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 Affenpinscher
The affenpinscher is a terrier-like toy breed of dog.he breed is German in origin and dates back to the seventeenth century. Its name is derived from the German Affe (ape, monkey). The breed predates and is ancestral to the Griffon Bruxellois (Brussels Griffon) and Miniature Schnauzer.Dogs of the Affenpinscher type have been known since about 1600 but these were somewhat larger, about 12 to 13 inches, and came in colors of gray, fawn, black and tan, gray and tan, and also red. White feet and chest were also common. The breed was created to be a ratter, working to remove rodents from kitchens, granaries, and stables.An Affenpinscher generally weighs 6.5 to 13.2 pounds (2.9 to 6.0 kg) and stands 9 to 12 inches (23 to 30 cm) tall at the withers. It has a harsh rough coat and a monkey-like expression (Affe means monkey in German). Its coat is shaggier over the head and shoulders forming a mane, with shorter coat over the back and hind quarters. It is harsh and wiry in texture. The FCI and KC breed standards specifies that the coat must be black, but the AKC also allows gray, silver, red, black and tan, and belge (a mixture of red, brown, black and white hairs); other clubs have their own lists of acceptable colours, with black being the preference. The Affenpinscher has a shaggy, wiry-type coat.Affenpinschers have a distinct appearance that some associate with terriers. They are different from terriers, however, in that they are actually part of the pinscher-schnauzer of group 2 in the FCI classification and so often get along with other dogs and pets. They are active, adventurous, curious, and stubborn, but they are also fun-loving and playful. The breed is confident, lively, affectionate towards family members and is also very protective of them. This loyal little dog enjoys being with its family. It needs consistent, firm training because some can be quite difficult to housebreak. The training should be varied because the dog can easily become bored. The affenpinscher has a terrier like personality.Affenpinschers are somewhat territorial when it comes to their toys and food, so they are not recommended for very small children. This dog is mostly quiet but can become very excited if attacked or threatened and shows no fear toward any aggressor. It is best suited for a family who likes a show and has a sense of humor.
 Kooikerhondje
The Kooikerhondje or Kooiker Hound, is a small spaniel-type breed of dog of Dutch ancestry that was originally used as a working dog, particularly in duck hunting and tolling. Kooikers were popular in the 17th and 18th century and appeared in the paintings of Rembrandt and Jan Steen. The breed is rapidly gaining popularity in the United States, Canada and Scandinavia, where it is still relatively unknown.These dogs are around 35 to 40 cm (14 to 16 inches) high at the withers with a nearly square body that is slightly longer than their height at the shoulders. Depending on the gender and the size a Kooikerhondje is not supposed to weigh more than 9-11 kilograms. They have medium long, hanging ears with wispy tips that are set close to the head and they have long, feathered tails with a white plume. The breed has a waterproof, medium long coat that doesn't hold much dirt and is easily cleaned by a simple brushing. They have shiny bicoloured coats, often predominantly white with orange-red plates. The fur is medium long and either slightly wavy or straight. For conformation showing, dogs with black ear tips and white tails are preferred.Cheerful, good natured, friendly, quiet, and alert; those are terms that are used to describe the Kooikerhondje. It is dependent on its domestic environment, kind, happy and lively. They are also intelligent, attentive and more than willing to please their owner. The Kooikerhondje adapts to situations rather quickly, changing his behavior from quiet to lively when the situation allows him to be. He will not always immediately like strangers, instead choosing to retreat. But once he warms up to someone, the trust will be there for the rest of his life.
 Akita
The Akita Inu (????) is a Japanese breed of large dog. Named for Akita Prefecture, where it is thought to have originated, it is sometimes called the Akita-ken based on the Sino-Japanese reading of the same kanji. In most countries (with the exception of the Australian, American and Canadian Kennel Clubs), it is considered a separate breed from the American Akita and is also colloquially known as the "Japanese Akita". "Inu" means "dog."Breed standards state that male Akita Inus height should range from 64-70cms (25 ¼-27 ½ ins), and females 58-64 cms (22 ¾-25 ¼ ins) at the withers.The Akita Inu comes in only five colors: Red, Fawn, Sesame, Brindle, and Pure White. All except white must have whitish hair on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, the neck, chest, body and tail, known as "Urajiro". Black masks, as seen in the American Akita, are not permitted in the Japanese Akita Inu. In contrast, all colors are accepted in the American Akita. The Pinto color is not accepted as an Akita Inu color, but is as an accepted American Akita color.There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat, which is not eligible for showing. The long coat, also known as 'Moku' is the result of a autosomal recessive gene and only occurs phenotypically if both sire and dam are carriers.Akita Inu are renowned as loyal dogs and are also intelligent. The loyalty of an Akita named Hachiko established the breed as truly loyal to their owners. The famous Akita Hachiko spent nine years waiting daily at the Shibuya railway station for his deceased master to return home. Hachiko's popularity brought back the Akita from the brink of extinction.Because of their intelligence, Akitas get bored very easily and as a result, they often become destructive and aggressive if not given anything to do. Akita Inu can live happily in apartments as long as they are given plenty of exercise. They need to be socialized as puppies so they are friendly dogs and should have experienced owners. Although they love human companionship, they are quite happy to be outside dogs as well, but should still be taken out for walks to prevent destruction of the yard. Akita Inu often become excitable when seeing their owners, often wiggling around and making happy grunts.Akita Inu are very good with youngsters from their own family, and often quite playful, although they should be watched around other people's children as they could knock them over during play.The Akita Inu have a reputation for sometimes being aggressive towards smaller animals or other dogs, particularly those of the same sex. However, they can live happily with other dogs and animals providing they are socialized well. They are excellent guard dogs and naturally protective of their home and family. The Akita Inu has a reputation for being an excellent house dog. They make great family dogs with the right training and socialization.[
 Korean Jindo
The Korean Jindo Dog (Hangul: ???; Hanja: ???) is a breed of hunting dog known to have originated on Jindo Island in South Korea. Brought to the US with Korean immigrants, it is celebrated in its native land for its fierce loyalty and brave nature. The Jindo breed became recognized by the United Kennel Club on January 1, 1998 and by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 2005.Jindos are medium-sized, double-coated spitz-type dogs. Much as the Dingo developed in Australia, the Jindo Gae is the natural or feral dog of a particular island of Korea. Distinguishing the Jindo breed from mixes and other breeds is often done by close examination of cranial and facial features and by analyzing the proportion of the head to the body. In addition, the breed exhibits sexual dimorphism with females having more angular heads than males. The keen and alert appearance of the Jindo gives the impression of intelligence, strength, and agility.The Korean Jindo Dog is well known for its unwavering loyalty and gentle nature. Because of this, there is a misconception that a Jindo will be loyal only to its first owner or the owner they bonded to when young. However, there are many examples of older Jindos being adopted out of shelters in the United States and becoming very loyal friends to their new owners. They are highly active and are certainly not indoor-only dogs. Jindo dogs need reasonable space to roam and run. Jindos require a lot of care and attention. If kept in a yard, the fencing must be at least 6 feet high due to their strong hind legs that enable them to jump high.Because the Jindo is an active and intelligent dog, it requires frequent interaction with people or another dog in the family. For some the Jindo may even be too intelligent, for it will commonly think for itself. The same intelligence that allows the dog to learn commands and tricks very quickly can be a bit too much to handle. If left alone for a long stretch, it finds its own entertainment. A young Jindo may attempt to climb over a fence or wall, even by way of a tree or digging under, or tear up the house if confined indoors. Because of this many Jindo dogs are found in animal shelters, abandoned by owners who often did not know what they were getting into when accepting the responsibility of a Jindo.Jindos serve as excellent watchdogs, able to distinguish family from foe, friends from strangers. The Korean Army is known to use Jindos as guard dogs at major bases. Because Jindos rarely bark aggressively, especially in familiar environments, an owner may lend special credence to the warning of his/her pet. Many Jindos do not take any food from anyone other than their owners.Some Jindos display a curious aversion from running water and avoid situations that might get them wet. They let themselves be washed, although with great reluctance. Some may even be afraid of going out in the rain, which could lead to some difficulties.People adopt Jindo dogs because of their beautiful appearance, high intelligence, loyalty, and sometimes for their fighting spirit, then quickly realize that raising a Jindo dog to be a well-behaved member of the family takes a lot of effort and time. Potential owners who are prepared and determined to have an intelligent, loyal, but independent companion can adopt a Jindo dog from shelters.Desirable height at maturity, measured at the withers, ranges from 19½ to 21 inches(or 48 cm to 53 cm) for males and 18½ to 20 inches(or 45 cm to 50 cm) for females.Weight should be in proportion to the height, giving a well-muscled, lean appearance without being too light or too heavy. The typical weight range for a male Jindo in good condition is 40 to 60 pounds or 18 to 27 kilos; for a female, 35 to 55 pounds or 16 to 25 kilos.
 Alaskan Malamute
The American Kennel Club (AKC) breed standard calls for a natural range of size, with a desired freighting size of 23 inches (584 mm) and 75 pounds (34 kg) for females, 25 inches (635 mm) and 85 pounds (39 kg) for males. Heavier individuals (90 lb (41 kg)) and dogs smaller than 75 pounds (34 kg) are commonly seen. There is often a marked size difference between males and females. Weights upwards of 120 pounds (54 kg) are occasionally seen, but this is uncommon and such dogs are produced primarily by breeders who market a 'giant Malamute.' These large sizes are not in accordance with show standards.The coat is a dense double northern dog coat, somewhat "harsher" (in a certain sense) than that of the smaller Siberian Husky. The usual colors are various shades of gray and white, sable and white, black and white, red and white, or solid white. Blue and white (slate gray with gray pigment) also is seen in the breed. Eyes are almond-shaped and are always various shades of brown (from dark to light, honey or hazel brown); blue eyed Malamutes will be disqualified in conformation shows, as they would not be a purebred Malamute, but mixed with perhaps a Siberian Husky. The physical build of the Malamute is compact with heavy bone, in most (but not all) cases. In this context 'compact' means that their height to length ratio is slightly longer than tall, unlike dogs like Great Danes which are longer and lankier in their ratios. An adult Alaskan MalamuteAccording to the AKC breed standard, the Malamute's tail is well furred and is carried over the back like a "waving plume". Corkscrew tails are occasionally seen but are faulted in the AKC breed standard (a corkscrew tail is commonly seen in the Akita). The Malamutes' well-furred tails aid in keeping them warm when they curl up in the snow. They are often seen wrapping the tail around their nose and face, which presumably helps protect them against harsh weather such as blowing snow. Their ears are generally upright. They are one of five breeds that still look like wolves.
