recognizes four sizes of one breed, standard, medium, miniature, and toy. Only the F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale describes a maximum size for standard poodles. France is the country responsible for the breed in the F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale, and in this country the puppies of all sizes are listed together. The terms royal standard, teacup, and tiny teacup are marketing names, and are not recognized by any major kennel club.Comparison of poodle sizes defined by major kennel clubs Size The Kennel Club (UK) Australian National Kennel Council New Zealand Kennel Club Canadian Kennel Club American Kennel Club United Kennel Club F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale Standard, Grande over 38 cm (15 ins) 38 cm (15 ins) and over 38 cm (15 ins) and over over 15 inches (38 cm) over 15 inches (38 cm) over 15 inches (38 cm) over 45 cm to 60 cm (+2 cm) (18ins to 24ins) Medium, Moyen not used not used not used not used not used not used over 35 cm to 45 cm (14ins to 18ins) Miniature - Dwarf, Nain 28 cm to 38 cm (11ins to 15ins) 28 cm to under 38 cm (11ins to 15ins) 28 cm to under 38 cm (11ins to 15ins) over 10ins to under 15ins (25.4 cm to 38 cm) over 10ins to 15ins (25.4 cm to 38 cm) over 10ins up to 15ins (25.4 cm to 38 cm) over 28 cm to 35 cm (11ins to 14ins) Toy under 28 cm (11 ins) under 28 cm (11 ins) under 28 cm (11 ins) under 10ins (25.4 cm) under 10ins (25.4 cm) under 10ins (25.4 cm) 24 cm to 28 cm (9.4ins to 11ins) Otherwise notable is this breed's keen sense for instinctual behavior. In particular, marking and hunting drives are more readily observable than in most other breeds. Even Toys will point birds. Classified as highly energetic, poodles can also get bored fairly easily and have been known to get creative about finding mischief. Poodles like to be in the center of things and are easily trained to do astonishing tricks involving both brains and agility. They have performed in circuses for centuries, beginning in Europe, and have been part of the Ringling Circus in its various forms from its inception. The Grimaldis, the famous British clowns Kenneth and Audrey Austin, "developed a stronger circus act" with a clever poodle named 'Twinkle,' the success of which allowed them to continue performing even as octogenarians."Poodles are extremely people-oriented dogs and generally eager to please. Standard poodles in particular tend to be good with children. Poodles are adaptable and easy to train, but sometimes their intelligence can make them obstinate and stubborn. Like most dogs, they appreciate daily exercise, such as a walk or a play session. Most are fairly agile and athletic.Toy poodles will play ball and love to fetch. Play time is vital, but one must be sure that they get plenty of rest following long play periods and that fresh water is available at all times.Poodles are very easy to housebreak. Whether going outside or being trained on a pad, they learn quickly where to defecate. They are still animals, however, and they need time to understand what is desired of them. It may take a while, but poodles are quite smart and learn more quickly than most dogs.
 French Bulldog
The French bulldog is a small companion breed of dog, related to the English bulldog and American bulldog. The name suggests France as the origin of the breed; The dogs are commonly called the Frenchie and are nicknamed "clowns" and "frog dogs".French bulldogs are a compact companion dog, active but not sporty. They are muscular dogs with a smooth coat, snub nose and solid bone structure. Their physical appearance is characterized by naturally occurring "bat ears" that are wide at the base and rounded at the top. Their tails are naturally short, not cropped, and can be straight or screwed, but not curly.Under the American Kennel Club (AKC) and Canadian Kennel Club standards, weight is not to exceed 28 pounds (13 kg). In general, French bulldogs range in weight from 15 to 36 pounds. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) breed standard does not set a strict weight limit, simply stating "The weight must not be below 8 kg nor over 14 kg for a bulldog in good condition, size being in proportion with the weight".The French Bulldog, like many other companion dog breeds require close contact with humans. They have fairly minimal exercise needs, but do require at least daily walks. As a flat faced breed, it is essential that owners understand that French Bulldogs cannot live outdoors. Their bulk and their compromised breathing system makes it impossible for them to regulate their temperature efficiently. In addition, Frenchies are top heavy and therefore have a difficult time swimming. Precautions must be taken when exercising a Frenchie during hot or humid weather, as well.French Bulldogs can play too roughly for some smaller children, and should be monitored at all times during play. As well, children should be cautioned not to pick French Bulldogs up, as the dogs' small size can mask how heavy they are.French Bulldogs are essentially a bull and terrier breed, and as such, it is not surprising to learn that canine aggression can sometimes occur. Generally, this takes the form of same sex aggression. Owners considering adding a second dog to their household are usually cautioned to choose one of the opposite sex. Spaying or neutering can do much to curb aggressive tendencies before they begin. The French Bulldog energy level can range from hyperactive and energetic to relaxed and laid back.
 Welsh Springer Spaniel
The Welsh Springer Spaniel is a breed of dog and a member of the spaniel family. Thought to be comparable to the old Land Spaniel, they are similar to the English Springer Spaniel and historically have been referred to as both the Welsh Spaniel and the Welsh Cocker Spaniel. They were relatively unknown until a succession of victories in dog trials by the breed increased its popularity. Following recognition by The Kennel Club in 1902, the breed gained the modern name of Welsh Springer Spaniel. The breed's coat only comes in a single colour combination of white with red markings. Loyal and affectionate, they can become very attached to family members and are wary of strangers. Health conditions are limited to those common among many breeds of dog, although they are affected more than average by hip dysplasia and some eye conditions. They are a working dog, bred for hunting, and while not as rare as some varieties of spaniel, they are rarer than the more widely known English Springer Spaniel with which they are sometimes confused.The Welsh Springer Spaniel is a compact, solidly built dog, bred for hard work and endurance. Their body can give the impression of length due to its obliquely angled forequarters and developed hindquarters. The build of the Welsh Springer Spaniel should be slightly off square, meaning that the length of the dog should be slightly greater than the height at the withers. However, some dogs may be square, and this is not penalised in the show ring as long as the height is never greater than the length. Traditionally a docked breed, dependant on legislation in the country of origin, and where allowed the dew claws can be removed.In conformation showing, eyes should be brown in colour; yellow eyes do sometimes occur but are penalised in the show ring. Ears are small, pendulous, vine-shaped and with a light setter-like feathering. Nostrils are well developed and are black or any shade of brown; a pink nose is penalised in the AKC standard for the show ring, in Britain the colour is not specified in The Kennel Club's breed standard. In showing, a scissors bite is preferred with an undershot jaw severely penalised. Unlike the English Springer Spaniel and English Cocker Spaniel, there is no divergence into show and field types of the breed.Male dogs are 18 to 19 inches (46 to 48 cm) high at the withers, with females a little smaller at 17 to 18 inches (43 to 46 cm). On average, members of the breed weigh between 35 to 45 lb (16 to 20 kg). The coat is soft and flat to the touch, medium in length, and either straight or slightly wavy. The back of the legs, chest, and underside of the body are feathered, and the ears and tail are lightly feathered. The only colour is a rich red-and-white. Any pattern is acceptable and any white area may be flecked with red ticking.Welsh Springers are often confused with the English Springer Spaniel, but there are marked differences. The Welsh Springer is slightly smaller, and its reddish markings on a white background as opposed to the English Springers black or liver-coloured markings. Both breeds are admired for their hunting abilities and their trademark trait of "springing" at game. Some experts believe that the Welsh Springer Spaniel and the Brittany Spaniel share the same ancestry as there is a great deal of resemblance between the two breeds. The colours of the Welsh Springer, while exclusive from the English Springer, appear in the Brittany Spaniel and the Brittany and Welsh Springers are both of similar sizes. The Welsh Springer is larger than the English Cocker SpanielThe Welsh Springer Spaniel is an active, loyal, and affectionate breed. They may meet unfamiliar strangers with barking when in the dog's territory, or act aloof, cautious or wary. The breed is well known for being friendly and demonstrative to all members of the family, especially children, and accepting other pets of the household with a friendly, playful attitude.The breed is quick to learn but can be headstrong, though with correct training can become very obedient. The Welsh Springer was bred for work and endurance, and as with many breeds of hunting dogs requires a regular exercise routine to them keep healthy and content. Without adequate exercise, a Welsh Springer Spaniel may appear hyperactive. Some Welsh Springers can become clingy towards their owners and suffer separation anxiety when alone
 German Pinscher
The German Pinscher (original name Deutscher Pinscher, FCI No. 184) is a medium-sized, breed of dog, a Pinscher type that originated in Germany. The breed is included in the origins of the Dobermann, the Miniature Pinscher, the Affenpinscher, the Standard Schnauzer (and by extension the Miniature Schnauzer and Giant Schnauzer). The breed is rising in numbers in the U.S., mainly due to their full acceptance to AKC in 2003. In Australia the breed is established with a rise in popularity becoming evident. The German Pinscher is a moderately small sized dog, usually weighing between 25-35 pounds and typically 17-20 inches in height, with a short coat. The ideal German Pinscher is elegant in appearance with a strong square build and moderate body structure, muscular and powerful for endurance and agility.Colors for this breed include black and rust, red, fawn, and blue and tan. For all countries where the Fédération Cynologique Internationale standard applies, only black and rust and solid red are allowed colors.There are also a few colors for this breed that became extinct during the world wars of the twentieth century. These include solid black and salt-and-pepper as well as harlequin.The coat should be short and dense, smooth and close lying. German Pinschers customarily have their tails docked and ears cropped, as has been done for over 200 years, in countries where the procedures are legal. Historically, tail docking was thought to prevent rabies, strengthen the back, increase the animal's speed and prevent injuries when working. Also for utilitarian reasons, ears were cropped to prevent injuries while working and increase the intense appearance of the canine and eliminate the subdued, "puppy" look of droopy ears. Today, these are both done mainly for cosmetic reasons, though many accounts of injuries to undocked tails and uncropped ears of unaltered dogs have been reported and recognized by the American Kennel Club. Cropping and docking should only be done by a licensed veterinarian. While the altered or natural state of a German Pinscher should not effect a judge's decision in the show ring, prejudices do exist. Even many foreign judges who officiate at AKC events comment on how they appreciate seeing dogs docked and cropped.A well bred German Pinscher will be a loving companion with an even temperament. Temperament is hereditary. When considering adding a German Pinscher to a family, it is advised to be able to meet and touch the mother of the puppy you are offered. German Pinschers are generally friendly dogs. They are highly intelligent, quick learners who do not enjoy repetition in training. A well bred German Pinscher can be trusted with small animals and children, though no dog should ever be left unsupervised with either. If the puppy shies away when faced with strangers, it may be a sign of poor breeding.It should also be noted that German Pinschers are very high energy dogs, in many cases requiring several hours of exercise a day. Accordingly, a large, securely fenced yard is highly recommended for anyone considering the breed as a pet.