 Labrador Retriever
The Labrador Retriever (also Labrador, or Lab for short) is one of several kinds of retriever, a type of gun dog. A breed characteristic is webbed paws for swimming, useful for the breed's original purpose of retrieving fishing nets. The Labrador is the most popular breed of dog by registered ownership in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States (since 1991). It is also one of the most popular assistance dog breeds in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States and many other countries, as well as being widely used by police and other official bodies for their detection and working abilities. Typically, Labradors are athletic and love to swim, play catch and retrieve games, are good with young children, and for protection.Labradors are relatively large, with males typically weighing 29 to 41 kg (64 to 90 lb) and females 25 to 32 kg (55 to 71 lb). Labradors weighing close to or over 100 lb (45 kg) are considered obese or having a major fault under American Kennel Club standards, although some Labradors weigh significantly more.[18] The majority of the characteristics of this breed, with the exception of colour, are the result of breeding to produce a working retriever.As with some other breeds, the Conformation (typically "English", "show" or "bench") and the Field (typically "American" or "working") lines differ, although both lines are bred in both countries. In general, however, Conformation Labradors tend to be bred as medium-sized dogs, shorter and stockier with fuller faces and a slightly calmer nature than their Field counterparts, which are often bred as taller, lighter-framed dogs, with slightly less broad faces and a slightly longer nose; however Field Labradors should still be proportional and fit within AKC standards. With field Labradors, excessively long noses, thin heads, long legs and lanky frames are not considered standard. These two types are informal and not codified or standardized; no distinction is made by the AKC or other kennel clubs, but the two types come from different breeding lines. Australian stock also exists; though not seen in the west, they are common in Asia.The breed tends to shed hair twice annually, or regularly throughout the year in temperate climates. Some Labradors shed considerably; however, individual Labradors vary. Labrador hair is usually fairly short and straight, and the tail quite broad and strong. The otter-like tail and webbed toes of the Labrador Retriever make them excellent swimmers. The webbing between their toes can also serve as a "snowshoe" in colder climates and keep snow from balling up between their toes- a condition that can be painful to other breeds with hair between the toes. Their interwoven coat is also relatively waterproof, providing more assistance for swimming.Size: Labradors are a medium but compact breed. They should have an appearance of proportionality. They should be as long from the withers to the base of the tail as they are from the floor to the withers. Males should stand 22.5 to 24.5 inches (57 to 62 cm) tall at the withers and weigh 65 to 80 lb (29 to 36 kg). Females should stand 21.5 to 23.5 inches (55 to 60 cm) and weigh 55 to 70 lb (25 to 32 kg). By comparison under UK Kennel Club standards, height should be 22 to 22.5 inches (56 to 57 cm) for males, and 21.5 to 22 inches (55 to 56 cm) for females.The AKC describes the Labrador's temperament as a kind, outgoing and tractable nature. Labradors' sense of smell allows them to hone in on almost any scent and follow the path of its origin. They generally stay on the scent until they find it. Labradors instinctively enjoy holding objects and even hands or arms in their mouths, which they can do with great gentleness (a Labrador can carry an egg in its mouth without breaking it). They are also known to have a very soft feel to the mouth, as a result of being bred to retrieve game such as waterfowl. They are prone to chewing objects (though they can be trained out of this behavior). The Labrador Retriever's coat repels water to some extent, thus facilitating the extensive use of the dog in waterfowl hunting.Labradors have a reputation as a very even-tempered breed and an excellent family dog. This includes a good reputation with children of all ages and other animals. But some lines (particularly those that have continued to be bred specifically for their skills at working in the field rather than for their appearance) are particularly fast and athletic. Their fun-loving boisterousness and lack of fear may require training and firm handling at times to ensure it does not get out of hand—an uncontrolled adult can be quite problematic. Females may be slightly more independent than males. Labradors mature at around three years of age; before this time they can have a significant degree of puppy-like energy, often mislabelled as being hyperactive. Because of their enthusiasm, leash-training early on is suggested to prevent pulling when full-grown. Labradors often enjoy retrieving a ball endlessly and other forms of activity (such as agility, frisbee, or flyball).Although they will sometimes bark at noise, especially noise from an unseen source ("alarm barking"), Labradors are usually not noisy or territorial. They are often very easygoing and trusting with strangers, and therefore are not usually suitable as guard dogs.Labradors have a well-known reputation for appetite, and some individuals may be highly indiscriminate, eating digestible and non-food objects alike. They are persuasive and persistent in requesting food. For this reason, the Labrador owner must carefully control his/her dog's food intake to avoid obesity and its associated health problems.The steady temperament of Labradors and their ability to learn make them an ideal breed for search and rescue, detection, and therapy work. They are a very intelligent breed. They are ranked # 7 in Stanley Coren's book " The Intelligence of dogs". The AKC describes the breed as an ideal family and sporting dog. Their primary working role in the field continues to be that of a hunting retriever.
 American Water Spaniel
The American Water Spaniel is a gundog little known outside North America. This breed is known for its superior sense of smell and friendly disposition. The AWS is equally adept at retrieving waterfowl, flushing game, and being a companion animal.The AWS stands 15 to 18 inches (38 to 46 cm) high and weighs 25 to 45 pounds (11 to 20 kg); females usually range from 25 to 40 lb (11 to 18 kg) while males weigh 30 to 45 lb (14 to 20 kg). They have a curly to marcell (uniformly wavy) coat that is dense and well-suited to resist cold water and inclement weather. The coat's color is liver (tan), brown, or chocolate. (A small amount of white on the chest or toes is permissible, and spots become smaller in size as pup grows to adulthood.) The AWS should have a rocker-shaped tail and be somewhat compact in size with well-proportioned features that give the dog an air of balance. Its head should be broad and spaniel-like with no topknot. Eyes are yellowish brown to brown, hazel or of dark tone and should harmonize with coat; yellow eyes are a disqualification in the show ring.An American original, this competent retriever also doubles as a flushing spaniel. Like many of the spaniel breeds, it hunts both feather and fur (and even fish) with equal enthusiasm. This dog is very soft-mouthed but can be trained to play tug-of-war.Friendly, intelligent, and often willing to please, this dog is also very protective of its owner. It will become highly attached to the alpha of the house and will think of children as kennel mates until they grow up. Unspayed females will have a mind of their own when in heat (even when very well trained). In old age the dog may become temperamental.This little brown dog also has many of the common spaniel characteristics.
 Lancashire Heeler
The Lancashire Heeler is a small breed of dog developed for use as a drover and herder of cattle. The Lancashire Heeler is listed by the Kennel Club (UK) as a vulnerable breed.The coat is harsh and smooth with an undercoat which keeps the dog dry in all weathers. It may have a slight mane round the neck in winter. The dog is usually black and tan, but liver and tan is now recognised by the Kennel Club. They are slightly longer than height at withers, usually measures between 10–12 inches (25–30 cm) at the shoulder and weighs 6–13 pounds (2.7–5.9 kg). Ears can be tipped or erect.The coat is harsh and smooth with an undercoat which keeps the dog dry in all weathers. It may have a slight mane round the neck in winter. The dog is usually black and tan, but liver and tan is now recognised by the Kennel Club. They are slightly longer than height at withers, usually measures between 10–12 inches (25–30 cm) at the shoulder and weighs 6–13 pounds (2.7–5.9 kg). Ears can be tipped or erect.
 Anatolian Shepherd Dog
The Anatolian Shepherd Dog also known as Karabash (Turkish literal meaning: blackhead) is a breed of dog which originated in Anatolia (central Turkey) and was further developed as a breed in America.With acute hearing, exceptional eyesight, and the strength to take down wolves, horses, and even lions, the Anatolian Shepherd Dog is a superb guardian of his flock.The Anatolian Shepherd Dog is descended from ancient livestock guardian dog types that migrated with the transhumance, guarding flocks of sheep from wolves, bears, jackals, and even cheetahs. It is probable that dogs of this type existed 6,000 years ago in Mesopotamia. The dogs were called Çoban Köpe?i (shepherd dog) in Turkish, and over the centuries, regional variations or landraces developed.In the 1970s, western breeders became interested in the dogs and began developing the landrace natural breeds as modern breeds, by documenting their descent from particular ancestors and writing breed standards. The Anatolian Shepherd Dog was imported from central Turkey into Petoria by author and archaeologist Charmian Hussey. Many Turkish breeders believe that the Anatolian Shepherd Dog is a cross of the Kangal dog and the Akbash dog.The Anatolian is a muscular breed. They have thick necks, broad heads, and sturdy bodies. Their lips are tight to their muzzle and they have triangular drop ears. Males stand 26 - 31 inches. Females are between 27 to 30 inches. They weigh between 90 and 150 pounds (41 to 68 kg), with females on the smaller side and males on the larger side. The coat may be any color, although most common are white cream, "sesame," and white with large colored spots that do not cover more than 30% of the body. Known as piebald, these colors may or may not be accompanied by a black mask and/or ears. They have a thick double coat that is somewhat wiry, and needs to be brushed 1-2 times a week in warm weather due to excessive shedding. They have very thick hair on their neck to protect their throat. They are seen with docked as well as intact tails. They are a naturally thin animal with a large rib cage and small stomach. They look as if they are heavier than they actually are, due to the thick coat.
 Lhasa Apso
The Lhasa Apso (/?l??s? ?æpso?/ lah-s? ap-sohTemplate:Tibetan ???????????) is a non-sporting dog breed originating in Tibet. It was bred as an interior sentinel in the Buddhist monasteries, who alerted the monks to any intruders who entered. Lhasa is the capital city of Tibet and apso is a word in the Tibetan language meaning "bearded," so Lhasa Apso simply means "long-haired Tibetan dog."Male Lhasa Apsos should ideally be 10.75 inches (27.3 cm) at the withers and weigh about 14-18 pounds, 6–8 kg. The females are slightly smaller, and weigh between 12-14 pounds, 5–7 kg. The breed standard requires dark brown eyes and a black nose, although liver coloured lhasas have a brown nose. The texture of the coat is heavy, straight, hard, neither woolly nor silky, and very dense. They come in a wide variety of colors including black, white, gold, red and parti-colored with various shadings. Lhasas can be with or without dark tips at the end of ears and beard. The tail should be carried well over the dog's back. The breed standard currently used by the American Kennel Club was approved on July 11, 1978.Having been bred as an indoor monastery sentinel dog by Tibetan Buddhist monks, Lhasa Apsos are alert with a keen sense of hearing and a rich, sonorous bark that belies their size. The ideal Lhasa temperament is to be wary of strangers while being loyal to those closest to them. They can be very aggressive to strangers if left untrained. They rank 68th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of fair working/obedience intelligence.[citation needed] Lhasa Apsos are independent as well as companion dogs who want to please their owners. Unique personality characteristics of Lhasa Apsos have gained them a reputation as being a very emotive breed that, in most cases, prove themselves to be completely fearless. Lhasa Apsos often show happiness by rubbing their head on their owners, running and rolling around, or sitting on their owner's feet.A Lhasa Apso responds to exercise and discipline with a calm assertive energy. They are known as fearless in the Tibetan mountain range. These dogs require socialization with dogs and other people early as puppies and throughout their lives. They require patience but in return can be quite comical, entertaining and caring companions. They aim to please their owners and enjoy training. While their personality belies their size, they need a home that is mindful that there is a small dog in the house to prevent injury. They enjoy vantage points in the house where they can view all that is going on.[citation needed] Female Lhasa Apso, seven years old in a pet clip.If properly trained early as a puppy, the Lhasa Apso will come to appreciate bathing, hair combing and clipping, but they generally do not enjoy bathing or swimming as this is not part of their breed traits.The Lhasa Apso is a long-lived breed, with many living in good health into their early 20s. The average age for these dogs is 14. There are few health problems specific to the breed. Their vision may deteriorate with age but they are not sight-oriented dogs and they endure blindness with few noticeable changes in behavior.
 Australian Cattle Dog
The Australian Cattle Dog (ACD) is a breed of herding dog originally developed in Australia for droving cattle over long distances across rough terrain. Today it is a versatile breed: a courageous and tireless worker, an intelligent and athletic companion and a loving and playful family pet. They can bite "if harshly treated", they tend to nip heels to herd people, and they can be aggressive with other dogs. However, they are loyal and biddable, and respond well to training.The Australian Cattle Dog is a medium-sized, short-coated dog that occurs in two main colour forms. The dogs have either brown or black hair distributed fairly evenly through a white coat, which gives the appearance of red or blue dogs. They have been nicknamed “Red Heelers” and “Blue Heelers” on the basis of this colouring and their practice of moving reluctant cattle by nipping at their heels. Dogs from a line bred in Queensland, Australia, which were successful at shows and at stud in the 1940s were called “Queensland Heelers” to differentiate them from lines bred in New South Wales, and this nickname is now occasionally applied to any Australian Cattle Dog.While there is a good deal of mythology surrounding the origins of breed, in recent years, information technology that enables the manipulation of large databases, and advances in the understanding of canine genetics has allowed a clearer understanding of the Halls Heeler, its dispersal through eastern Australia, and its development into two modern breeds: the Australian Cattle Dog and the Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog.As with dogs from other working breeds, Australian Cattle Dogs have a good deal of energy, a quick intelligence, and an independent streak. They respond well to structured training. They are not aggressive, but form a strong attachment with their owner and can be very protective of them and their possessions. They are easy to groom and maintain. The most common health problems are deafness and progressive blindness (both hereditary conditions) and accidental injury; otherwise, they are a robust breed with a lifespan of 12 to 14 years. Australian Cattle Dogs participate in a range of activities, from obedience, agility and herding competitions, to participating with their owners in hiking, flying disc, and endurance events, and working as therapy, assistance, or police dogsAustralian Cattle Dogs are sturdy, compact dogs that give the impression of agility and strength. They have a broad skull that flattens to a definite stop between the eyes, with muscular cheeks and a medium-length, deep, powerful muzzle. The ears are pricked, small to medium in size and set wide apart, with a covering of hair on the inside. The eyes are oval and dark, with an alert, keen expression. The neck and shoulders are strong and muscular; the forelegs are straight and parallel; and the feet round and strongly arched, with small toes and strong nails.They should have well-conditioned muscles, even when bred for companion or show purposes. Ideally, their appearance is symmetrical and balanced, with no individual part of the dog being exaggerated. They should not look either delicate or cumbersome, as either characteristic limits the agility and endurance that is necessary for a working dog.