 Welsh Terrier
The Welsh Terrier is a breed of dog, one of many British terrier breeds. It was originally bred for hunting fox, rodents and badger, but during the last century it has mainly been bred for showing. Despite this, it has retained its terrier strength of character and so requires firm, non-aggressive handling. The Welsh Terrier originates from Wales and has been claimed to be the oldest existing dog breed in the UK according to the research of Julian Calder and Alastair Bruce for their book, 'The Oldest - in celebration of Britain's living history'. The Welsh Terrier was a latecomer to the British show-ring (being primarily a working dog) and was not officially registered until the 19th century. It is currently on the UK Kennel Clubs list of breeds that are in danger of dying out, having as few as 300 or so pups registered annually, compared to the nations most popular breeds that are registered in their tens of thousands each year.The Welsh Terrier is colored tan on the head, legs and underbelly while having a black or sometimes grizzle saddle. The breed is a sturdy and compact dog of about medium size that can grow up to 15.5 in. (39.5 cm) with a weight of 20-22 lbs (9–10 kg). The tail is usually docked and is more preferred in order to complete the image of a square dog that is as tall as it is long. The body shape is rectangular, with elongated, "brick-like" face. This shape is formed by the whiskers and beard.The hair contains two layers, an undercoat that insulates and an abrasive fur on top that protects against dirt, rain, and wind. Welsh Terriers are born mostly all black and during the first year they change the color to standard black and tan grizzle.This breed does not shed.An undocked Welsh Terrier tail is only an inch or so longer than a docked tail and does not make a great deal of difference to the overall appearance. The coat does not moult out but old hairs will eventually be stripped out through play and movement etc if the coat is not regularly raked. Ungroomed coats can also fade and thin out as the old hair loses colour and texture. to keep a moult free house and a good coat on your Welsh Terrier it is necessary to rake out the coat on a regular basis. Welsh terriers need some grooming. Their fur grows a little long.Generally speaking, the Welsh Terrier looks quite a bit like a compact Airedale Terrier.The Welsh Terrier has a typical terrier temperament. In the right hands, it is a happy, lively, and seldom shy or timid dog, but sometimes can have an attitude. The Welsh Terrier is generally friendly with people and dogs but when a challenge is perceived, he will not back down. Dogs of this breed can be devoted friends and can function either as city dogs or as country dogs.Welsh Terriers were developed to hunt independently and this required that they be very assertive and stoic dogs. As a consequence, developing obedience in a Welsh Terrier is a long term proposition and one has to constantly work on and reinforce the training. They rank 53rd in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of average working/obedience intelligence. This, however, does not mean that Welsh Terriers fail to learn or understand commands, just that they tend to make their own decisions; thus the need for constant reinforcement. When acting on their own, they are quite creative and quick in decision making.A Welsh Terrier is full of energy and requires regular exercise. A run around the yard during the day is insufficient. They become yappy, and if bored, they may explore and potentially cause mischief and damage. Welsh Terriers need a challenge to keep them entertained. For example, they love chasing toys and love swimming (a good example would be lake activities with their families).Welsh Terriers get along well with children; they love to play and follow a child as it plays, however, they will often tug at pant legs and can knock young ones off their feet. If they are around young children at an early age, they will easily learn to play more gently.As with all breeds, it is important to socialize Welsh Terriers as early as possible to a wide range of dogs, people, and experiences.
 German Shepherd Dog
The German Shepherd Dog (GSD, also known as an Alsatian), (German: Deutscher Sch�ferhund) is a breed of large-sized dog that originated in Germany. The German Shepherd is a relatively new breed of dog, with its origin dating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, the German Shepherd is a working dog developed originally for herding and guarding sheep. Because of its strength, intelligence and abilities in obedience training it is often employed in police and military roles around the world. German Shepherds currently account for 4.6% of all dogs registered with the American Kennel Club. Due to its loyal and protective nature, the German Shepherd is one of the most registered of breeds.In Europe during the 1800s, attempts were being made to standardise breeds. The dogs were bred to preserve traits that assisted in their job of herding sheep and protecting flocks from predators. In Germany this was practiced within local communities, where shepherds selected and bred dogs that they believed had traits necessary for herding sheep, such as intelligence, speed, strength, and keen senses of smell. The results were dogs that were able to perform admirably in their task, but that differed significantly, both in appearance and ability, from one locality to another.To combat these differences, the Phylax Society was formed in 1891 with the intention of creating standardised dog breeds in Germany. The society disbanded after only three years due to ongoing internal conflicts regarding the traits in dogs that the society should promote; some members believed dogs should be bred solely for working purposes, while others believed dogs should be bred also for appearance. While unsuccessful in their goal, the Phylax Society had inspired people to pursue standardising dog breeds independently.Max von Stephanitz, an ex-cavalry captain and former student of the Berlin Veterinary College, was one such ex-member. He believed strongly that dogs should be bred for working.In 1899, Von Stephanitz was attending a dog show when he was shown a dog named Hektor Linksrhein. Hektor was the product of few generations of selective breeding and completely fulfilled what Von Stephanitz believed a working dog should be. He was pleased with the strength of the dog and was so taken by the animal's intelligence and loyalty, that he purchased it immediately. After purchasing the dog he changed its name to Horand von Grafrath and Von Stephanitz founded the Verein f�r Deutsche Sch�ferhunde (Society for the German Shepherd Dog). Horand was declared to be the first German Shepherd Dog and was the first dog added to the society's breed register.Horand became the centre-point of the breeding programs and was bred with dogs belonging to other society members that displayed desirable traits. Although fathering many pups, Horand's most successful was Hektor von Schwaben. Hektor was inbred with another of Horand's offspring and produced Beowulf, who later fathered a total of eighty-four pups, mostly through being inbred with Hektor's other offspring. In the original German Shepherd studbook, Zuchtbuch fur Deutsche Schaferhunde (SZ), within the 2 pages of entries from SZ #41 to SZ #76, there are 4 Wolf Crosses. Beowulf's progeny also were inbred and it is from these pups that all German Shepherds draw a genetic link. It is believed the society accomplished its goal mostly due to Von Stephanitz's strong, uncompromising leadership and he is therefore credited with being the creator of the German Shepherd Dog
 West Highland White Terrier
The West Highland White Terrier, commonly known as the Westie, is a breed of dog with a distinctive white coat. This breed is not considered a lap dog, as they are very energetic and slightly restless. They are small but are known for their strong-willed and self-confident personality. Originating in Scotland, the breed was used to seek and dig out foxes and badgers. This breed is commonly recognized through its use as a mascot for Black & White (a brand of Scotch whisky), Cesar brand dog food, and various other logos.Commonly, Westies have bright, deep-set, almond-shaped eyes that are dark in color. Their ears are small, pointed, and erect. A male typically weighs between 15 and 20 pounds (6.8 and 9.1 kg) and a female between 13 and 16 pounds (5.9 and 7.3 kg). The average height is 9 to 11 inches (23 to 28 cm) at the withers. The Kennel Club has recommended that their tails, typically "carrot-shaped", should never be docked; hence the tail should be between 5–6 inches (13–15 cm).They also have deep chests, muscular limbs, a huge skull, a large black nose, a short and a closely fitted jaw with "scissors" bite (lower canines locked in front of upper canines, upper incisors locked over lower incisors). The American breed standard states that a level bite is equally acceptable. Their teeth generally appear quite large for the size of the dog. Westies have a very strong bone structure for their size.They have a soft, dense, thick undercoat and a rough outer coat, about 2 inches long, that requires regular grooming. Some Westies have "wheaten tippings" on their backs, though for individuals put forward for conformation showing this can be regarded as undesirable. Also, some Westies do not have a top coarse coat, and just a second silky coat, but this is not considered a correct coat.This breed is a dog which sheds moderately. As they develop into adults, their coarse outer coat is normally removed by either 'hand-stripping', especially for dog-showing, or otherwise clipping. Their coarse coat is easily pulled out as it was designed to do so when the dogs would hunt vermin in underground bramble to prevent them from getting caught.
 German Wirehaired Pointer
The German wirehaired pointer is a griffon type breed of dog developed in the 19th century in Germany for hunting. It became a leading gun dog in Germany in the later part of the 20th century. It is the result of the careful mixing of the griffon, Deutscher Stichelhaar, Deutscher Kurzhaar, and the hunting Pudelpointer in the late 19th century.The German wirehaired pointer is a well muscled, medium sized dog of distinctive appearance. Balanced in size and sturdily built, the breed's most distinguishing characteristics are its weather resistant, wire-like coat and its facial furnishings. Typically pointer in character and style, the German wirehaired pointer is an intelligent, energetic and determined hunter. The tail is typically docked to two-fifths of the natural length. In countries where docking is prohibited the tail should be of sufficient length to reach down to the hocks. Like all German pointers, they have webbed feet.The German wirehaired pointer is very affectionate, active and intelligent. Eager to learn and loyal to its family, it needs a handler who is consistent in approach. They like to be occupied and enjoy working for their owner. They are friendly with those they know, but are naturally aloof with strangers and should be socialized at an early age.' This is one breed of dog that does not do well in a kennel environment. German wirehaired pointers are happiest and most well behaved when they are part of the family and can spend time with their people. They can be rather willful and they like to roam. Powerful and energetic, they can become bored and hard to manage without enough exercise. The German Wirehaired pointer is a good all-around gun dog, able to hunt any sort of game on any sort of terrain. This dog has a good nose and can track, point, and retrieve on both land and water. Steady, lively and vigorous. These dogs should have the correct tempermant to live with children of all ages.
 Whippet
The Whippet is a breed of dog in the sighthound family. They are active and playful and are physically similar to a small Greyhound.Whippets are a medium-size dog averaging in weight from 15 to 30 lb (6.8–14 kg), with height (under the FCI standard) of 18.5 - 20 inches (47 - 51 cm) for males and 17.5–18.5 inches (44–47 cm) for females. Whippets tend to be somewhat larger in the United States and Canada with their population in show, coursing and some race whippets required to be within the AKC standard of 18.5 to 22.5 inches (47 to 57 cm) for males, and 17.5 to 21.5 inches (44 to 55 cm) for females. Because colour is considered immaterial in judging Whippets, they come in a wide variety of colours and marking patterns, everything from solid black to solid white, with red, fawn, brindle, blue, or cream. All manner of spots and blazes and patches are seen, sometimes all in the same litter.Whippets regularly compete in dog shows, lure course racing and are among the fastest of dogs running a course at 36 mphWhippets are generally quiet and gentle dogs, and may be content to spend much of the day resting. They are loyal and friendly. Because of this, whippets are known to have been used in aged care facilities. They may bark or jump at strangers and animals and may protect their owner if threatened.Whippets are not really well-adapted for living in a kennel, or as outside dogs. Their short coats do not provide insulation to withstand prolonged periods in cold temperatures. Their social nature makes them suitable indoor companions. Whippets are quiet and thus well suited to apartment life, but require regular exercise and the chance to run free. Care should be taken with whippets on the street as it is difficult to instill any sort of traffic sense into them.Whippets have been called a "poor man's racehorse." As their heritage would suggest, whippets are outstanding running dogs and are top competitors in lure coursing, straight racing, and oval track racing. Typically in these events, a temporary track and lure system is set up. The lure is usually a white plastic trash bag, sometimes in conjunction with a "squawker" to simulate a sort of prey sound or with a small piece of animal pelt. With the advent of new methods in motivational obedience training being used, whippets are becoming successful obedience dogs. Many enjoy flyball and agility.
 Giant Schnauzer
The Giant Schnauzer is a large, powerful, and compact breed of dog. It is one of the three Schnauzer breeds. Like most large breeds, the Giant Schnauzer needs a fair amount of exercise.When hand-stripped, the Giant Schnauzer has a harsh, wiry outer coat and dense, soft undercoat. Coat color is either black or salt and pepper (gray). It weighs between 70 and 100 lb (32 to 45 kg) and stands 23.5 to 27.5 in (59 to 70 cm) at the withers.When moving at a fast trot, a properly built Giant Schnauzer will single-track. Back remains strong, firm, and flat.The American Kennel Club lists the Giant as low shedding - and therefore hypoallergenic - along with both other breeds of Schnauzers. However, Giant Schnauzers, as with almost all dogs, do shed. When allowed, the hair on a Schnauzer will grow long, which increases shedding, and thereby potentially increasing allergens. This can be mitigated with consistent grooming to include mostly Long hair. The Giant Schnauzer does not moult as much as normal dogs.The Giant Schnauzer is a great dog if one is looking for a playful yet guarding protector[citation needed]. For those who like the large dogs, the size of the Giant can be very discouraging for any would-be offender, but it is not necessarily a Gentle Giant as say the Great Dane. Some tend to have a herding instinct at a young age so it is best to teach puppies or younger dogs to not nip or mouth at all. In many cases it has led to the dog going straight back to the breeder or worse, a shelter. Some Giants can be aggressive, but that is common with all Schnauzers. Poorly socialized dogs will have themselves a problem of a large dog unwelcoming of house guests and showing aggression towards other dogs. Some have even shown aggression to just female sexes.This is a working breed and such requires some amount of exercise or troubling behaviors may occur to relinquish that bored state they may have. A good jog or a let loose in a park with other dogs and maybe a water source will give the owner a well-mannered and tired friend coming home. They are a water breed, which means unless the owner wants to give a bath after their dog has been soaking in a well filled ditch or pond, proper training will be needed or Giants will jump head first into any body of water to swim and even drink. They are not a breed that will take off the moment one lets them off the leash. Some will even turn back mid-stride to make sure their owner is near and may even turn back if too far away. This is not to say to let a dog off in an open park as there are of course risks, especially with leash laws, but they are a distinguishing breed than most that would take off and not look back. Using caution will minimize the risk.The Giant has received four stars out of five on protection. They're usually a very alert dog. This is a dog who loves to give and get affection from the family. But understand firm training is needed, otherwise this affectionate nature may lead to people aggression if not properly socialized. This is not a dog to stick in the backyard and leave it at that. Acquaintances, friends and even family members can find themselves on the wrong end of the Giant's massive mouth which will lead to much bigger legal problems. Proper training and socialization will suffice. Be wary of possible domineering attitudes, although this is an uncommon occurrence. The Giant Schnauzer is a powerful breed that demands a steady, yet very gentle hand and with proper leadership, this large breed can not only be a couch companion and jogging partner, but a loyal and a not too overprotective friend that will take a bullet for its owner.They can be a bit rambunctious for small children.
 Yorkshire Terrier
The Yorkshire Terrier is a small dog breed of terrier type, developed in the 19th century in the historical area of Yorkshire, England to catch rats in clothing mills. The defining features of the breed are its size, 3 pounds (1.4 kg) to 7 pounds (3.2 kg), and its silky blue and tan coat. The breed is nicknamed Yorkie and is placed in the Toy Terrier section of the Terrier Group by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale and in the Toy Group or Companion Group by other kennel clubs, although all agree that the breed is a terrier. A popular companion dog, the Yorkshire Terrier has also been part of the development of other breeds, such as the Australian Silky Terrier.
 Glen of Imaal Terrier
The Glen of Imaal Terrier is a breed of dog of the terrier category and one of four Irish terrier breeds. It is sometimes called the Irish Glen of Imaal Terrier or the Wicklow Terrier. It originates in the Glen of Imaal in County Wicklow, Ireland. The breed was recognized first by the Irish Kennel Club in 1934 and most recently by the American Kennel Club in 2004.The breed came into existence during the reign of Elizabeth I, who hired French and Hessian mercenaries to put down civil unrest in Ireland. After the conflict, many of these soldiers settled in the Wicklow area. They brought with them their low-slung hounds, which they bred with the local terrier stock, developing the Glen of Imaal Terrier as a general working dog used for herding and eradicating vermin such as foxes and badger and otter.[citation needed] When hunting Glens work mute to ground as they are a strong dog not a sounding terrier.Some descriptions of the breed claim that it was used as a turnspit dog to turn spits of meat over a fire for cooking.The Glen of Imaal Terrier is not a common breed.The Glen of Imaal Terrier is more substantial than many other dogs of similar height; the average adult Glen weighs approximately 36lb and stands 14in tall at the withers.The breed has a medium-length double coat that is harsh on top and soft below. The coat may be wheaten, Blue or brindle in colour. The Glen of Imaal terrier does not moult.Glens have a large head with rose or half-prick ears and short, bowed legs, with a topline that rises from the shoulder to the tail. The shoulders, chest and hips are sturdy and muscular and feet should be turned out. With three growing stages a Glen can take up to four years to reach full maturity.Wheaten Glen of Imaal puppies often have black highlights in their fur. Usually, the black will fade and their full wheaten coat will come in as they mature.Glen of Imaal terriers are energetic and highly intelligent they need a good strong ownership and discipline. They are typically fearless and loyal and are superb with people but can be aggressive if not properly trained.Though normally docile and quiet for a terrier, glens can sometimes be aggressive if provoked. There have been no reported serious injuries caused by the breed, but as a working terrier they are a strong dog used for drawing prey from the ground. They must be silent to ground. They can also be used to ground vermin and have a super nose and will work on mink, rats, etc. and can work well in water. They have a high prey drive and might take domestic pets such as cats, rats, or gerbils for prey. However, Glens are highly intelligent and quite easily trained, so this is generally not a problem with properly trained dogs.
 American English Coonhound
The American English Coonhound, also referred to as the English Coonhound or the Redtick Coonhound, is a breed of dog. It is a type of coonhound that is typically bred in the Southern United States. It has origins from hunting hounds brought to America by settlers during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in the dogs known as the "Virginia Hounds". The breeds first recognition came from the United Kennel Club in 1905 as the English Fox and Coonhound. Further recognition has been granted in recent years by the American Kennel Club, first in the Foundation Stock Service and in 2011 as a fully recognized member of the hound group.The breed is of medium height and proportionate weight, and their coats come predominantly in three types, redtick, bluetick and a tricolor tick pattern. They have a high prey drive and are used in various roles in hunting, including treeing. Health issues that the breed suffers from include overheating whilst out on summer hunting expeditions.