 Manchester Terrier
The Manchester Terrier is a breed of dog of the smooth-haired terrier type.Manchester Terriers are considered by most to be the oldest of all identifiable terrier breeds, finding mention in works dating from as early as the 16th century. In 1570 Dr. Caius (Encyclopedia of Dogs) gives mention to the 'Black and Tan Terrier,' though he referred to a rougher coated, shorter legged dog than we are now accustomed to.By the early 19th century a closer facsimile to the current Manchester Terrier had evolved. In The Dog in Health and Disease by J. A. Walsh a full chapter was devoted to the Black and Tan, for the first time recognising it as an established breed. The description Walsh set forth might, in fact, serve well today: Smooth haired, long tapering nose, narrow flat skull, eyes small and bright, chest rather deep than wide, only true colour black and tan.This breed has maintained consistency in type and appearance for nearly two centuries (at the very least).In its native England, The Kennel Club recognises the Manchester Terrier in the Terrier Group and the closely related English Toy Terrier (Black and Tan) in the Toy Group.In North America the Manchester Terrier is divided into two varieties. The Toy Manchester Terrier was originally recognised as a separate breed in 1938, bred down in size from the Manchester Terrier. The Toy Manchester Terrier weighs less than 12 lb (5.4 kg) and has naturally erect ears, never cropped. It is placed in the Toy Group by the Canadian Kennel Club and the American Kennel Club, although the Manchester Terrier is placed in the Terrier Group. The Manchester Terrier non-toy variety weighs 12 to 22 lb (5.4 to 10.0 kg) and has three allowable ear types (naturally erect, button, or cropped). Other than size differences and ear type, the Manchester Terrier and the Toy Manchester Terrier have the same over all appearance, and since 1958 have been varieties of the same breed.
 Australian Shepherd
The Australian shepherd is a breed of herding dog that was developed on ranches in the Western United States. Despite its name, the breed, commonly known as an Aussie, did not originate in Australia They acquired their name because some of the Australian sheepdogs arrived in the United States with boatloads of Australian sheep. The breed rose gradually in popularity with the boom of western riding after World War I. They became known to the general public through rodeos, horse shows, and through Disney movies made for television.For many years, Aussies have been valued by stockmen for their inherent versatility and trainability. While they continue to work as stockdogs and compete in herding trials, the breed has earned recognition in other roles due to their trainability and eagerness to please, and are highly regarded for their skills in obedience. Like all working breeds, the Aussie has considerable energy and drive, and usually needs a job to do. It often excels at dog sports such as dog agility, flyball, and frisbee. They are also highly successful search and rescue dogs, disaster dogs, detection dogs, guide, service, and therapy dogs.The Australian shepherd is a medium sized breed of solid build. The ASCA standard calls for the Australian shepherd to stand between 18-23 inches at the withers, females being 18-21 inches and males measuring 20-23 inches, however, quality is not to be sacrificed in favor of size.
 Mexican Hairless - Xoloitzcuintli
The Mexican Hairless Dog is a rare, hairless breed of dog whose size varies greatly. It is also known as Xoloitzcuintle. The breed ranges in size from about 10 to 50 lb (4 to 20 kg). Similar in appearance to a Pharaoh Hound, with a sleek body, almond-shaped eyes, large bat-like ears, and a long neck, the Xolo is notable for its dominant trait of hairlessness. The dominant hairless trait originated in this breed as a spontaneous mutation thousands of years ago. The recessive expression of the trait will produce a coated variety, which is genetically inseparable from the hairless. Most litters contain both hairless and coated puppies. The coated variety, covered with a short, flat dense coat represents the original form of the dog, prior to the occurrence of the spontaneous hairless mutation. The hairless variety is completely hairless on the body. Some dogs exhibit a few short hairs on the top of the head, the toes and tip of the tail. Most hairless dogs are black or blue in color. According to standard genetic ratios, one out of every four puppies should be born coated. The allele responsible for the Xolo's hairlessness also affects the dog's dentition: Xolos typically have an incomplete set of teeth.The Xolo is moderate in all aspects of its appearance, conveying, strength, agility and elegance. Xolo body proportions are rectangular, slightly longer in total body length than the height measured at the highest point of the withers. The breed occurs naturally in two varieties, hairless and coated. Hairless Xolos are the dominant expression of the heterozygous Hh hairless trait. Coated Xolos (hh) are the recessive expression. Breeding hairless to coated or hairless to hairless may produce pups of either or both varieties. Breeding coated to coated will only produce coated pups because they are recessive to the hairless trait and do not carry the dominant H gene.Both varieties occur in all colors, solid, marked, splashed or spotted. The most common colors are various shades of black, blue, and red. The breed occurs in a range of sizes, which breeders have standardized into three designations:Toy: 10 to 13 in (25 to 33 cm) high at shoulder, approximately 12 to 18 lb (5.4 to 8.2 kg)Miniature: 13 to 18 in (33 to 46 cm) high at shoulder, approximately 20 to 25 lb (9.1 to 11 kg)Standard: 18 to 24 in (46 to 61 cm) high at shoulder, approximately 35 to 45 lb (16 to 20 kg)Adult Xolos are noted for their calm demeanor, but puppies can be extremely high energy, noisy and often chewy until maturity (after 2 years old), when they settle down and become calmer. The Xolo breed has definite primitive temperament traits (very high intelligence, high energy, inquisitiveness, strong hunting and social instincts). Thus Xolos today can be escape artists, climbing and jumping fences to chase small animals. They possess guard dog ability and will not back down from a fight, yet as adults, when raised properly, are known to become steady, well-trained and affectionate companions.This is because the breed temperament overall has not been tampered with in their native thousands-year history in the central americas, because that temperament was a good fit for free-roaming family, farm and hunting dog companions among the pre-colonial Indian cultures. This has also ensured a healthy, sturdy physical nature generally innate in both coated and uncoated xolos.Xolo behavioral temperament, like other breeds, remains true when bred and raised properly, with the strategic breeder priority focused on the maintenance of true physical and temperament breed quality and responsible adopter ownership, rather than money. Given good breeding and wise ownership, as with any dog breed, a wonderful companion results.Xolo behavioral temperament can be compared to a typical Working breed, with high intelligence, sensitivity, and social instincts. However for the same reasons, well-raised Xolos make outstanding and affectionate companion dogs that bond strongly with their dog-wise humans.Though physically grown at 1 year, dogs including Xolos are not emotionally mature until after the age of 2 years. Like other highly intelligent breeds such as terriers, and with the additional intelligence and energy of a "primitive" dog breed, Xolo intelligence, energy and spirit are such that they need calm, persistent and loving training. Therefore, obedience training and continued training and socialization is needed until adulthood at 1-2 years of age.Quality and knowledgeable dog training is more critical with this breed than most other dog breeds, because of their intelligence and spirit, and energy during puppyhood. Anyone considering adopting this breed should expect to invest in additional dogtraining education for themselves, plus ensuring a spacious, safe physical environment for the Xolo puppy(ies) - more so than most other breeds. The reward is a hypoallergenic, intelligent and affectionate canine companion.
 Australian Terrier
The Australian Terrier is a small sized breed of dog of the terrier dog type. The breed was developed in Australia, although the ancestral types of dogs from which the breed descends were from Great Britain.The Australian Terrier is a small dog with short legs, weighing around approx. 6.5 kg (14 lbs) and standing about 25 cms (10 ins.) at the withers, with a medium length shaggy harsh double coat that is not normally trimmed. Fur is shorter on the muzzle, lower legs, and feet, and there is a ruff around the neck. The coat colours are shades of blue or red with a lighter coloured topknot, and with markings on face, ears, body and legs of a colour described in the breed standard as "tan, never sandy". The tail was traditionally docked. As with most pet dog breeds, all proportions and aspects of the body and head as well as colours and markings are extensively described in the breed standard.The Australian Terrier is descended from the rough coated type terriers brought from Great Britain to Australia in the early 19th century. The ancestral types of all of these breeds were kept to eradicate mice and rats. The Australian Terrier shares ancestors with the Cairn Terrier, Shorthaired Skye Terrier, and the Dandie Dinmont Terrier; Yorkshire Terriers and Irish Terriers were also crossed into the dog during the breed's development.Development of the breed began in Tasmania about 1820, and the dogs were at first called the Rough Coated Terrier. The breed was officially recognised with the founding of the first breed club in 1887, and the breed was recognised as the Australian Terrier in 1892. The Australian Terrier was shown at a dog show for the first time in 1903 in Melbourne, and was also shown in Great Britain about the same time. The Kennel Club (UK) recognised the breed in 1933. The American Kennel Club recognised the Australian Terrier in 1960, and the United Kennel Club (US) in 1969. It is now recognised by all of the major kennel clubs in the English speaking world, and also is listed by various minor kennel clubs and other clubs and registries
 Miniature Bull Terrier
The Bull Terrier (Miniature) is a breed with origins in the English White Terrier, the Dalmatian and the Bulldog. The first existence is documented 1872 in The Dogs of British Island.Miniature Bull Terriers have short, fine, and glossy coats that are very close to the skin, like the Bull Terriers. They are accepted in the ring to be white, white with another color, or fully colored. However, like the Standards, any blue or liver colored coats are undesirable. These dogs require very minimal grooming.In the early 1900s, the difference between the breeds was determined by the dog's weight. However, this led to Miniature Bull Terriers becoming so small and fine that they looked more like a Chihuahua than a Bull Terrier. So, in the 1970s, the weight limit was replaced with a height limit of under fourteen inches. They are usually no smaller than ten inches. According to the AKC, miniature bull terriers weight must be proportionate to its height. However, they tend to range anywhere from 20–35 lbs.The Miniature Bull Terriers have a very strong build. They have very muscular shoulders and a full body.Miniature Bull Terriers, like the Bull Terrier, have a head described as "egg-shaped." It is flat on top with a Roman muzzle. The eyes are triangular and closely set.The ears are carried erect and are not cropped or otherwise altered.The tail is carried horizontally rather than vertically.Like the Bull Terriers, Minis are loving and, like many terrier breeds, can be stubborn at times; but despite this they make great dogs for people with limited space.Miniature Bull Terriers are known to be stubborn and courageous. They do not seem to realize their size, however, because even if confronting an enormous dog they will not back down. However, with the right training, confrontations can be avoided. They are very energetic and playful. They love people, but often do not get along with other pets. They are variable around other dogs, and young children must be warned to treat them carefully.