 Gordon Setter
A Gordon Setter is a large breed of dog, a member of the setter family that also includes both the better-known Irish Setter and the English Setter. Setter breeds are classified as members of either the Sporting or Gundog Group depending on the national kennel club or council. The original purpose of the breed was to hunt gamebirds. Their quarry in the United Kingdom, may be partridge or grouse, pheasant, ptarmigan, blackgame, snipe or woodcock: whilst overseas bird dogs are worked on quail, willow grouse, sand grouse, guinea fowl, sagehen, francolin and any other bird that will sit to a dog - that is to say, will attempt to avoid a potential predator by concealment rather than by taking to the wing at the first sign of danger. It is this combination of a bird that will sit fast in front of a dog that will remain on point that makes bird dog work possible.Gordon setters, also known as "black and tans," have a coal-black coat with distinctive markings of a rich chestnut or mahogany colour on their paws and lower legs, vents, throat, and muzzles; one spot above each eye; and two spots on their chest. A small amount of white is allowed on the chest. Although uncommon, red Gordons are occasionally born to normal-coloured parents, the result of expression of a recessive red gene. Predominantly tan, red, or buff dogs are ineligible for showing. A Gordon's coat is straight or slightly waved (but not curly), long and silky, with chest, stomach, ear, leg, and tail feathering. According to the AKC breed standard, "the bearing is intelligent, noble, and dignified." They are the heaviest of the setter breeds, with males reaching 27 inches at the withers and up to 80 pounds in weight.The AKC describes the Gordon Setter temperament as "alert, gay, interested, and confident. He is fearless and willing, intelligent, and capable. He is loyal and affectionate, and strong-minded enough to stand the rigors of training." Gordons are intensely loyal to their owners; thrive in an attentive, loving environment; and are good family dogs. Puppies and adult dogs can be quite boisterous, and although they are patient by nature, may not be suitable for households with very young children. Gordons are sensitive and empathic, eager to learn, and need firm but gentle handling. Early socialisation and obedience training is important. They are known as great talkers. The breed is one of the slowest to mature, not hitting prime until three years of age or more, and will show puppy-like characteristics well into their older years.Gordons were bred to run, and require 60 to 80 minutes of vigorous exercise daily. Young dogs should not be over-exercised or begin agility training until they are at least 18 months old, to avoid joint problems later in life. Because of their hunting instincts, Gordons should not be allowed to roam freely if unsupervised, as they are apt to wander into a potentially dangerous traffic situation while following a scent.
 Collie - Rough
The Rough Collie (also known as the 'Long-Haired Collie') is a long coated breed of medium to large size dog that in its original form was a type of collie used and bred for herding in Scotland. Originating in the 1800s, it is now well known through the works of author Albert Payson Terhune, and through the Lassie novel, movies, and television shows. There is also a smooth-coated variety; some breed organisations, including both the American and the Canadian Kennel Clubs, consider the smooth-coat and rough-coat dogs to be variations of the same breed. Rough Collies generally come in shades of sable, merles, and tri-coloured. This breed is very similar to the smaller Shetland Sheepdog which is partly descended from the Rough Collie.
 Great Dane
The Great Dane (18th Cent. French: Grand Danois), also known as German Mastiff (German: Deutsche Dogge) or Danish Hound (German: Dänischer Hund), is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) known for its giant size. The Great Dane is one of the world's tallest dog breeds; the current world record holder, measuring 109 cm (43 in) from paw to shoulder; 220 cm (7.2 ft) from head to tail, is George.As described by the American Kennel Club, "The Great Dane combines, in its regal appearance, dignity, strength and elegance with great size and a powerful, well-formed, smoothly muscled body. It is one of the giant working breeds, but is unique in that its general conformation must be so well balanced that it never appears clumsy, and shall move with a long reach and powerful drive." The Great Dane is a short haired breed with a strong galloping figure. In the ratio between length and height, the Great Dane should be square. The male dog should not be less than 30 in (76 cm) at the shoulders, a female 28 in (71 cm). Danes under minimum height are disqualified.From year to year, the tallest living dog is typically a Great Dane. Previous record holders include Gibson and Titan, however the current record holder is a blue Great Dane named Giant George who stands 43 in (110 cm) at the shoulder. He is also the tallest dog on record (according Guinness World Records), beating the previous holder who was a brindle Great Dane named Shamgret Danzas, who stood 42.5 in (108 cm) at the shoulder.The minimum weight for a Great Dane over eighteen months is 120 lb (54 kg) for males, 100 lb (45 kg) for females. Unusually, the American Kennel Club dropped the minimum weight requirement from its standard. The male should appear more massive throughout than the female, with a larger frame and heavier bone.Great Danes have naturally floppy, triangular ears. In the past, when Great Danes were commonly used to hunt boars, cropping of the ears was performed to make injuries to the dogs' ears less likely during hunts. Now that Danes are primarily companion animals, cropping is sometimes still done for traditional and cosmetic reasons. Today, the practice is common in the United States and much less common in Europe. In some European countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, Germany, parts of Australia, and in New Zealand, the practice is banned, or controlled to only be performed by veterinary surgeons.The Great Dane's large and imposing appearance belies its friendly nature; the breed is often referred to as a gentle giant. Great Danes are generally well-disposed toward other dogs, other non-canine pets and humans, although, when feeling threatened, have been known to attack humans. This is usually brought on by a person that is unfamiliar to the dog. Some breeds may chase or attack small animals, but this is not typical with Great Danes. The great dane is a very gentle and loving animal with proper care and training. They are also very needy, always needing someone. Some may find them frightening because of their huge structure and loud bark, but they have no intention of harming people.
 Chinook
Standing 21 to 27 inches (53 to 69 cm) in height at the withers and weighing 55 to 90 pounds (25 to 41 kg), the Chinook is balanced and muscular. The United Kennel Club (UKC) breed standard states that "The ideal coloration runs from light honey color to reddish-gold. Black markings on the inside corners of the eyes are preferred. Dark tawny to black markings on the ears and muzzle are preferred. Guard hairs on the tail may be black. No white markings are allowed. Buff markings on the cheeks, muzzle, throat, chest, breeches, toes and underside are acceptable." The UKC standard faults any color other than tawny and disqualifies albinism. Other proposed standards state that the medium-length double coat is “tawny” in color, with darker shadings on muzzle and ears; white dogs are not allowed, nor are other colors. Eyes are brown to amber in color. Ear carriage is variable, but dropped is preferred and the head more strongly rectangular than other sleddog breeds. The tail is a well-furred saber and not the usual brush or plume of Arctic breeds. Overall, the Chinook seems to owe more to molosser than to spitz ancestry.
 Hamiltonstovare
The Hamiltonstövare is a breed of dog, bred as a hunting hound. The breed was developed in Sweden by the founder of the Swedish Kennel Club, Count Adolf Hamilton. Its ancestry includes several German hounds as well as English Foxhounds and Harriers.The breed is known by the white blaze on the head, down the neck, four white paws, and a white tail tip. He differs from an English Foxhound in that his frame is lighter.A typical hound in temperament- sweet and friendly to all- the Hamiltonstovare is also a hardworking hunter. It is happy to be with its family, but it is also happy to be out hunting.The Hamiltonstovare is its "own hound," and although it is friendly and gregarious, it naturally defers to doing what it wants rather than what might be requested of it. It takes enthusiasm and praise to persuade the Hamiltonstovare to comply with its owner's requests, but it'll do it if it's inspired.Dogs 53-61 cms (21-24 ins). The ideal size is 57 cms (22 ½ ins).Bitches 49-57 cms (19 ¼ - 22 ½ ins). The ideal size is 53 cms (21 ins).
 Central Asian Shepherd Dog
The Central Asian (pron.: /?v?t??rk?/; Russian: ??????????????? ??????? [sr??dn??az???atsk?j? ?f?t?ark?]) is recognized by FCI, as a Molossoid type dog breed of Central Asian origin. Most breed representatives reside in Russia, and local kennel club officials refer to Central Asians as one of the most popular dog breeds in the country, often rating it as the #1 breed.
 Havanese
The Havanese is a dog breed of the Bichon type, developed from the now extinct Blanquito de la Habana ("little white dog of Havana"). The Blanquito descended from the also now extinct Bichon Tenerife, which was introduced to the Canary Islands by the Cubans. It is believed that the Blanquito was eventually cross-bred with other Bichon types, including the Poodle, to create what is now known as the Havanese. They are sometimes referred to as "Havana Silk Dogs," though this was originally just another name for the Blanquito de la Habana. The Havanese is the National dog of Cuba.The Havanese is small in size and sturdy in structure with a tail carried up over its back and ears that drop and fold. The coat is abundant, long, and silky and comes in all colors. The Havanese has a spirited personality and a curious disposition, and is notable for its springy gait, a characteristic that distinguishes the breed from all others. The Havanese is considered an ideal family pet and a true companion dog. They are highly adaptable to almost any environment, and their only desire is to be with their human companions. Because of their strong social needs, Havanese will not thrive in an environment where they are isolated for several hours each day.The Havanese, while a toy dog, is sturdy and does not appear fragile or overly delicate. Weight can vary greatly, but most are from 7 to 13 pounds. Height is 8½ -11½ inches (22 to 29 cm), with the ideal being 9 to 10½ inches (23 to 27 cm), at the withers. The body, measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, is slightly longer than the height at the withers, giving the dog the appearance of being slightly longer than tall. The length of the body results from the long ribcage, not the loins.A unique aspect of the breed is the topline, which rises just slightly from withers to croup, creating a topline that is straight but not level. This breed is renowned for their flashy, lively gait. When on the move, their strong rear drive and slightly shorter upper arm combine to produce a springy motion rather than a far-reaching one. The angle of the topline does not change while moving at a natural gait.The muzzle is full and tapers slightly at the nose. It does not have the appearance of being short or snipy. Length of skull measured from stop to point of occiput is equal to the length of muzzle. The top of the skull is rather flat and the backskull is rounded.The length from foot to elbow is equal to the length from elbow to withers. The forechest is pronounced. When is a standing position, the sternum lines up with the elbows, creating a deep chest. Ribs are well-sprung and the abdomen is moderately tucked up.The Havanese has dark brown eyes and almond-shaped lids surrounded by black pigment. The ears, when extended, reach half way to the nose. They arc slightly upward at the base and hang down on the sides of the head without touching the face. The tail is carried arched forward up over the back. While the tail's long plume of hair falls on the body, the tail itself never touches the back.The breed standard notes that except for slight trimming around the feet to allow for a tidy foot, they are to be shown untrimmed; any further trimming, back-combing, or other fussing is against type and will not be allowed to the point of precluding placement in dog shows. The breed standard specifies that the tail may not be docked. The American Kennel Club Standard allows head furnishings above each eye to be held in two small braids secured with plain elastic bands. However, many owners prefer to clip their pet's hair short for easy upkeep.The Havanese is a toy dog so it is a great dog to play with. It is smart and can be easily trained. It is best to train this dog at a young age, because some habits will stick as they become older. The Havanese gets very attached to their owners but does not mind spending time away from their owners, as they are very self entertaining dogs. The Havanese is the ideal dog to have in a low maintenance household. This breed does not require regular exercise. The Havanese is satisfied when their owner is satisfied. The dogs are not very vocal unless abusive body movements are shown. They are very friendly dogs, they do not bark at a stranger, but some individuals are shier than other individuals. They do not mind being kept outside as they are fine with playing with their toys but they prefer being inside with their owner. They love to perform in front of others and have a great need for attention
 American Foxhound
The American Foxhound is a breed of dog that is cousin to the English Foxhound. They are scent hounds, bred to hunt foxes by scent. The American Foxhound is gentle, easygoing, and gets along with children and other animals."AKC Meet the Breeds®: American Foxhound". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 18 April 2011. However, they may act reserved when around strangers.