 Basset Bleu de Gascogne
The Basset Bleu de Gascogne (French pronunciation: [b?s? blø d? ?as?k??]), also known as the Blue Gascony Basset, is a long-backed, short legged breed of dog of the hound type. A breed with origins in the Middle Ages which descends from the Grand Bleu de Gascogne however it nearly went extinct around the early 19th century and its saviour was attributed to Alain Bourbon. A French native breed, it is rare outside of its homeland. It is recognized internationally by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, in the UK by The Kennel Club, and by the United Kennel Club in the United States. The "bleu" of its name is a reference to its coat which has a ticked appearance.The color of their coat is predominantly white, ticked so as to give a bluish appearance, with brown spots and tan markings above the eyes and on the ears. They are a smooth-coated breed. Height at the withers is usually between 34–42 centimetres (13–17 in) although the Kennel Club standard specifies 30–38 centimetres (12–15 in).[1][3] Their general appearance is usually not too heavy, and they weight between 16–18 kilograms (35–40 lb). They have dark brown eyes and low-set ears that can reach at least the end of their muzzle. Because of their working nature as a hunting hound, effects of this work such as scars, nicks, notches on the ears and so on are not considered a fault in the show ring.The Basset Bleu de Gascogne descended directly from the old breed of Grand Bleu de Gascogne. They have been recorded in paintings from the 14th century in Gascony, southwest France. The exact origin of the breed is debated, one theory is that it is a cross of the Grand Bleu with the Saintongeois Basset, another theory is that the Basset Bleu is a natural mutation of the Grand combined with selective breeding for shorter legs in order to slow down the breed. It is thought that Gaston III of Foix-Béarn kept a pack of these dogs to hunt wild boar and wolves. He is known as the writer of the Livre de chasse, considered the classic treatise on medieval hunting.Prior to the French Revolution, hunting was reserved for the nobility who generally hunted on horseback. Following the French Revolution, hunting was opened up to the common people who would hunt on foot and found following a large hunting dog difficult. From this the slower, shorter legged Basset Bleu de Gascogne may have been created.During the early 19th century the breed nearly went extinct with a declining popularity in hunting. However, the breed was saved and revived by the work of Alain Bourbon.Today, the Basset Bleu is one of six types of Basset Hound recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale
 Miniature Pinscher
Germany. The breed's earliest ancestors were a mix of Italian Greyhounds and Dachshunds. The international kennel club, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, lists the Miniature Pinscher in Group 2, Section 1.1 Pinscher, along with the Dobermann, the German Pinscher, the Austrian Pinscher, and the other toy pinscher, the Affenpinscher. Other kennel clubs list the Miniature Pinscher in the Toy Group or Companion Group. The Miniature Pinscher is colloquially known as the "King of the Toys".The Miniature Pinscher is a working breed and not a toy dog as they were first bred to hunt small mammals, especially rats. The Miniature Pinscher tends to have relatively long legs and a small body, which can sometimes make it look quite comical with cat-like grace. As a result of its flexible, agile body, a Miniature Pinscher is able to curl up into almost any position and to almost always be comfortable.Miniature Pinscher breed standard calls for 10 to 12.5 inches at the withers (shoulders) with any dog under 10 or over 12.5 not eligible to be shown. The original Miniature Pinscher actually had more variance as being a cross between a smooth-coated Dachshund and a Miniature Greyhound (known today as the Italian Greyhound) led to some carrying the Dachshund leg while others carried the Italian Greyhound leg creating some short and some tall. After many years of breeding in Germany an average was established, though today's standard is smaller than the original. Germans bred Miniature Pinschers until they could not stand due to small size and frailty, but there was good breeding stock left in Sweden.The miniature pinscher is a loyal dog that thrives on interaction. They are a "family dog". They need to feel involved, putting them in a yard and walking them 20 minutes a day is not enough, and a bored Miniature Pinscher may eventually become destructive.
 Basset Fauve de Bretagne
The Basset Fauve de Bretagne is a short legged hunting breed of dog of the scent hound type, originally from Brittany, a historical kingdom of France.The Basset Fauve de Bretagne is a smallish hound, built along the same lines as the Basset Hound, but lighter all through and longer in the leg. Wire-coated, the coat is very harsh to the touch, dense, red-wheaten or fawn. He measures 32 – 38 cm in height and weighs between 36 - 40 lbs but some become very tall like a Labrador. They have coarse, dense fur which may require stripping. The hair on the ears is shorter, finer and darker than that on the coat. The ears just reach the end of the nose rather than trailing on the ground and should be pleated. They should have dark eyes and nose and ideally no crook on the front legs. The French standard says these are the shortest backed of all the basset breeds so they generally do not appear as exaggerated as the British Basset.The breed was developed in France as a hunting dog from the larger Grand Fauve de Bretagne, a breed that is now extinct. There was a rumour that the Basset Fauve de Bretagne was also close to extinction after the Second World War, and the breed was recreated using the remaining examples of the breed and crossing in Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen and standard wirehaired Dachshunds. However, the French club denies this, and says that Basset Fauve numbers were never so low. The middle breed, the Griffon Fauve de Bretagne, still exists but it is certainly rarer than the Basset. The breed in the UK is mainly seen as a show dog and family pet, finally coming off the Kennel Club's rare breed register in 2007. It can also be found in other parts of Europe where it is used to scent trail and also as a family pet. They are loving, happy, outgoing dogs and are good with children, but it must be remembered that they are scent hounds and do retain their love of the hunt so may not suit every family. In the UK the breed has no hereditary faults; however, epilepsy has been identified in some breeding lines in France and other parts of Europe. Some Fauves are born with black in the coat; this may or may not go with maturity. It is less common to see them with white patches but when they do occur it is generally confined to the chest and top of the head. However, even though the black ticking and white patches are not accepted colours, of course it does not interfere with their hunting ability, which is their prime job, and so these colour Fauves are still seen and occur fairly often in litters. The correct colour for a Fauve is anything from fawn to red but it should be solid with darker shaded ears.
 Neapolitan Mastiff
The Neapolitan Mastiff, Italian Mastiff, (Mastino Napoletano in Italian) is a large, ancient dog breed. This massive breed is often used as a guard and defender of family and property due to their protective instincts and their fearsome appearance. The breed is reported to have been used to fight alongside the Roman Legions, by having bladed and spiked leather harnesses tied to their backs and being trained to run under the bellies of enemy horses, to disembowel them.According to the American Kennel Club (AKC) standards , male Neapolitan Mastiffs should measure 26–31 inches (66–79 cm) at the withers, weighing between 130 and 155 pounds (60-70 kg), while females should be 24–29 inches (61–74 cm) and weigh between 110 and 130 pounds (50–60 kg). Body length should be 10-15% more than that of the height.The Neapolitan Mastiff is fearless and extremely protective of its home and family. They prefer to be with their family and to remain in and around the home at all times. The Neapolitan Mastiff rarely barks unless under provocation, renowned for sneaking up on intruders as opposed to first alerting them of their presence.Neopolitan Mastiffs, as a breed, are extremely intelligent dogs with a tendency to be independent thinkers. They learn quickly, which is both good and bad, since this guardian breed needs extensive proper socialization to learn to accept strangers, especially within the home; without proper early socialization and training, these dogs are likely to become aggressive towards strangers and unfamiliar dogs. Like with other breeds, forceful training methods, "alpha roles", and a general "dominance" mentality will not work with these dogs, especially since it is difficult to try to physically dominate a dog that is as large as an adult; if you want a well mannered dog, prevent problems before they happen by using positive training methods, beginning socializing early, and continuing socializing throughout life.The Neapolitan Mastiff is not a breed for most people, and certainly not a dog for beginners. Neapolitans must be well socialized with people, especially children, as Neos are large, powerful dogs and do not always know their own strength. Additionally, young children have young friends, and even with extensive socialization and training, Neapolitans will be wary of strangers and protective of their family, which can be disastrous for small children.Additional protection training is unnecessary because they are natural guard dogs and always have been. As with every breed, obedience training is very important. The Mastino is very tolerant of pain due to the breed's early fighting background and the fact the skin is loose on the body, so it is important to routinely check for health problems, as a Neo may not behave differently when injured or ill. They also are renowned for drooling especially after drinking or if they get excited. Their temperament and protective instincts are noticeably sharper as compared to allied "heavy molosser" breeds such as the Dogue de Bordeaux, the English Mastiff, the Mastín Españ?ol etc. and therefore they have been used as a breed component in the development of many modern protection breeds such as the Swinford Bandog (also known as the American Bandog Mastiff) and others. This breed is not particularly dog-aggressive, but males are known to be very dominant and, at times, confrontational.
 Basset Griffon Vendeen Petit
The Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen or "PBGV," is a breed of dog of the scent hound type, bred to trail hares in bramble filled terrain of the Vendée district of France.Both sexes should be of similar size, range between 12.5 and 15.5 inches (32 to 40 cm) at the withers and between 25 and 40 pounds (15 to 20 kilograms).Like the other 3 Griffon Vendéen breeds: the Grand Griffon Vendéen, Briquet Griffon Vendéen, and the Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen; they are solid dogs that appear rough and unrefined yet casual. They have short legs, a sturdy bone structure, and a body that is only slightly longer than it is tall at the withers. The body length is not as extreme as that of a basset hound or dachshund.The dogs have a tousled appearance, with a harsh double coat that is both long and rough.The hair on the face and legs may be softer than body hair. The fur on the face resembles a beard and moustache. They usually have very long eyelashes.The skull is domed, with drop, oval ears like many hounds share, though dogs tend to have higher domes than bitches. The ears are set low and hanging, and if stretched out should reach the tip of the nose. The tail is usually held upright, and is long and tapered to the end, similar in shape to a saber.The coloring is primarily white with spots of orange, lemon, black, grizzle (gray-and-white hairs), or sable, sometimes with tan accents. They may be bicolor, tricolor, or have grizzling.PBGVs are extroverted, friendly, and independent hounds. Sometimes called the "happy breed," PBGVs have tirelessly wagging tails and expressive, intelligent eyes. PBGVs are typically active and lively. While good with children, other dogs and pets, they may be unsuitable for very young children because of their energy and tendency to play bite. The PBGV standard states that the dog should "give voice freely" -- as is typical of hounds, petits are outspoken dogs. If their 'pack' begins howling or singing, the dog will join in, with amusing results. PBGVs may howl alone or with a companion; they may howl to music, for fun, or in protest at being left alone. PBGV companions report that sleeping dogs have been known to awaken and howl along with favorite songs.The PBGV is not a quiet dog. While no PBGV would ever be called "yippy," their assertive, hound-bray is uncharacteristically loud for their petite stature. The outspoken nature of a PBGV varies from dog to dog, but even the shyest Petit will greet other dogs with a bark or call.Like other hounds, Petits are stubborn, and sometimes may not respond well to training.Because they are so extroverted, friendly, and happy, PBGVs make excellent therapy dogs.PBGVs are excellent hunting and tracking dogs. A "Hunting Instinct Test" with associated AKC certification is currently in development as a part of optional breed credentialing. Petits who work in this manner do not hunt to kill. In the Vendee region of France, the dogs are used to flush and track rabbit in the bramble, sending rabbit out into the open where the hunter takes the rabbit with a shot. Skilled hunting dogs work well with other dogs in the pack, alerting the pack to the presence of a rabbit, or to a rabbit in motion down a trail. "Saber tails," another PBGV nickname, are typically white at the tip of the tail, so the tail is easily identified by a hunter above the bramble and brush.As a companion animal, this occasionally pronounced hunting instinct may manifest in the home as a dog that gives chase to birds, squirrel, and cats. For some PBGVs, this instinct may be difficult to overcome with training. Most PBGVs make fine companion animals, and have suitable manners to live among cats and other animals without assuming a hunting role. Potential PBGV owners are cautioned to be aware of this instinct and, if cats are present in the home, work to acclimate the puppy or dog to recognize that the cat is part of the home "pack."As scent hounds, most PBGVs should be kept on-leash when in open outdoor areas. Even the most obedient dog may give chase when a scent is found. Petits are natural athletes, and they can run fast and long where scent is involved. Scent will typically trump obedience in the mind of a PBGV.The outspoken nature and erect tail of a PBGV can be misinterpreted by other dogs, as these manners typically express dominance to other dogs. PBGVs can inspire a misguided need to express dominance on the part of passing dogs. PBGV owners need to be alert to this potential misinterpretation, as Petits are easily outclassed in both size and aggressiveness.
 Newfoundland
The Newfoundland is a breed of large dog. Newfoundlands can be black, brown, gray, or black and white. They were originally bred and used as a working dog for fishermen in the Dominion of Newfoundland, now part of Canada. They are known for their giant size, tremendous strength, calm dispositions, and loyalty. Newfoundland dogs excel at water rescue/lifesaving due to their muscular build, thick double coat, webbed feet, and innate swimming abilities.Newfoundlands ('Newfs', 'Newfies') have webbed feet and a water-resistant coat. Males weigh 60–70 kg (130–150 lb), and females 45–55 kg (100–120 lb), placing them in the "Giant" weight range. Some Newfoundland dogs have been known to weigh over 90 kg (200 lb). The largest Newfoundland on record weighed 120 kg (260 lbs) and measured over 6 feet from nose to tail, ranking it among the biggest Molossers. They may grow up to 22–28 inches tall at the shoulder.The American Kennel Club (AKC) standard colors of the Newfoundland dogs are: black, brown, gray, and landseer (black or brown head and white and black or brown body); The Kennel Club (KC) permits only black, brown, and landseer; the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) permits are only black and landseer. The Landseer is named after the artist Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, who featured them in many of his paintings. AKC, CKC, and KC all treat Landseer as part of the breed. Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) consider the Landseer to be a separate breed; others consider it only a Newfoundland color variation.The Newfoundland's extremely large bones give it mass, while its large musculature gives it the power it needs to take on rough ocean waves and powerful tides. These dogs have great lung capacity for swimming extremely long distances, and a thick, oily and waterproof double coat which protects them from the chill of icy waters. The droopy lips and jowls make the dog drool.In the water, the dog's massive webbed paws give it maximum propulsion. The swimming stroke is not an ordinary dog paddle. Unlike other dogs, the Newfoundland moves its limbs in a down-and-out motion, which can be seen as a modified breaststroke. This gives it more power with every stroke.The Newfoundland dog is legendary for its calm and docile nature and its strength. It is for this reason that this breed is known as "the gentle giant". International kennel clubs generally describe the breed as having a sweet temper. It typically has a deep loud bark, is easy to train if started young, makes a fine guardian or watchdog. It is exceptionally good with children, giving it the nickname "the nanny dog." The breed was memorialized in "Nana," the beloved dog guardian in Peter Pan.The Newfoundland dog is also extremely good with other animals. Its caring and gentle nature comes out in play and interaction with humans and animals alike. As with any breed, the Newfoundland can have dominance issues, but this is unusual for the breed.