 Hungarian Vizsla
The Vizsla is a dog breed originating in Hungary. The Hungarian or Magyar Vizsla are sporting dogs and loyal companions, in addition to being the smallest of the all-round pointer-retriever breeds. The Vizsla's medium size is one of the breed's most appealing characteristics as a hunter of fowl and upland game, and through the centuries the Vizsla has held a unique position for a sporting dog – that of household companion and family dog.The Vizsla is a natural hunter endowed with an excellent nose and an outstanding trainability. Although they are lively, gentle mannered, demonstrably affectionate and sensitive, they are also fearless and possessed of a well-developed protective instinct.The Vizsla is a medium-sized short-coated hunting dog of distinguished appearance and bearing.[2] Robust but rather lightly built, they are lean dogs, have defined muscles, and are observed to share similar physical characteristics with the Weimaraner.Various breeds are often mistaken for Vizslas, and Vizslas are often mistaken for other breeds. Redbone Coonhounds, Weimaraners and Rhodesian Ridgebacks are some of the most commonly confused breeds. The body structure of a Vizsla is very similar in appearance to a Weimaraner and Redbone Coonhound, though the Vizsla is typically leaner with more defined musculature. Weimaraners and Rhodesian Ridgebacks are larger than Vizslas. The nose of the Vizsla will always have a reddish color that blends with the coat color. Black, brown, light pink, or another color nose is an indication of another breed - or at least not a pure Vizsla. Eyes and nails should also blend with coat color.The standard coat is a solid golden-rust color in different shadings,[2] but some breeding programs have resulted in a solid rust coat. The coat could also be described as a copper/brown color, russet gold and dark sandy gold. Solid dark mahogany red and pale yellow are faulty. Small areas of white on the fore-chest and on the neck and pie. permissible[4] but not preferred. Some variations in the Vizsla coat color along their back (saddle-type marks) is typical.The American Kennel Club (AKC) breed standard for the Vizsla states that the coat should be short, smooth, dense and close-lying, without woolly undercoat. The Vizsla is totally unsuited to being kept outside, since unlike most other breeds, it does not have an undercoat. This lack of undercoat makes the Vizsla susceptible to the cold so it must not be kept in a kennel or left outside for extended periods of time. They are self-cleaning dogs and only need to be bathed infrequently, and are somewhat unique in that they have little noticeable "dog smell" detectable by humans. After several forays into lakes and streams they will develop an aroma that is a weaker version of the 'wet dog' smell. A quick bath and this odor will vanish.The breed standard calls for the tail to be docked to two-thirds of its original length. Although the remainder of the tail is strong, the third docked is thin and whip-like and is open to damage in the field. The Vizsla holds its tail horizontal to the ground and wags it vigorously while charging through rough scrub and undergrowth. Without docking, the unprotected tip can suffer splitting and bleeding. Once damaged, the tail is extremely difficult to heal, sometimes requiring amputation later in life when the dog must be placed under general anaesthetic causing undue stress and pain.The docked tail of the Vizsla is significantly longer than that of other dogs with traditionally docked tails such as the Weimaraner, Doberman, Boxer, and Australian Shepherd. Since the tail is docked when the puppy is less than three days old, this longer dock can result in some variation in tail length among Vizsla dogs from different breeding programs.The Vizsla is a medium-sized dog, and fanciers feel that large dogs are undesirable. The average height and weight:Males Height: 22–25 inches (56–63 cm)Weight: 45–66 pounds (20–30 kg)Females Height: 21–24 in (53–61 cm)Weight: 40–55 lb (18–25 kg)Vizslas are very high energy, gentle-mannered, loyal, caring, and highly affectionate. They quickly form close bonds with their owners, including children. Often they are referred to as "velcro" dogs because of their loyalty and affection. They are quiet dogs, only barking if necessary or provoked. Sometimes when these dogs feel neglected or want something, they will cry.They are natural hunters with an excellent ability to take training. Not only are they great pointers, but they are excellent retrievers as well. They will retrieve on land and in the water, making the most of their natural instincts. However, they must be trained gently and without harsh commands or strong physical correction, as they have sensitive temperaments and can be easily damaged if trained too harshly. Vizslas are excellent swimmers. Like all gun dogs, Vizslas require a good deal of exercise to remain healthy and happy.The Vizsla thrives on attention, exercise, and interaction. It is highly intelligent, and enjoys being challenged and stimulated, both mentally and physically. Vizslas are very gentle dogs that are great around children. The Vizsla wants to be close to its owner as much of the time as possible. Many Vizslas will sleep in bed with their owners and, if allowed, will burrow under the covers.
 American Hairless Terrier
The American Hairless Terrier is a breed of dog that was formerly considered a variant of Rat Terrier. As of January 1, 2004, the United Kennel Club deemed the AHT a separate terrier breed. An intelligent, social and energetic working breed, the American Hairless Terrier is often listed as a potential good breed choice for allergy sufferers
 Ibizan Hound
The Ibizan Hound (also named Podenco Ibicenco), pronounced "I-bee-zan" or "I-beeth-an", is a lean, agile dog of the hound family. There are two hair types of the breed: smooth and wire. The more commonly seen type is the smooth. Some consider there to be a third type, long, but the longhair is most likely a variation of the wire.The Ibizan Hound is an elegant and agile breed, with an athletic and attractive outline and a ground-covering springy trot. Though graceful in appearance, it has good bone girth and is a rugged/hardy breed. Its large upright ears - a hallmark of the breed - are broad at the base and frame a long and elegant headpiece. The neck is long and lean. It has a unique front assembly with well laid-back shoulders and relatively straight upper arm. It comes in both smooth and wire-coated varieties. It is either red, white, or a combination of red and white. Its nose is flesh colored, as are its ears, eye rims, and pads of feet. Its eyes are a striking amber color and have an alert and intelligent expression. The Ibizan may range in height from 24 to 29 inches (61 to 74 cm) and weigh from 45 to 65 pounds (20 to 29 kg), males being larger than females.Ibizan Hounds are moderately intelligent, active, and engaging by nature. They rank 53rd in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of average working/obedience intelligence. They are true "clowns" of the dog world, delighting in entertaining their people with their antics. Though somewhat independent and stubborn at times, they do take well to training if positive methods are used, but will balk at punitive training methods. They are generally quiet, but will alarm bark if necessary, so they make good watch dogs. They are sensitive hounds, and very good around children and other dogs alike. They generally make good house dogs, but are active and athletic, therefore need a lot of daily exercise. They do not make good kennel dogs.Ibizan Hounds are "escapologists": they are able to jump incredible heights from a stand still. As such, they need very tall fences. They also have been known to climb. They have a strong prey drive, therefore they cannot be trusted off leash unless in a safely enclosed area.
 American Staffordshire Terrier
The American Staffordshire terrier is a medium-sized, short-coated American dog breed. In the early part of the twentieth century the breed gained social stature and was accepted by the American Kennel Club as the American Staffordshire Terrier in 1936. The name was changed to reflect difference from the Staffordshire Bull Terrier of England.
 Irish Terrier
Breed standards describe the ideal Irish Terrier as being racy, red and rectangular. Racy: an Irish Terrier should appear powerful without being sturdy or heavy. Rectangular: the outline of the Irish Terrier differs markedly from those of other terriers. The Irish Terrier's body is proportionately longer than that of the Fox Terrier, with a tendency toward racy lines but with no lack of substance.The tail is customarily docked soon after birth to approximately two-thirds of the original length. In countries where docking is prohibited, the conformation judges emphasize tail carriage. The tail should start up quite high, but it should not stick straight up or curl over the back or either side. The ears are small and folded forward just above skull level. They are preferably slightly darker than the rest of the coat. It is fairly common to see wrongly positioned ears, even though most dogs have their ears trained during adolescence.The Irish Terrier is coloured golden red, red wheaten, or wheaten. Dark red is often mistaken as the only correct colour, possibly because wheaten coats are often of worse quality. As with many other solid-coloured breeds, a small patch of white is allowed on the chest. No white should appear elsewhere. As an Irish Terrier grows older, grey hair may appear here and there.The outer part of the double coat should be straight and wiry in texture, never soft, silky, curly, wavy, or woolly as might be expected in the Kerry Blue Terrier. The coat should lie flat against the skin, and, though having some length, should never be so long as to hide the true shape of the dog. There are longer hairs on the legs, but never so much as a Wire Fox Terrier or Schnauzer. That means you have to have the coat trimmed often which can be expensive.The inner part of the coat, called the under-wool or undercoat, should also be red. The under-wool may be hard for the inexperienced eye to see. Coat should be quite dense and so that "when parted with the fingers the skin is hardly visible".[1]A properly trimmed Irish Terrier should have some "furnishings" on legs and head. The slightly longer hair on the front legs should form even pillars, while the rear legs should only have some longer hair and not be trimmed too close to the skin. The chin is accentuated with a small beard. The beard should not be as profuse as that of a Schnauzer.The eyes should be dark brown and quite small with a "fiery" expression. The eyes are topped with well-groomed eyebrows. The whole head should have good pigmentation.Most countries have breed descriptions that say that the Irish Terrier should not be more than 48 cm measured at the withers. However, it is not unusual to see bitches that are 50 cm tall or dogs that are even 53 cm (20 in). Younger generations are closer to the ideal, but there is a downside to this: when an Irish Terrier is very small and light-boned, it loses the correct racy type.Very seldom does one see Irish Terriers that weigh only 11 to 12 kg (25-27 lb), as the original Kennel Club breed description states. 13 kg for a bitch and 15 for a dog are acceptable.
 Deutscher Wachtelhund
The German Spaniel, also known as the Deutscher Wachtelhund, is a breed of dog that was developed in Germany around 1890, and is used as a hunting dog. Descended from the old German breed, the Stoeberer, which became popular with commoners following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, who required a versatile hunting dog. Stoeberer is now a type of hunting dog in Germany with the Wachtelhund being its sole member. The breed is not very well known outside of Germany, but was recognised by the United Kennel Club in 1996.
 Irish Wolfhound
The Irish wolfhound (Irish: Cú Faoil, is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), specifically a sighthound. The name originates from its purpose (wolf hunting) rather than from its appearance. Irish Wolfhounds are the tallest of dog breeds.The standard of The American Kennel Club describes the breed as "Of great size and commanding appearance, the Irish Wolfhound is remarkable in combining power and swiftness with keen sight. The largest and tallest of the galloping hounds, in general type he is a rough-coated, Greyhound-like breed; very muscular, strong though gracefully built; movements easy and active; head and neck carried high, the tail carried with an upward sweep with a slight curve towards the extremity". The colours allowed by the American Kennel Club are "grey, brindle, red, black, pure white, fawn, wheaten and steel grey". The American Kennel Club allows "any other color that appears in the Deerhound". The size as specified by the AKC is "Minimum height for dogs: 79 cms (32 ins), bitches: 71 cms (30 ins). Minimum weight: 54.5 kgs (120 lbs) for dogs, 40.9 kgs (105 lbs) for bitches. Great size, including height of shoulder and proportionate length of body is to be aimed at, and it is desired to firmly establish a breed that shall average (minimum) from 81-86 cms (32-34 ins) in dogs".
 French Spaniel
The French Spaniel (Epagneul Français) is a breed of dog of the Spaniel type. It was developed in France as a hunting dog, descended from dogs of the 14th century. Popular with royalty during the Middle Ages, it nearly became extinct by the turn of the 20th century but was saved by the efforts of Father Fournier, a French priest. One of the largest breeds of Spaniel, it typically has a white coat with brown markings. It is a friendly breed that has few health issues, but can be affected by a syndrome called acral mutilation and analgesia. The breed is recognised by Canadian and international kennel clubs but not by The Kennel Club (UK). The American Kennel Club has included the breed in its Foundation Stock Service, the first step to full recognition
 Italian Greyhound
The Italian Greyhound is the smallest of the sighthounds, typically weighing about 8 to 18 lb (3.6 to 8.2 kg) and standing about 13 to 15 inches (33 to 38 cm) tall at the withers. Though they are in the "toy" group based on their weight, they are larger than other dogs in the category due to their slender bodies, so owners must be careful when sizing clothing or accommodations.The Italian Greyhound's chest is deep, with a tucked up abdomen, long slender legs and a long neck that tapers down to a small head. The face is long and pointed, like a full sized greyhound. Overall, they look like "miniature" Greyhounds, though many Italian Greyhound owners dispute the use of the term "miniature Greyhound", in reference to the breed itself. By definition of the American Kennel Club - they are true genetic greyhounds, with a bloodline extending back over 2000 years. Their current small stature is a function of selective breeding. Their gait is distinctive and should be high stepping and free, rather like that of a horse. They are able to run at top speed with a double suspension gallop, and can achieve a top speed of up to 25 miles per hour (40 km/h).The color of the coat is a subject of much discussion. For The Kennel Club (UK), the American Kennel Club, and the Australian National Kennel Council, parti colored Italian Greyhounds are accepted, while the Fédération Cynologique Internationale standard for international shows allows white only on the chest and feet.The modern Italian Greyhound's appearance is a result of breeders throughout Europe, particularly Austrian, German, Italian, French and British breeders, making great contributions to the forming of this breed. The Italian Greyhound should resemble a small Greyhound, or rather a Sloughi, though they are in appearance more elegant and graceful.The Italian Greyhound makes a good companion dog and enjoys the company of people. However, the breed's slim build and short coat make them somewhat fragile, and injury can result from rough or careless play with children under the age of 12.The breed is often best with the elderly or a couple without any children for it prefers a quiet household. It also is equally at home in the city or the country, although they tend to do best in spacious areas. They are fast, agile and athletic. Like any dog, daily exercise is a must for a happier, well-adjusted pet. Italian greyhounds love to run. The young dog is often particularly active, and this high level of activity may lead them to attempt ill-advised feats of athleticism that can result in injury. Due to their size, and in some lineages poor bone density, they are prone to broken legs which can be expensive to repair.Italian Greyhounds make reasonably good watchdogs, as they bark at unfamiliar sounds. They may also bark at passers-by and other animals. However, they should not be considered "true" guard dogs as they are often aloof with strangers and easily spooked to run.As gazehounds, Italian Greyhounds instinctively hunt by sight and have an extremely high predator drive. Owners of Italian Greyhounds typically keep their dogs leashed at all times when not in an enclosed area to avoid the risk of even a well-behaved pet breaking away at high speed after a small animal. Like most sight hounds, the Italian Greyhound’s slender skulls are near the same width of the dog’s neck, and the use of a “martingale” style collar is advised for walking Italian Greyhounds, it tightens up when pulled while remaining comfortable slack when the dog is walking politely. This prevents the dog backing out and escaping. Breakaway collars are advised for identification, because this active and acrobatic breed could easily injure themselves when put in a collar they cannot escape from, possible neck injuries and strangling.
 Patterdale Terrier
The Patterdale Terrier is a breed of working dog that originated in the Lake District of Cumbria in Northwest England. The name Patterdale refers to a small village a little south of Ullswater and a few miles east of Helvellyn. The Patterdale is a type of Fell Terrier. The Patterdale terrier was "improved" and brought into the Kennel Club as the Welsh Terrier after a brief naming struggle in which the name "Old English Broken-coated Terrier" was attempted before being rejected by the Kennel Club hierarchy. The Patterdale Terrier is sometimes called the "Old English Terrier" or the "Fell Terrier".
 Jack Russell Terrier
The Jack Russell terrier is a small terrier that has its origins in fox hunting. It is principally white-bodied smooth, rough or broken-coated which is commonly confused with the Parson Russell terrier (the American Kennel Club (AKC) and affiliate variant) and the Russell terrier (a shorter legged, stockier variety) with the term "Jack Russell" commonly misapplied to other small white terriers. The Jack Russell is a broad type, with a size range of 10–15 inches (25–38 cm), the Parson Russell is limited only to a middle range with a standard size of 12–14 inches (30–36 cm), while the Russell terrier is smaller at 8–12 inches (20–30 cm), however each breed has different physical proportions according to the standards of their breed clubs.Originating in the early 19th century from dogs bred and used by Reverend John Russell, it has similar origins to the modern Fox terrier. The Jack Russell is an energetic breed which relies on a high level of exercise and stimulation, and is relatively free from serious health complaints. It has gone through several changes over the years, through different use and breed standards set by kennel clubs. Recognition for the breed by kennel clubs has been opposed by the breed's parent societies – which resulted in the breeding and recognition of the Parson Russell terrier. Jack Russells have appeared many times in film, television and print with several historical dogs of note.
 Perro de Presa Canario
The Perro de Presa Canario is a large Molosser-type dog breed originally bred for working livestock. The name of the breed is Spanish, means "Canarian catch dog," and is often shortened to "Presa Canario" or simply "Presa." The breed is sometimes also called Dogo Canario, meaning "Canarian Molosser" . Dogs that are referred to as Dogo Canario are generally regarded as show dogs and lack the drives and working aptitude of dogs referred to as "true Presa." Though this is a subject that has been debated vigorously by breeders and owners alike, in general, the "true Presa" kennels would never refer to their dogs as Dogo Canario nor would they want anyone to associate their Kennels with the name Dogo Canario. Their contention is that the Dogo Canario is not the same breed as the Perro de Presa Canario.
 Japanese Akita Inu
The Akita Inu (????) is a Japanese breed of large dog. Named for Akita Prefecture, where it is thought to have originated, it is sometimes called the Akita-ken based on the Sino-Japanese reading of the same kanji. In most countries (with the exception of the Australian, American and Canadian Kennel Clubs), it is considered a separate breed from the American Akita and is also colloquially known as the "Japanese Akita". "Inu" means "dog.Breed standards state that male Akita Inus height should range from 64-70cms (25 ¼-27 ½ ins), and females 58-64 cms (22 ¾-25 ¼ ins) at the withers.The Akita Inu comes in only five colors: Red, Fawn, Sesame, Brindle, and Pure White. All except white must have whitish hair on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, the neck, chest, body and tail, known as "Urajiro". Black masks, as seen in the American Akita, are not permitted in the Japanese Akita Inu. In contrast, all colors are accepted in the American Akita. The Pinto color is not accepted as an Akita Inu color, but is as an accepted American Akita color.Akita Inu are renowned as loyal dogs and are also intelligent. The loyalty of an Akita named Hachiko established the breed as truly loyal to their owners. The famous Akita Hachiko spent nine years waiting daily at the Shibuya railway station for his deceased master to return home. Hachiko's popularity brought back the Akita from the brink of extinction.Because of their intelligence, Akitas get bored very easily and as a result, they often become destructive and aggressive if not given anything to do. Akita Inu can live happily in apartments as long as they are given plenty of exercise. They need to be socialized as puppies so they are friendly dogs and should have experienced owners. Although they love human companionship, they are quite happy to be outside dogs as well, but should still be taken out for walks to prevent destruction of the yard. Akita Inu often become excitable when seeing their owners, often wiggling around and making happy grunts.Akita Inu are very good with youngsters from their own family, and often quite playful, although they should be watched around other people's children as they could knock them over during play.