 Basset Hound
The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family. They are scent hounds, bred to hunt rabbits by scent. Their sense of smell for tracking is second only to that of the Bloodhound. The name Basset is derived from the French word bas, meaning "low", with the attenuating suffix -et, together meaning "rather low". Basset hounds are commonly brown and black and most often spotted, but also exist in a variety of colors.These dogs are around 1-foot in height at the withers. They usually weigh between 35 and 50 lb (16 and 23 kg). They have smooth, short-haired coats but a rough haired hound is possible. Although any hound colour is considered acceptable by breed standards, Bassets are generally tricolor (black, tan, and white), open red and white (red spots on white fur), closed red and white (a solid red color with white feet and tails), Honey And White (honey coloured back, light brown spotty nose and legs, light brown tails with white tip) and lemon and white. Some Bassets are also classified as gray or blue; however, this colour is considered rare and undesirable. They have long, downward ears and powerful necks, with much loose skin around their heads that forms wrinkles. Their tails are long and tapering and stand upright with a curve. Tails usually have white tips so the dogs are more easily seen when hunting/tracking through large bushes or weeds. The breed is also known for its hanging skin structure, which causes the face to occasionally look sad; this, for many people, adds to the breed's charm. The dewlap, seen as the loose, elastic skin around the neck, and the trailing ears, help trap the scent of what they are tracking.The Basset Hound is a large dog with short legs. They were originally bred to have osteochondrodysplasia, known as dwarfism. Their short stature can be deceiving; Bassets are surprisingly long and can reach things on table tops that dogs of similar heights cannot. However, because Bassets are so heavy and have such short legs, they are not able to hold themselves above water for very long and should never be made to swim.The Basset Hound is seen as a friendly breed toward people and other pets. For this reason they are an excellent pet for children. However, they can be stubborn animals.Because Bassets are scent hounds, they should always be on a leash when out on walks. Although they are well known to be lazy, they have a tendency to run -- especially after prey -- so a leash is very important for their safety. Even though Bassets sleep a lot, walks are still necessary.Bassets are known to be a vocal breed. Bassets might howl or bark when they want something or to suggest that they think something is wrong . They also use a low, murmuring whine to get attention, which sounds to many owners as though their Bassets are "talking." This whine is also used by the hound to beg (for food or treats) and varies in volume depending on the nature of the individual hound and length of time it has been begging.
 Northern Inuit
The Northern Inuit Dog is a breed originating in the late 1980s, in an attempt to create a domestic dog breed more closely resembling the wolf.A dog of large powerful build, athletic but not racy. Slightly longer than tall (as 10-9), with leg length slightly longer than overall depth of body. Oval bone is neither too heavy nor too light.Head: Not too broad, skull slightly domed. Muzzle slightly longer than skull. Nose black (winter noses acceptable) Scissor bite.Eyes: Oval, forward facing and set at a slightly oblique angle. Any colour or colour combination acceptableEars: Set fairly high, not too large and carried erect.Body: Topline level. Tail set fairly high and reaching to the hock, carried down when standing, may be lifted when excited.Coat: Dense double coat, slightly harsh in texture, well defined ruff and breeches. Tail bushy.Size: Males: minimum 25 inches. Females: minimum 22 inches. - Overall balance more important than size.Colour: Pure White or any shade of Grey and Sable through to pure Black. White faces and dark masks are permitted but any color change should be subtle.Faults: Curly tails, long soft silk coats, patchy/pinto or Black and Tan colours.Northern Inuit, like their spitz predecessors, are intended to be friendly yet stubborn dogs, and possess a high activity level. They are intelligent, independent thinkers, which can make them more difficult to train than other, more biddable breeds. They are good with children, but are boisterous when young so should not be left alone with them, as with all large powerful breeds. They are very loyal and form a close bond with their owner and family. Separation anxiety is known to be a problem when Inuits are left alone and unsupervised too long, leading to destructive and sometimes self-mutilating behaviors; often, they will do better with another dog for company. Socialization should begin early. The downside of their cleverness is that they do not obey their owners for the sake of obedience, and (even more so than many breeds) require motivational, reward-based training.Some genetic problems have become apparent in Northern Inuit lines, such as hereditary cataracts, hip dysplasia, and epilepsy, all of which should be tested for prior to breeding by responsible breeders.
 Beagle
The Beagle is a breed of small to medium-sized dog. A member of the Hound Group, it is similar in appearance to the Foxhound but smaller, with shorter legs and longer, softer ears. Beagles are scent hounds, developed primarily for tracking hare, rabbit, and other game. They have a keen sense of smell and tracking instinct that sees them employed as detection dogs for prohibited agricultural imports and foodstuffs in quarantine around the world. Beagles are intelligent, and are popular as pets because of their size, even temper, and lack of inherited health problems. These characteristics also make them the dog of choice for animal testing.Although beagle-type dogs have existed for over 2,000 years, the modern breed was developed in Great Britain around the 1830s from several breeds, including the Talbot Hound, the North Country Beagle, the Southern Hound, and possibly the Harrier.Beagles have been depicted in popular culture since Elizabethan times in literature and paintings, and more recently in film, television and comic books. Snoopy of the comic strip Peanuts has been promoted as "the world's most famous beagle.The general appearance of the Beagle resembles a Foxhound in miniature, but the head is broader and the muzzle shorter, the expression completely different and the legs shorter in proportion to the body. They are generally between 13 and 16 inches (33 and 41 cm) high at the withers and weigh between 18 and 35 lb (8.2 and 16 kg), with females being slightly smaller than males on average.They have a smooth, somewhat domed skull with a medium-length, square-cut muzzle and a black (or occasionally liver), gumdrop nose. The jaw is strong and the teeth scissor together with the upper teeth fitting perfectly over the lower teeth and both sets aligned square to the jaw. The eyes are large, hazel or brown, with a mild hound-like pleading look. The large ears are long, soft and low-set, turning towards the cheeks slightly and rounded at the tips. Beagles have a strong, medium-length neck (which is long enough for them to easily bend to the ground to pick up a scent), with little folding in the skin but some evidence of a dewlap; a broad chest narrowing to a tapered abdomen and waist and a short, slightly curved tail (known as the "stern") tipped with white. The white tip, known as the "flag" has been selectively bred for, as it allows the dog to be easily seen when its head is down following a scent. The tail does not curl over the back, but is held upright when the dog is active. The Beagle has a muscular body and a medium-length, smooth, hard coat. The front legs are straight and carried under the body while the rear legs are muscular and well bent at the stifles.The Beagle has an even temper and gentle disposition. Described in several breed standards as "merry", they are amiable and generally neither aggressive nor timid. They enjoy company, and although they may initially be standoffish with strangers, they are easily won over. They make poor guard dogs for this reason, although their tendency to bark or howl when confronted with the unfamiliar makes them good watch dogs. In a 1985 study conducted by Ben and Lynette Hart, the Beagle was given the highest excitability rating, along with the Yorkshire Terrier, Cairn Terrier, Miniature Schnauzer, West Highland White Terrier and Fox Terrier.Beagles are intelligent, but as a result of being bred for the long chase are single-minded and determined, which can make them hard to train. They are generally obedient but can be difficult to recall once they have picked up a scent and are easily distracted by smells around them. They do not generally feature in obedience trials; while they are alert, respond well to food-reward training, and are eager to please, they are easily bored or distracted. They are ranked 72nd in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, as Coren places them among the group with the lowest degree of working/obedience intelligence. Coren's scale, however, does not assess understanding, independence or creativity.Beagles are excellent with children and this is one of the reasons they have become popular family pets, but they are pack animals, and can be prone to separation anxiety. Not all Beagles will howl, but most will bark when confronted with strange situations, and some will bay (also referred to as "speaking", "giving tongue", or "opening") when they catch the scent of potential quarry. They also generally get along well with other dogs. They are not demanding with regard to exercise; their inbred stamina means they do not easily tire when exercised, but they also do not need to be worked to exhaustion before they will rest, though regular exercise helps ward off the weight gain to which the breed is prone.
 Norwegian Buhund
The Norwegian Buhund is a breed of dog of the spitz type. It is closely related to the Icelandic Sheepdog and the Jämthund. The name Buhund is derived from the Norwegian word "bu" which means farm, homestead or mountain hut, where the shepherd lived while looking after his herd in the summer. The Buhund is used as an all purpose farm and herding dog, as well as watch dog.The Norwegian Buhund has a square profile, are a little under medium sized and sport a high set,tightly curled tail carried over the center of the back. The head is wedge shaped with pricked ears and a black nose. Their back is level with as little of a slope as possible along with a deep chest.The Buhund ranges in size from about 17 to 18 inches with the males being 17-18 1/2 inches and bitches to 17 1/2 inches in height. Weight for dogs is 31-40 pounds and for bitches, 26-35 pounds.The Norwegian Buhund is a highly cheerful and active breed. They do not tire easily and require extensive exercise on a daily basis. The Norwegian Buhund needs to expel its energy and becomes destructive and ill-mannered if ignored or made to stay still frequently. In conjunction with their high level of activity and energy, they are also extremely lovable and are known for their love of children. However, due to their high level of energy and need for intensive training, Norwegian Buhunds should always be supervised, especially around children and the elderly. This breed loves to cuddle and give kisses to their masters and families. They form strong bonds with their owners and therefore are natural watch dogs. This can result in aloof behavior and wariness around strangers. However, the Norwegian Buhund is highly intelligent. They are communicative and brave, but rarely will snap or bite without provocation. However, not all dogs of this breed are steady; they are sometimes found to be nervous dogs. They can even have a suspicious nature about them. New owners may find this problematic, since the Norwegian Buhund may bark at each new alarming noise or movement.This breed is also extremely headstrong and demonstrates an intense desire to be taught and to learn new things. If appropriate stimulus is not made available, the breed may resort to destructive or inappropriate behavior. The Buhund breed does become bored easily and is known to become restless. A constant state of activity is required, attention, praise and new information. This breed is ideal for owners who can dedicate time to exercise and training. With this desire for activity and learning combined with a high level of energy, the Norwegian Buhund makes an excellent obedience and agility dog. People who live active lifestyles, or are seeking a dog with which they can become involved in dog sports, will appreciate the personality of the Norwegian Buhund. It is also an ideal dog for people who are athletic and desire a dog to go running, hiking or biking with. This breed makes an excellent companion for a sports enthusiast.
 Bearded Collie
The Bearded Collie, or Beardie, is a herding breed of dog once used primarily by Scottish shepherds, but now mostly a popular family companion.An average Bearded Collie weighs 40–60 pounds (18–27 kg) and is 20–22 inches (51–56 cm) tall.The Bearded Collie's history is a mix of fact and legend. Kazimierz Grabski, a Polish merchant, reportedly traded a shipment of grain for sheep in Scotland in 1514 and brought six Polish Lowland Sheepdogs to move them. A Scottish shepherd was so impressed with the herding ability of the dogs that he traded several sheep for several dogs. The Polish sheepdogs were bred with local Scottish dogs to produce the Bearded Collie.It is generally agreed that Mrs. G. Olive Willison founded the modern Bearded Collie with her brown bitch, Jeannie of Bothkennar. Jeannie was supposedly a Shetland Sheepdog, but Mrs. Willison received a Bearded Collie by accident. She was so fascinated by the dog that she wanted to begin breeding, so she began searching for a dog for Jeannie. While walking along the beach, Mrs. Willison met a man who was emigrating from Scotland; she became the owner of his grey dog, David, who became Bailie of Bothkennar.Bailie and Jeannie of Bothkennar are the founders of the modern breed; there are only a few other registrable blood lines, preserved in large part by the perseverance of Mr. Nicolas Broadbridge (Sallen) and Mrs. Betty Foster (Bredon). These are based on Turnbull's Blue—a Bearded Collie from pure working stock, registered in ISDS when ISDS still registered non-Border Collies. He sired three litters of registerable Bearded Collies.The breed became popular during the last half of the 20th century—propelled, in part, by Potterdale Classic at Moonhill, a Bearded Collie who won Best in Show at Crufts in 1989. The Bearded Collie Club celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 2005.The Bearded Collie ranks 104 out of 155 breeds in popularity in the United States, according to the American Kennel Club's yearly breed ranking. A Bearded Collie is best obtained from a reputable breeder or a dog rescue. Bearded Collies make excellent pets for those willing to accommodate their high energy level and grooming requirements. Weekly brushing is mandatory for keeping their long hair mat-free. Some Bearded Collie owners opt to keep their pets in a "puppy cut" haircut, which reduces (but does not eliminate) the need for brushing. Bearded Collies are an energetic breed, originally intended to work in the Scottish Highlands herding sheep; they also excel at dog agility trials. A loyal and family-friendly dog, the Beardie can add years of pet-ownership enjoyment to the home. They have keen problem-solving abilities, and are entertaining to watch. Female Beardies are often more outgoing and headstrong than males. In training, males are more likely to follow instructions and females are more independent. Females often become the alpha dog if there is a male and female Beardie in the household. Regardless of the Beardie's sex, they are a very active breed. One of the most common problems for new Beardie owners is the breed's advanced age of maturity; standard puppy issues last longer, and Beardies frequently fail "puppy school" if entered at the same age as other breeds.Adopting a Beardie should be done through an authorised breeder. The pup's parents should have pedigree papers. There are Beardie rescue associations, such as Beardie Collie Rescue and "Rescue Me". These organisations attempt to place unwanted puppies and dogs into appropriate, loving homes.
 Norwegian Elkhound
The Norwegian Elkhound is one of the ancient Northern Spitz-type breed of dog and is the National Dog of Norway. The Elkhound has served as a hunter, guardian, herder, and defender. In a land of subzero temperatures, deep snow, thick forests, and rugged mountains, only the hardiest of the breeds could evolve to perform the variety of jobs at which the Elkhound excels. Its Spitz courage is probably a by-product or residue of the fact that a significant number of them were used to track and hunt moose and other large game, like bear or wolf. The Norwegian Elkhound was first presented at a dog exhibition in Norway in 1877.The AKC breed name "Norwegian Elkhound" is a direct translation from its original Norwegian name "Norsk Elghund," meaning "Norwegian moose dog." (European settlers mistakenly called the North American cousin of the red deer an elk, when in fact in the Norwegian language the term elk or elg means moose.) Despite its name in America, it is not a hound dog; the Elkhound does not hunt like a hound dog nor is it directly related to hounds, however in Britain it is classed as a hound and in shows is grouped in the Hound group. The breed's goal in the hunt is to independently track down and hold the moose at bay — jumping in and out toward the moose, distracting its attention, while signaling to the hunters by barking very loudly — until the hunter who follows the sound can arrive to shoot it. The dog will only bark while the moose is stationary, but it can also slowly drive the moose towards shooters lying in wait. The Norwegian Elkhound is also used on a leash; in this mode of hunting the dog shows the hunter the direction to the moose, but keeps quiet.The dog stands about 45–52 cm (20.5") high and weighs up to 24 kg (52 lbs). Its grey, white, and black coat is made up of two layers: an underlying dense smooth coat ranging from black at the muzzle, ears, and tip of its tail; to silvery grey on its legs, tail, and underbody; and an overlying black-tipped protective guard coat. An ideal Elkhound has a tightly curled tail, as the dog shown in the photograph on this page. The Elkhound is a medium-sized dog and extremely hardy.Norwegian Elkhounds are bred for hunting large game, such as wolf, bear and moose. Although the breed is strong and hardy, the dogs typically have an inseparable bond with their masters and are quite loyal. All Elkhounds have a sharp loud bark which makes them suitable as watchdogs.Norwegian Elkhounds are loyal to their "pack" and make excellent family dogs given proper attention. It is bold, playful, independent, alert, extremely intelligent, and, at times, a bit boisterous. They rank 36th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of above average working/obedience intelligence. This is a dog ready for adventure and is happiest if that adventure takes place outdoors in cold weather. It needs daily exercise, lest it become frustrated or even destructive. It is an exceptionally friendly breed. If untrained, it tends to pull when on leash. This dog needs attention for it to understand its place within the family (or the pack), else it may develop social problems and feel neglected. This is a very proud and noble breed that can easily have its feelings hurt if its owner deserts his or her allegiance or duty. An inevitable bond will develop between the dog's family, master, or pack, and if there is disloyalty, the dog will definitely feel it and be hurt. Although each dog is an individual, they generally are very gentle and get along great with children. They are happiest when they feel that they are part of the family. This, combined with their very loud bark, makes them a good watchdog.Norwegian Elkhounds can be challenging to train because of their intelligence and deep independent streak, but they are acceptable obedience dogs, good-natured, and very understandable in their learning and training. For example, if they fail to "come" because there is something of greater interest in the other direction, they can be quick to learn the importance of the command if taught correctly but they are a willful breed and may never "come" on command. They can be wonderful in agility and are particularly good tracking dogs.
 Beauceron
The Beauceron is a guard dog and herding dog breed falling into the working dog category whose origins lie in the plains of Northern France. The Beauceron is also known as Berger de Beauce (sheepdog from Beauce) or Bas Rouge (red-stockings).This breed stands 61 to 70 cm (24 to 27.5 inches) in height and weighs 30 to 45 kg (66 to 100 pounds). Its standard colouring is black and tan (referred to in French as "rouge ecureil", squirrel-red) or tan and grey (harlequin). Other colours, such as the once prevalent tawny, grey or grey/black, are now banned by the breed standard. The outer coat is harsh while the undercoat is soft and silky. It comes in black with distinct tan markings and in a less common harlequin coat with patches of gray, black and tan. The harlequin coats should have more black than gray with no white. In the black and tan dogs the tan markings appear in two dots above the eyes, on the sides of the muzzle, fading off to the cheeks, but do not reach the underside of the ears. Also on the throat, , under the tail and on the legs and the chest. Tan markings on the chest should appear as two spots but a chest plate is acceptable.Although most breeds may or may not have dewclaws (many owners of other breeds remove dewclaws, especially if the dog is used for field and hunting), an important feature of the Beauceron is the double dewclaw. A beauceron must have double dewclaws, which form well separated “thumbs” with nails on each rear leg, anything less will result in disqualification.Ear cropping is no longer allowed in the UK or Europe.The Beauceron is known in France as a guard dog, a helper around the farm (herding sheep or cattle), and/or a ring sport dog (primarily protection training). This athletic, healthy and long-lived breed has been bred to be intelligent, calm, gentle, and fearless. Adults are typically suspicious of strangers and are excellent natural guard dogs. On the other hand they typically take their cue from their handlers when it comes to greeting strangers, and are neither sharp nor shy. They do best when raised within the family but they can sleep outside, the better to act as guards (their weatherproof coats make them ideal dog kennel users even in the coldest winters). They are eager learners and can be trained to a high level. However, their physical and mental development is slow, relative to other similar breeds (e.g. German and other large shepherds): they are not mentally or physically mature until the age of about three years, so their training should not be rushed. Several five- or ten-minute play-training exercises per day in the early years can achieve better results than long or rigorous training sessions.
 Nova Scotia Duck-Tolling Retriever
The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, or Toller for short, is a medium sized breed of gundog originating in Yarmouth County, located in southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. It is the smallest of the retrievers.The breed is often mistaken for small Golden Retrievers, but the Toller is more active, both physically and mentally. According to the breed standards, the Toller should be athletic, well-muscled, compact, medium boned, balanced and powerful. The chest is deep. Conformation judges require Tollers to be capable of tolling, and physical faults that inhibit working ability are heavily penalized. They should be of moderate build—a lack of substance or a heavy build are penalized by judges, as both detract from the type and athleticism. The legs are sturdy and solid. Tollers have webbed feet.Those who breed Tollers for conformation shows consider the head (clean cut, slightly wedge-shaped) to be an important feature, and believe it should resemble that of a fox and must never be blocky like that of a Golden Retriever. The ears are triangular and set high and well back from the skull. The tail is well feathered and held jauntily when the dog is excited or moving.Color is any shade of red, ranging from a golden red through dark coppery red, with lighter featherings on the underside of the tail, pantaloons, and body. Even the lighter shades of golden red are deeply pigmented and rich in color. The Toller should not be buff or brown. Although very rare, there are chocolate/liver brown Duck Tollers.The Toller has usually at least one of the following white markings: tip of tail, feet (not extending above the pasterns), chest, and blaze. Lack of white is not a fault. Dogs with white on the shoulders, around ears, back of neck, or across back or flanks, or with silvery, grey or black areas in coat are disqualified from conformation shows.The Toller was bred to retrieve from icy waters and must have a water-repellent double coat of medium length and softness, and a soft dense undercoat. The coat may have a slight wave on the back, but is otherwise straight. Some winter coats may form a long loose curl at the throat. Featherings are soft and moderate in length. The hair on the muzzle is short and fine. Seasonal shedding is to be expected.Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers are known to be very intelligent, alert, high energy dogs. They tend to be very affectionate outgoing animals with family members and are known for being very patient with children. Some dogs may be reserved in new situations but they are not shy.Duck Tollers are working animals and are happiest when they have a job to do. They have a strong retrieving drive, intense birdiness, endurance and a love for water.
 Bedlington Terrier
The Bedlington Terrier is a breed of terrier named after the mining town of Bedlington, Northumberland in North East England.Appearance: The Bedlington Terrier is often described as having the look of a lamb with the heart of the lion, partly due to their linty-textured coat which is trimmed in a "lamb-like" cut. These dogs come in blue, liver and sandy coloration, all three of which can come with or without tan points. The breed possesses the greying gene (located on the G locus) which is a dominant trait, causing the coat color to change from their birth colors of Black (in blues) or Dark Brown (in sandies and livers) to a silvery (for blues) or mauve (for livers and sandies) color on their bodies with a lighter colored topknot and legs.This breed has a wedge-shaped head with piercing almond-shaped eyes. Its body shape is different from most terriers in terms of construction, resembling a sighthound more than a typical terrier, which enables these dogs to gallop at great speed. However, the front assemblies of these dogs (shoulders, upper arms and front legs) are constructed differently from any other breed in that, the front legs are closer together at the feet than at the elbows - creating a triangular shape when viewed from the front. This enables them to turn or pivot quickly when chasing quarry at high speed, as well as get into the tight underground dens of their prey.Calmer and less boisterous than many other terriers, the Bedlington Terrier is known as a dog with a good nature and mild manners. In addition, it is fast enough to bay a badger or a fox, quick and agile enough to course a hare and is a first-rate water dog. Incredibly smart and attentive to its owner, the Bedlington is one of the most reliable terriers. They are problem solvers and loyal family companions.Like most dogs, if left alone with nothing to do they can become destructive and need exercise; however, they make good dogs for small homes like apartments as long as they get walks and attention. They can make cheerful, lovely companions, and are eager to please.
 Old English Sheepdog
The Old English Sheepdog (OES) is a large breed of dog which was developed in England from early herding types of dog. The Old English Sheepdog has very long fur covering the face and eyes.The Old English Sheepdog is nicknamed the Bobtail, since tail docking was traditional in the old sheepdogs.The Old English Sheepdog is a large dog, immediately recognizable by its long, thick, shaggy grey and white coat, with fur covering their face and eyes. The ears lie flat to the head. Historically, the breed's tail was commonly docked (resulting in a panda bear-like rear end), but tailed Old English sheepdogs are now common, as many countries have outlawed cosmetic docking. When the dog has a tail, it has long fur (feathering), is low set, and normally hangs down. The Old English Sheepdog stands lower at the shoulder than at the loin, and walks with a "bear-like roll from the rear".Height at the withers is at least 61 cms (24 ins), with females slightly smaller than males. The body is short and compact, and ideal weights are not specified, but may be as much as 46 kg (101 lbs) for large males.Colour of the double coat may be any shade of grey, grizzle, black, blue, or blue merle, with optional white markings. The undercoat is water resistant. Puppies are born with a black and white coat, and it is only after the puppy coat has been shed that the more common grey or silver shaggy hair appears.The breed standards describe the ideal Old English Sheepdog as never being nervous or aggressive. The New Zealand Kennel Club adds that "they are sometimes couch potatoes" and "may even try to herd children by gently bumping them." This breed's temperament can be described as intelligent, social and adaptable. The American Kennel Club adds that the breed has "a clownish energy" and "may try to herd people or other objects."With wide open spaces being the ideal setting for an Old English Sheepdog, the breed is a natural fit in a rural setting, such as working on a farm; although they are perfectly comfortable with a suburban or urban lifestyle (with proper exercise). Their remarkable, inherent herding instincts, sense of duty, and sense of property boundaries may be nurtured and encouraged accordingly, or subdued by their owners. Old English Sheepdogs should not be deprived of the company and the warmth of people.