 Treeing Walker Coonhound
The Treeing Walker Coonhound is a breed of hound descended from the English and American Foxhounds. They were first recognized as a separate breed in 1945.Thomas Walker had imported the English Foxhound to Virginia in 1742. The breed originated in the United States when a stolen dog of unknown origin, known as the "Tennessee Lead", was crossed into the Walker Hound in the 19th century. The Treeing Walker Coonhound was recognized officially as a breed by the American Kennel Club in January of 2012. The Treeing Walker Coonhound is used to hunt small game, particularly raccoons and opossums. They are fast, agile, and tireless in pursuit. They are vocal with a distinctive bay that allows their owners to identify their hounds from great distances. These hounds are affectionate as family pets and enjoy living indoors, but they were bred for a life of action, and require a great deal of outdoor exercise.
 Japanese Chin
The Japanese Chin (?), also known as the Japanese Spaniel) is the dog of Japanese royalty. A lap dog and companion dog, this toy breed has a distinctive heritage.Japanese Chin stand about 20 to 27 cm (8 to 11 in) in height at the withers and weight can vary from a low of 4 lbs to a high of 20 lbs, with an average of 7 to 9 pounds being the most common. The American Kennel Club and the Fédération Cynologique Internationale give no weight requirement for the Chin.This breed is considered one of the most cat-like of the dog breeds in attitude: it is alert, intelligent, and independent, and it uses its paws to wash and wipe its face. Other cat-like traits include their preference for resting on high surfaces such as the backs of sofas and chairs, their ability to walk across a coffee table without disturbing an item, and some of the surprising places their owners often find them in. They rank 62nd in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of fair working/obedience intelligence. A companion dog, it is loving and loyal to its owner and typically happy to see other people, though a few are distrustful of strangers. Chin prefer familiar surroundings, but do quite well in new situations and are often used as therapy dogs because of this trait and their love of people. Very early socialization of Chin puppies leads to a more emotionally well-balanced Chin that is more accepting of different situations and people.The Chin will bark for the purpose of alerting the household to the arrival of a visitor or something out of the ordinary, but are otherwise very quiet.Chin were bred for the purpose of loving and entertaining their people. While typically a calm little dog, they are well known for performing many enjoyable antics such as the "Chin Spin", in which they turn in rapid circles; dancing on their hind legs while pawing their front feet, clasped together, in the air; and, some even "sing", a noise that can range from a low trill to a higher, almost operatic quality noise, and which sounds much like “boooo”.
 Treeing Tennessee Brindle
The Treeing Tennessee Brindle is a breed of cur. Since 1995, its records have been maintained through the American Kennel Club's Foundation Stock Service Program. Males stand 18 to 24 inches (46 to 61 cm) at the withers and weigh 35 to 50 pounds (16 to 23 kg), while females stand 16 to 22 inches (41 to 56 cm) tall and weigh 30 to 40 pounds (14 to 18 kg). The breed's coat is short and soft and may be either brindle or black with brindle trim. Small white markings on the chest and feet are permissible according to the breed standard, as are dewclaws.
 Japanese Spitz
The Japanese Spitz (??????, Nihon Supittsu?) is a small to medium breed of dog of the Spitz type. The Japanese Spitz is a companion dog and pet. There are varying standards around the world as to the ideal size of the breed, but they are always larger than their smaller cousins, the Pomeranian. They were developed in Japan in the 1920s and 30s by breeding a number of other Spitz type dog breeds together. They are recognized by the vast majority of the major kennel clubs, except the American Kennel Club due to it being similar appearance to the white Pomeranian dog, American Eskimo Dog and Samoyed Dog. While they are a relatively new breed, they are becoming widely popular due to their favorable temperament and other features.The major health concern is patellar luxation, and a minor recurring concern is that the breed can be prone to runny eyes. They can act as reliable watchdogs, but are a type of companion dog and prefer to be an active part of the family. Although they might appear fluffy, they are a low maintenance breed as the coat has a non stick texture often compared to teflon.The Japanese Spitz is a small dog, around 33 cm (13 ins) at the withers, with a somewhat square body, deep chest, and a very thick, pure white double coat. The coat consists of an outer coat that stands off from the soft inner coat, with fur shorter on the muzzle and ears as well as the fronts of the forelegs and the hindlegs. A ruff of longer fur is around the dog's neck. It has a pointed muzzle and small, triangular shape prick ears (ears that stand up.) The tail is long, heavily covered with long fur, and is carried curled over and lying on the dog's back. The white coat contrasts with the black pads and nails of the feet, the black nose, and the dark eyes. The large oval (akin to a ginko seed) eyes are dark and slightly slanted with white eyelashes, and the nose and lips and eye rims are black. The face of the Japanese Spitz is wedge-shaped.They share a common resemblance with the white Pomeranian dog, Samoyed and American Eskimo Dog.Description of the ideal size of the breed varies. In Japan, the ideal size for dogs (males) is described as 30-38 cm at the withers, with females somewhat smaller; (the Japanese standard is the one published by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale for international dog competitions.) In the UK, the Kennel Club describes the size as 34–37 cm (13.5–14.5 in) at the withers with females 30–34 cm (12–13.5 in), which is the same for the Australian National Kennel Council. In New Zealand (New Zealand Kennel Club, the ideal size is 30–40 cm (12–16 in) for males, 25–35 cm (10–14 in) for females. The Canadian Kennel Club states that the size for dogs is 12 inches (30 cm) with females slightly smaller, and the United Kennel Club in the U.S. describes the ideal size as 12 to 15 ins (30.5–38.1 cm) for males and 12 to 14 ins (30.5–35.6 cm) for females. Minor kennel clubs and other organizations may use any of these ideal sizes or create their own. Japanese Spitz dogs are generally considered larger than their cousins, the Pomeranian.Dog breeders in Japan in the 1920s and 1930s created the Japanese Spitz by crossbreeding a number of other Spitz breeds to develop the Japanese Spitz. Breeders began with white German Spitz dogs, originally brought over from northeastern China to Japan; they were first exhibited at a dog show in Tokyo in 1921. Between 1925 and 1936 various small white Spitz breeds were imported from around the world and crossed into the developing breed, with the goal of producing an improved breed. The final Standard for the breed was written after World War II, and accepted by the Japanese Kennel Club. The breed gained popularity in Japan in the 1950s, and was exported to Sweden in the early 1950s. From there the breed went to England, and the Kennel Club recognized the Japanese Spitz in 1977 in the Utility Group. The Japanese Spitz has spread around the world including to India, Australia, and the United States and is recognized by most of the major kennel clubs in the English speaking world; by the Canadian Kennel Club in Group 6, Non-Sporting, by the New Zealand Kennel Club (Non-Sporting Group), by the Australian National Kennel Council in Group 7 (Non Sporting), and by the United Kennel Club (U.S.) in the Northern Breeds Group. The American Kennel Club does not recognize the Japanese Spitz due to its being close in appearance to a U.S. developed Spitz breed, the American Eskimo Dog. The breed is also recognized by minor registries and clubs and is a popular pet.
 Shiba Inu
The Shiba Inu (???) is the smallest of the six original and distinct spitz breeds of dog from Japan. The Shiba's frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males are 141?2 inches to 161?2 inches (35–43 cm) at withers. Females are 131?2 inches to 151?2 inches (33–41 cm). The preferred size is the middle of the range for each sex. Average weight at preferred size is approximately 23 pounds (10 kg) for males, 17 pounds (8 kg) for females. Bone is moderate. Coat: Double coated with the outer coat being stiff and straight and the undercoat soft and thick. Fur is short and even on the fox-like face, ears, and legs. Guard hairs stand off the body are about 11?2 to 2 inches long at the withers. Tail hair is slightly longer and stands open in a brush. Shibas may be red, black and tan, or sesame (red with black-tipped hairs), with a cream, buff, or grey undercoat. They may also be white (cream), though this color is considered a "major fault" by the American Kennel Club and should never be intentionally bred in a show dog, as the required markings known as "urajiro" (???) are not visible; "Urajiro" literally translates to "underside white". Conversely, a white (cream) coat is perfectly acceptable according to the British Kennel Club breed standard
 Keeshond
The Keeshond ( /?ke?z.h?nd/ kayz-hond; plural: Keeshonden) is a medium-sized dog with a plush two-layer coat of silver and black fur with a 'ruff' and a curled tail. It originated in Germany, and its closest relatives are the other German spitzes such as the Pomeranian. Originally called the German Spitz, more specifically the Wolfsspitz, the name was officially changed to Keeshond, in 1926 in England, where it had been known as the Dutch Barge Dog.A member of the spitz group of dogs, the Keeshond in American Kennel Club (AKC) standard is 17 inches (43 cm) to 18 inches (46 cm) tall and 19.25 inches (48.9 cm) ± 2.4 inches (6.1 cm) in the FCI standard and weighs 35 pounds (16 kg) to 45 pounds (20 kg). Sturdily built, they have a typical spitz appearance, neither coarse nor refined. They have a wedge-shaped head, a medium-length muzzle with a definite stop, small pointed ears, and an expressive face. The tail is tightly curled and, in profile, should be carried such that it is indistinguishable from the compact body of the dog.Like all spitz, the Keeshonden have a dense double coat, with a thick ruff around the neck. Typically, the males of this breed will have a thicker, more pronounced, ruff than the females. The tail is well plumed, and feathering on the fore and hind legs adds to the soft look of the breed. The coat is shown naturally and should not be wavy, silky, or long enough to form a natural part down the back. The top layer should be smooth, and the under layer should be woollen.The Keeshond is a color-specific spitz type; many of the names of the dog refer to the distinctive wolf color of the breed. The color is a mix of grey, black, and cream. The top coat is tipped with black, while the undercoat is silver or cream (never tawny). The color can range from very pale to very dark; but it should neither be black nor white. The ruff and "trousers" of the hind legs should be a distinctly lighter silver or cream.The plumed tail should be silver or cream with a black tip on the very end. The tail should be tightly curled over the back. The tail is an important part of the Keeshond's shape. The ears and muzzle are to be black, although some tend to develop "milk mouth", a white shading around the nose and front of the muzzle. This increases as the dog ages. In American shows, this white shading is acceptable, although not desired.According to the American Kennel Club breed standard, the legs and feet are to be cream; feet that are totally black or white are severe faults. Black markings more than halfway down the foreleg, except for pencilling, are faulted.The other important marking is the "spectacles," a delicate dark line running from the outer corner of each eye toward the lower corner of each ear, which, coupled with markings forming short eyebrows, is necessary for the distinct expressive look of the breed. All markings should be clear, not muddled or broken. Absence of the spectacles is considered a serious fault. The eyes should be dark brown, almond-shaped with black eye rims.Ears should be small, triangular, and erect.Keeshonden tend to be very playful, with quick reflexes and strong jumping ability. They are quick learners and eager to please. Because Keeshonden are quick learners, they also learn things you did not necessarily wish to teach them—very quickly. However, Keeshonden make excellent agility and obedience dogs. So amenable to proper training is this bright, sturdy dog that Keeshonden have been successfully trained to serve as guide dogs for the blind; only their lack of size has prevented them from being more widely used in this role.They love children and are excellent family dogs, preferring to be close to their humans whenever possible. They generally get along with other dogs as well and will enjoy a good chase around the yard. Keeshonden are very intuitive and empathic and are often used as comfort dogs. Most notably, at least one Keeshond, Tikva, was at Ground Zero on 9/11 to help comfort the rescue workers.[3] The breed has a tendency to become especially clingy towards their owners, even in comparison to other dogs. If their owner is out, or in another room behind a closed door, they may sit, waiting for their owner to reappear, even if there are other people nearby. Many have been referred to as their "owner's shadow," or "velcro dogs".They are known by their loud, distinctive bark. Throughout the centuries, the Keeshond has been very popular as a watch dog on manors in the Netherlands and middle Europe. This trait is evident to this day, and they are alert dogs that warn their owners of any new visitors. Although loud and alert, Keeshonden are not aggressive towards visitors. They generally welcome visitors affectionately once their family has accepted them. Unfortunately, barking may become a problem if not properly handled. Keeshonden that are kept in a yard, and not allowed to be with their humans, are unhappy and often become nuisance barkers.