 Belgian Shepherd Dog Malinois
The Belgian Shepherd Dog (Malinois) ( /?mæl?nw??/) is a breed of dog, sometimes classified as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog rather than as a separate breed. The Malinois is recognized in the United States under the name Belgian Malinois. Its name is the French word for Mechlinian, which is in Dutch either Mechelse herdershond (shepherd dog from Mechelen) or Mechelaar (one from Mechelen). These dogs are popular in use of police departments, as are German Shepherds.Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Malinois is a medium-sized and square-proportioned dog in the sheepdog family. The Malinois has a short mahogany coat with black overlay. It has black erect ears and a black muzzle. It has a square build in comparison to the German Shepherd.Malinois dogs are about 24–26 in (61–66 cm), while Females are about 22–24 in (56–61 cm) at the withers. Female Malinois are said to average 25–30 kg (55–65 lb), while sires are heavier at 29–34 kg (65–75 lb). They are squarely built.Well-raised and trained Malinois are usually active, friendly, protective and hard-working. Many have excessively high prey drive. Some may be excessively exuberant or playful, especially when young. They can be destructive or develop neurotic behaviors if not provided enough stimulation and exercise. These are large, strong dogs that require consistent obedience training, and Malinois enjoy being challenged with new tasks. They are known as being very easy to obedience train, due to their high drive for rewards.
 Pembroke Welsh Corgi
The Pembroke Welsh corgi (pronounced /?k?r?i/) is a herding dog breed which originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales. It is one of two breeds known as Welsh corgi: the other is the Cardigan Welsh corgi. The corgi is the smallest dog in the Herding Group. Pembroke Welsh corgi are famed for being the preferred breed of Queen Elizabeth II, who owns several. These dogs have been favoured by British royalty for more than seventy years.The Pembroke Welsh corgi has been ranked at #11 in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, and is thus considered an excellent working dog.The Corgi is proportional to larger breeds but has shorter legs, yet has a sturdy appearance and an athletic body that helps it herd livestock such as poultry, sheep, and cattle. Its body is long, and it has a naturally bobbed or docked tail and erect ears.Pembroke Welsh Corgis are 10 to 12 inches (25 to 30 cm) tall from their feet to the top of their shoulders. The length from the shoulders to the set on of the tail is 40 percent longer than their height. Pembrokes in peak athletic condition weigh 26 to 30 pounds (12 to 14 kg) for males, and 24 to 28 pounds (11 to 13 kg) for females. They reach their full height by 9 months old, but their bodies keep filling out until they reach full maturity at two years. Pembrokes have a big appetite, so they can weigh up to 40 pounds (18 kg) if allowed to over eat. Pembroke Welsh Corgis (Corgwn in Welsh) can benefit from portion control and exercise.Pembroke Welsh Corgis are very affectionate, love to be involved in the family, and tend to follow wherever their owners go. They have a great desire to please their owners, thus making them eager to learn and train. The dogs are easy to train and are ranked as the 11th smartest dog in "The World's Smartest Breeds." Besides herding, they also function as watchdogs due to their alertness and tendency to only bark as needed. Most Pembrokes will seek the attention of everyone they meet and behave well around children and other pets. It is important to socialize this breed with other animals, adults, and children when they are very young to avoid any anti-social behavior or aggression later on in life. Due to their herding instinct, they love to chase anything that moves, so it is best to keep them inside fenced areas. The herding instinct will also cause some younger Pembrokes to nip at their owner's ankles to get attention, but this behavior can be stopped through training and maturity.
 Belgian Shepherd Dog Tervueren
The Tervuren (pronounced /t?r?vj?r?n/, and sometimes spelled Tervueren), is a member of the Belgian Shepherd Dog family of dog breeds. Its classification varies, being classified under some breed standards as a breed in its own right, and in others as one of several acceptable variations of the Belgian. It is usually listed within breed standards under one or other, or a combination, of these names.In the United States, since 1960, the AKC recognizes it under the name Belgian Tervuren. Prior to that date, all recognized varieties of the Belgians were called Belgian Sheepdog.In Canada, the Canadian Kennel Club recognizes the Tervuren as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog (prior to 2005, Belgian Shepherd Dogs were called Belgian Sheepdogs).Like all four of the Belgian Shepherds, the Tervuren is a medium-sized, square-proportioned dog in the Herding dog group. Males stand between 24 and 26 inches, and weigh approximately 65lb. Bitches are finer and smaller. It is recognized by its thick double coat, generally sable with varying degrees of black overlay (completely missing overlay on males is a serious fault), including a black mask. A small patch of white on the chest is permissible, as well as white tips on toes. The Tervuren may also be sable or grey, but this may be penalized in the show ring in some countries according to the standard of the registering body.Tervurens are highly energetic, intelligent dogs who require a job to keep them occupied. This can be herding, obedience, agility, flyball, tracking, or protection work. They are also found working as Search and Rescue (SAR) dogs, finding missing persons and avalanche victims. Tervurens that are not kept sufficiently busy can become hyperactive or destructive.As companion animals, Tervurens are loyal and form strong bonds with their family, leading some to be shy around strangers. They are good watch dogs, being very observant and attentive to the slightest change in their environment. Some can be nervous, depending on breeding and early experiences, so care must be taken to adequately socialize Tervuren puppies to a wide variety of people and situations.As with all the Belgian Shepherd Dogs, Tervurens are not generally recommended to first-time dog owners due to their high maintenance level.Adult males are distinctly masculine and females are likewise feminine. Their appearance projects alertness and elegance. The breed is known for its loyalty and versatility. Those who own them, report being charmed by their intelligence, trainability, and, perhaps most of all, their sense of humor. They excel in many kinds of activities. Today the breed is still relatively rare in the United States, but it is well-established.
 Pharaoh Hound
The Pharaoh Hound is a breed of dog and the national hound of the Mediterranean nation of Malta. Its native name is Kelb tal-Fenek (plural: Klieb tal-Fenek) in Maltese, which means "rabbit hound". The dog is the traditional hunting companion of Maltese outdoorsmen. The breed has no conclusive links with Ancient Egypt and its name in English is a 20th century fabrication. It has variously been classified as a member of the sighthound group, yet its fieldwork description clearly determines it as a hound. It is indigenous to the islands and as such remains rare outside of Malta.At first glance, the Pharaoh Hound should appear both graceful and elegant as well as powerful and athletic. Its build should be one of strength without bulkiness or excessive musculature. Its head is elegant without being fine or extreme. The skull should resemble a blunt wedge, and is long and chiseled with only a slight stop and a muzzle of good length. Its eyes are oval with a keen, noble, alert, and intelligent expression. It has a long, lean, and muscular neck that is slightly arched. Its body is slightly longer than its height at the withers. It has a deep chest that extends down to the elbows and a moderate tuck up. Its shoulders are long and well laid back. Its front legs are long and straight. The back legs are moderately angled, parallel to each other, and must be in balance with the forelegs. It has a long, fine, straight tail that should reach down to a bit below the point of the hocks. The tail is carried down when relaxed but must not tuck between the legs. When the dog is in motion or is excited, the tail is carried up; either level with, or loosely curled above, the back. Its dewclaws may be removed.It stands between 21 to 25 inches at the withers and weighs between 40 to 60 lbs. Males are typically larger than females.The coat is fine and short with no feathering. The texture varies from silky to somewhat hard and it must never be so profuse as to stand away from the dog's skin. The only color accepted by most kennel clubs is red; though the shades of red color varies, and accepted shades range from a tan to a deep chestnut and all shades in between. White markings on the chest, toes, tail-tip, center of forehead, and the bridge of the muzzle are accepted, but not required. A white tail-tip is desired by some kennel clubs. In contrast, any white markings on the back of the neck, the sides, or the back of the dog are unacceptable by most standards. Pharaoh's eyes are always amber, and should compliment the coat colour. They are born with blue eyes, which change to a light gold or yellow color during early puppyhood and then begin to darken well into adulthood. The nose, whiskers, nails, paw-pads, and eye-rims should also be the same colour as the coat. Pharaohs also have a unique trait of "blushing" when excited or happy, with their ears and nose becoming bright pink.The Pharaoh Hound is an intelligent, trainable, playful, and active breed. It is sociable with other dogs and with people; however, it can be aloof or reserved with strangers. It is typically very open and affectionate with its family and those it knows. It is an independent-minded, occasionally stubborn breed, yet can be submissive when appropriate positive training methods are used. It has a strong hunting instinct, and caution should be observed when it is around small pets such as cats, birds, and rodents. It is not a demonstrative breed but rather is quietly affectionate. It is a vocal breed without being yappy or barking just for the sake of barking. It makes a good watch dog; however, it is not well suited as guard dog as it is rarely aggressive with people. This is not a breed suited for kennel situations due to its intelligence and activity level. The breed tends to bond deeply with its people and thrives best when it feels included as a member of the family.
 Bichon Frise
A Bichon Frise (French, meaning curly white lap dog, pronounced /?bi??n ?friz/ or /?bi??n fr??ze?/), is a small breed of dog of the Bichon type. They are popular pets, similar in appearance to, but larger than, the Maltese.The Bichon Frise is a small dog that weighs approximately 5 – 10 kg (10 - 20 lbs) and stands 23 – 30 cm (9 – 12 in) at the withers, but slightly larger dogs are not uncommon. The skull is slightly rounded and the muzzle is not pointy. The tail is groomed to be long and curly and is carried over the back. It has a black nose and dark round eyes, and its white hair consists of a curly and coarse outercoat and a silky and dense undercoat, although many of the breed do tend to have less curly hair than others. A small amount of buff, cream, or apricot color may be seen around its ears, snout, paws or body, but normally these colors do not exceed 10% of its body. Coat colors are solid white, apricot, or gray. A white coat is preferred in the show ring. The head and legs are proportionate in size to the body, and the ears and tail are natural (not docked or cropped). The coat is trimmed often to make the hair seem like an even length. Bichon Frises can have a medium-high intelligence.The AKC refers to the Bichon Frise as "merry" and "cheerful", and the breed standard calls for a dog that is "gentle mannered, sensitive, playful and affectionate". The Bichon Frise loves human company and demands much of your attention. They are generally very sociable and do well with a family that takes them everywhere. They are charming, affectionate, and intelligent. They do well with children because they are playful and have lots of energy. Bred to be companion dogs, the Bichon Frise tends to get along well with both children and other animals.A popular characteristic of the Bichon Frise is the Bichon Buzz, also commonly referred to as the Bichon Blitz. These terms describe the sudden bursts of energy that a Bichon Frise will sometimes exhibit. Once in buzz mode, the Bichon will start running frantically at full speed throughout your home or yard. This is almost always accompanied by constant growling and barking. The buzz can last anywhere from 30 seconds up to 5 minutes.The buzz or blitz sudden bursts of energy are usually not predictable and can happen at any moment throughout the day. In addition, the Bichon Frise's path is unknown, as he will go from one room to the next, jumping on and off couches, beds or chairs. Once the Bichon has spent his energy, he will lie down and collapse from exhaustion. Bichon Frises are very obedient if training is started early and continued consistently..