 Slovensky Cuvac
The Slovak Cuvac is a Slovak breed of dog, bred for use as a livestock guard dog. This mountain dog—also known as Slovensky Cuvac, Slovak Chuvach, Tatransky Cuvac and Slovensky Kuvac—is closely related to the Hungarian Kuvasz. The alternate German and English spelling Tchouvatch reflects the pronunciation: chew-votch. The breed is recognised under sponsorship from Slovakia by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale with the name Slovenský ?uva?. Despite the multiple renderings in English, these refer to only one breed. The United Kennel Club in the US uses the English version of the name Slovak Cuvac.
 Kerry Blue Terrier
The Kerry Blue Terrier is a breed of dog mistakenly thought to be of County Kerry in South West Ireland; it is actually from Tipperary. In its motherland it is often called the Irish Blue Terrier. Over time the Kerry became a general working dog used for a variety of jobs, including herding cattle and sheep and as a guard dog. It was, however, primarily developed for controlling "vermin" including rats, rabbits, badgers, foxes, otters and hares. Today the Kerry has spread around the world as a companion and working dog. Despite a Kerry Blue winning Crufts - the most important UK dog show - in 2000, it remains an uncommon breed. Not as threatened as some of the other terrier breeds (Skye Terrier, Sealyham Terrier, Dandie Dinmont Terrier), it is still distinctly uncommon.Some characteristics of the Kerry Blue Terrier include a long head, flat skull, deep chest, and a soft wavy to curly coat that comes in several shades of blue (from blue-black to light slate grey). The coat is considered to have more "color" or to be more "blue" when it carries more of the grey/blue color (or the lighter the coat is). Puppies are born black; the blue appears gradually as the puppy grows older, usually up to 2 years of age. All kennel clubs have statements in their standard similar to that of the American Kennel Club: "Black on the muzzle, head, ears, tail and feet is permissible at any age." This indicates the presence of the melanistic mask gene. The ideal Kerry should be 18½ inches at the withers for a male, slightly less for the female. The most desirable weight for a fully developed male is from 33 to 40 pounds, females weighing proportionately less.The coat is the key feature of the Kerry. It is soft and wavy with no undercoat. The texture is similar to that of fine human hair and like human hair is not shed but continues to grow throughout the year. This means the Kerry Blue requires very regular grooming (at least once per week) and clipping an average of every 6 weeks. As they do not lose their hair, a home can stay much cleaner. Kerrys have little to no scent; they do not have that dog smell. In fact, their scent is almost pleasant.Kerry Blue Terriers are strong-headed and highly spirited. They have always been loyal and affectionate towards their owners and very gentle towards children.[1] In the early days of competitive dog showing the Irish Kennel Club required Kerries to pass a "gameness" test, known as Teastas Mor certification, before they were deemed worthy of being judged. These tests included catching rabbits and bringing a badger to bay in its set. They are fast, strong, and intelligent. They do well in obedience, dog agility, sheep herding, and tracking. They have been used as police dogs in Ireland. Modern breeders have attempted to retain high spirits while breeding out aggression.As a long-legged breed, the activity level of the Kerry Blue Terrier ranges from moderate to high. They require an active, skilled owner who can provide them with early socialization and obedience training. Kerries require daily exercise.
 Small Munsterlander Pointer
The Small Munsterlander (also SM or Kleiner Münsterländer) is a versatile hunting-pointing-retrieving dog breed that reached its current form in the area around Münster, Germany. The Large Munsterlander is from the same area, but was developed from different breeding stock and is not related as the names would suggest. Small Munsterlanders bear a resemblance to both spaniels and setters but are more versatile while hunting on land and water. The Small Munsterlander is recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale under Group 7, Section 1.2, Continental Pointing Dogs of Spaniel type, by the American Kennel Club as a Foundation Breed, and by The Kennel Club and the United Kennel Club as a gun dog. It is related to the Epagneul Français and the Drentsche Patrijshond.
 King Charles Spaniel
The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small breed of Spaniel-type dog, and is classed as a toy dog by most kennel clubs. It is one of the most popular breeds in the United Kingdom. Since 2000, it has been growing in popularity in the United States. It is a smaller breed of spaniel, and Cavalier adults are often the same size as adolescent dogs of other spaniel breeds. It has a silky coat and commonly an undocked tail. The breed standard recognizes four colours (Blenheim, Tricolour [black/white/tan], Black and Tan, and Ruby). The breed is generally friendly, affectionate and good with both children and other animals.The King Charles changed drastically in the late 17th century, when it was interbred with flat-nosed breeds. Until the 1920s, the Cavalier shared the same history as the smaller King Charles Spaniel. Breeders attempted to recreate what they considered to be the original configuration of the breed, a dog resembling Charles II's King Charles Spaniel of the Restoration.Various health issues affect this particular breed, most notably mitral valve disease, which leads to heart failure. This will appear in most Cavaliers at some point in their lives and is the most common cause of death. The breed may also suffer from Syringomyelia, in which cavities are formed in the spinal cord, possibly associated with malformation of the skull that reduces the space available for the brain. Cavaliers are also affected by ear problems, a common health problem among spaniels of various types, and they can suffer from such other general maladies as hip dysplasia, which are common across many types of dog breeds.The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is one of the largest toy breeds. Historically it was a lap dog, and modern day adults can fill a lap easily. Nonetheless, it is small for a spaniel, with fully grown adults comparable in size to adolescents of other larger spaniel breeds. Breed standards state that height of a Cavalier should be between 12 to 13 inches (30 to 33 cm) with a proportionate weight between 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg). The tail is usually not docked, and the Cavalier should have a silky coat of moderate length. Standards state that it should be free from curl, although a slight wave is allowed. Feathering can grow on their ears, feet, legs and tail in adulthood. Standards require this be kept long, with the feathering on the feet a particularly important aspect of the breed's features.The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and the English Toy Spaniel can be often confused with each other. In the United Kingdom, the English Toy Spaniel is called the King Charles Spaniel while in the United States, one of the colours of the Toy Spaniel is known as King Charles. The two breeds share similar history and only diverged from each other about 100 years ago. There are several major differences between the two breeds, with the primary difference being the size. While the Cavalier weighs on average between 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg), the King Charles is smaller at 9 to 12 pounds (4.1 to 5.4 kg). In addition their facial features while similar, are different, the Cavalier's ears are set higher and its skull is flat while the King Charles's is domed. Finally the muzzle length of the Cavalier tends to be longer than that of its King Charles cousin.The breed is highly affectionate, playful, extremely patient and eager to please. As such, dogs of the breed are good with children and other dogs. Cavaliers are not shy about socialising with much larger dogs. They will adapt quickly to almost any environment, family, and location. Their ability to bond with larger and smaller dogs make them ideal in houses with more than one breed of dog as long as the other dog is trained. The breed is great with people of all ages, from children to seniors, making them a very versatile dog. Cavaliers rank 44th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of average intelligence in working or obedience. Cavaliers are naturally curious and playful, but also enjoy simply cuddling up on a cushion or lap.Cavaliers are active and sporting. They have an instinct to chase most things that move including while on busy streets, and so most Cavaliers will never become "street-wise". As they tend to regard all strangers as friends, members of the breed will usually never make good guard dogs. Spaniels have a strong hunting instinct and may endanger birds and small animals. However, owners have reported that through training their Cavaliers live happily with a variety of small animals including hamsters and gerbils.

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German Shepherd Puppies of Distinction
We are a small hobby German Shepherd Dog breeder / kennel, located in Oahu.
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