 Pomeranian
Pomeranians are small dogs weighing 1.9–3.5 kilograms (4.2–7.7 lb) and standing 5.0–11 inches (13–28 cm) high at the withers. They are compact but sturdy dogs with an abundant textured coat with a highly plumed tail set high and flat. The top coat forms a ruff of hair on the neck and back, and they also have a fringe of feathery hair on the hindquarters.The earliest examples of the breed were white or occasionally black, Queen Victoria adopted a small red Pomeranian in 1888, which caused that color to become fashionable by the end of the 19th century. In modern times, the Pomeranian comes in the widest variety of colors of any dog breed, including white, black, brown, red, orange, cream, blue, sable, black and tan, brown and tan, spotted, brindle, plus combinations of those colors. The most common colors are orange, black or cream/white.The merle Pomeranian is a recent color developed by breeders. It is a combination of a solid base color with lighter blue/grey patch which gives a mottled effect. The most common base colors for the effect are red/brown or black, although it can also appear with other colors. Combinations such as brindle merle or liver merle are not accepted in the breed standard. In addition, the eye, nose and paw pad colors are different in merles, changing parts of the eye to blue and the color on the nose and paw pads to become mottled pink and black.Pomeranians have a thick double coat, and while grooming is not difficult, breeders recommend that it is done daily because of the thickness of the coat and the constant shedding. The outer coat is long, straight, and harsh in texture while the undercoat is soft, thick and short. The coat knots and tangles easily, particularly when the undercoat is being shed, which happens twice a year.BehaviorPomeranians are typically a very friendly and lively breed of dog. They love to be around their owners and are known to be protective of them. They bond quickly with their owners, and can suffer from separation anxiety if not trained to spend time alone Pomeranians are alert and aware of changes in their environment and barking at new stimuli can develop into a habit of barking excessively in any situation. They are somewhat defensive of their territory and will thus bark when they encounter any outside noises. Pomeranians are intelligent dogs, respond well to training, and can be very successful in getting what they want from their owners
 Black Russian Terrier
The Black Russian Terrier (Russian: ?????? ??????), abbreviated as BRT, or Stalin's dog (Sobaka Stalina) is a breed of dog, developed to serve as guard dog and police dog. It is rare outside the countries of the former Soviet Union but beginning to be formally recognized elsewhere: in July 2004, for instance, it became one of the AKC's recognized breeds.Despite its name, the Black Russian Terrier is not a true terrier: it is believed that about twenty breeds were used in its development, including the Airedale, the Giant Schnauzer, the Rottweiler, the Newfoundland, the Caucasian Ovtcharka and the now extinct Moscow Water Dog.The Black Russian Terrier gives the impression of great strength, athleticism, and courage. It should be rustic (but not coarse) in appearance, and should not look as though its coat is sculpted or trimmed. It should never appear to lack substance or be weak in any way. Males should be noticeably more masculine than females.According to the FCI standard (1983), the male stands 27-28.3 inches (66–72 cm) at the withers compared to the female's 25.2-27.6 inches (64–70 cm) with a tolerance of 0.4 inches (1 cm) less or 0.8 inches (2 cm) more. The breed weighs between 77 to 154 pounds (35-70 kg). Larger individuals are not uncommon in Russia, since the RKF standard (1996) adds 0.8 to the standard values, with a tolerance of 0.8 inches (2 cm) less or 1.2 inches (3 cm) more. Nowadays, even larger individual are tolerated if the dog is well proportioned and retains correct movements. The AKC standard recommends 27-30 inches for males and 26-29 inches for females, any dog or bitch under 26 inches being a disqualification. In proportions, a Black Russian Terrier should be slightly longer than tall, 9 ½ to 10 being ideal (FCI standard recommends 100-105).Black Russian Terriers are confident, calm, highly intelligent, brave and loyal. It should never be timid. The Black Russian Terrier may seem aloof, but needs human companionship and bonds deeply to its family.
 Poodle (Standard)
The Standard Poodle is regarded as the second most intelligent breed of dog after the Border Collie, and before the German Shepherd Dog. The poodle breed is found officially in toy, miniature, and standard sizes, with many coat colors. Originally bred as a type of water dog, the poodle is skillful in many dog sports, including agility, obedience, tracking, and even herding. Poodles have taken top honors in many conformation shows, including "Best in Show" at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1991 and 2002, and at the World Dog Show in 2007 and 2010.Poodles are retrievers or gun dogs, and can still be seen in that role most of the time. The poodle is believed to have originated in Germany, where it is known as the Pudel. The English word "poodle" comes from the Low German pudel or puddeln, meaning to splash in the water. The breed was standardized in France, where it was commonly used as a water retriever.The American Kennel Club states that the large, or Standard, Poodle is the oldest of the three varieties and that the dog gained special fame as a water worker. So widely was it used as retriever that it was bred with a moisture-resistant coat to further facilitate progress in swimming. All of the Poodle's ancestors were acknowledged to be good swimmers, although one member of the family, the truffle dog (which may have been of Toy or Miniature size), it is said, never went near the water. Truffle hunting was widely practiced in England, and later in Spain and Germany, where the edible fungus has always been considered a delicacy. For scenting and digging up the fungus, the smaller dogs were favored, since they did less damage to the truffles with their feet than the larger kinds. So it is rumored that a terrier was crossed with the Poodle to produce the ideal truffle hunter.Despite the standard poodle's claim to greater age than the other varieties, there is some evidence to show that the smaller types developed only a short time after the breed assumed the general type by which it is recognized today. The smallest, or Toy variety, was developed in England in the 18th century, when the Havanese became popular there. This was a sleeve dog attributed to the West Indies from whence it traveled to Spain and then to England. The continent had known the poodle long before it came to England. Drawings by the German artist, Albrecht Durer, establish the breed in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was the principal pet dog of the later 18th century in Spain, as shown by the paintings of the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. France had toy poodles as pampered favorites during the reign of Louis XVI at about the same period
 Bloodhound
The Bloodhound (also known as the St. Hubert hound and Sleuth Hound) is a large breed of dog that was bred originally to hunt deer and wild boar, later specifically to track human beings by scent. It is famed for its ability to follow scents hours or even days old over great distances. Its extraordinarily keen nose is combined with a strong and tenacious tracking instinct, producing the ideal scent hound, and it is used by police and law enforcement all over the world to track escaped prisoners, missing people, and even lost pets.Bloodhounds weigh from 33 to 50 kg (80 to 110 lb), although some individuals can weigh as much as 72 kg (160 lb). They stand 58 to 69 cm (23 to 27 inches) high at the withers. According to the AKC standard of the breed, larger dogs are to be preferred by conformation judges. The acceptable colors for Bloodhounds are black and tan, liver and tan, or red. Bloodhounds possess an unusually large skeletal structure with most of their weight concentrated in their bones, which are very thick for their length. The coat is typical for a scenthound: hard and composed of fur alone, with no admixture of hair.This breed is a gentle dog which is nonetheless tireless in following a scent. Because of its strong tracking instinct, it can be willful and somewhat difficult to obedience train. Bloodhounds have an affectionate, gentle, and even-tempered nature, so they make excellent family pets. However, like any large breed, they require supervision when around small children.
 Portuguese Pointer
A Portuguese Pointer, (Portuguese: Perdigueiro Português) is a breed of dog developed as a gun dog. It is one of several pointing breeds and is mainly used in Red-legged Partridge hunting. The Portuguese pointer (perdigueiro Português) arose from the ancient Iberian hunting dogs with his presence in Portugal traceable to the early Twelfth Century. Initially the dog was bred in the royal kennels and later became a very popular hunting dog for the lower classes of society. In the Eighteenth Century, many English families established a presence in the region of Oporto in the business of wine production and came to know the Portuguese hunting breed which was taken to England where they played a part in the origin of the English pointer. However, during the Nineteenth Century when Portugal was experiencing considerable social hardships, the breed began a progressive decline. It was not until the 1920s when some breeders made an effort to salvage the breed by locating some of the ancient Portuguese dogs in the inaccessible north of Portugal. The Portuguese pedigree book was then established in 1932 and breed standard in 1938. For at least a thousand years, this dog has always had the same square head, a marked stop, triangular ears and compact look.
 Border Collie
The Border Collie is a herding dog breed developed in the Anglo-Scottish border region for herding livestock, especially sheep. It is the most widespread of the collie breeds.Typically extremely energetic, acrobatic, and athletic, they frequently compete with great success in dog sports, in addition to their success in sheepdog trials, and are often cited as the most intelligent of all dogs. In January 2011, a Border Collie was reported to have learned 1,022 words, and acts consequently to human citation of those words.[In general, Border Collies are medium-sized dogs without extreme physical characteristics and with a moderate amount of coat, which means not much hair will be shed. Their double coats vary from slick to lush, and come in many colours, although black and white is the most common. Black tricolour (black/tan/white or sable and white), red (chocolate) and white, and red tricolour (red/tan/white) also occur regularly, with other colours such as blue, lilac, red merle, blue merle, brindle and "Australian red"/gold seen less frequently. Border Collies may also have single-colour coats.Eye colour varies from deep brown to amber or blue, and occasionally eyes of differing colour occur. (This is usually seen with "merles"). The ears of the Border Collie are also variable — some have fully erect ears, some fully dropped ears, and others semi-erect ears (similar to those of the rough Collie or sighthounds). Although working Border Collie handlers sometimes have superstitions about the appearance of their dogs (handlers may avoid mostly white dogs due to the unfounded idea that sheep will not respect a white or almost all white dog), in general a dog's appearance is considered by the American Border Collie Association to be irrelevant. It is considered much more useful to identify a working Border Collie by its attitude and ability than by its looks.Dogs bred for showing are more homogeneous in appearance than working Border Collies, since to win in conformation showing they must conform closely to breed club standards that are specific on many points of the structure, coat and colour. Kennel clubs specify, for example, that the Border Collie must have a "keen and intelligent" expression, and that the preferred eye colour is dark brown. In deference to the dog's working origin, scars and broken teeth received in the line of duty are not to be counted against a Border Collie in the show ring.Height at withers: Males from 19 to 22 in (48 to 56 cm), females from 18 to 21 in (46 to 53 cm).Border Collies require considerable daily physical exercise and mental stimulation.Border Collies are an intelligent breed. It is widely considered to be one of the most intelligent dog breeds. Although the primary role of the Border Collie is that of the working stock dog, dogs of this breed are becoming increasingly popular as pets.True to their working heritage, Border Collies make very demanding, energetic pets that are better off in households that can provide them with plenty of play and exercise with humans or other dogs. Due to their demanding personalities and need for mental stimulation and exercise, many border collies develop neurotic behaviors in households that are not able to provide for their needs. They are famous for chewing holes in walls and digging holes out of boredom. As a result, an alarming number of border collies end up in shelters and rescues every year. One of the prime reasons for getting rid of a border collie is their unsuitability for families with small children, cats, and other dogs, due to their intense desire to herd, bred into them for hundreds of years and still one of their chief uses outside the household.Border Collies are now also being used in showing, especially agility, where their speed and agility comes to good use.Though they are common choice for household pets, Border Collies have attributes that make them less suited for certain people who have small children and cannot give them the exercise they need. As with many working breeds, Border Collies can be motion-sensitive and they may chase vehicles occasionally or a small child in the garden running around as these are both very similar to herding sheep.
 Puli
The Puli is a small-medium breed of Hungarian herding and livestock guarding dog known for its long, corded coat. The tight curls of the coat, similar to dreadlocks, make it virtually waterproof. A similar looking, but much larger Hungarian dog breed is called Komondor.
 Borzoi
The borzoi (/?b?rz??/, literally "fast") is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) also called the Russian wolfhound and descended from dogs brought to Russia from central Asian countries. It is similar in shape to a greyhound, and is also a member of the sighthound family.The system by which Russians over the ages named their sighthounds was a series of descriptive terms, not actual names. "Borzói" is the masculine singular form of an archaic Russian adjective that means "fast".[1] "Borzáya sobáka" ("fast dog") is the basic term used by Russians, though the word "sobáka" is usually dropped. The name "Psovaya" derived from the word Psovina, meaning "wavy, silky coat", just as "Hortaya" (as in Hortaya Borzaya) means shorthaired. In Russia today the breed we know as borzoi is therefore officially called "Russkaya Psovaya Borzaya". Other Russian sighthound breeds are "Stepnaya Borzaya" (from the steppe), called "Stepnoi"; and "Krimskaya Borzaya" (from the Crimea), called "Krimskoi".The plural "borzois" may be found in dictionaries. However, the Borzoi Club of America asserts "borzoi" is the preferred form for both singular and plural (in Russian, the plural is actually "borzýe"). At least one manual of grammatical style rules that the breed name should not be capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence; again, breed fanciers usually differ, and capitalize it wherever foundThe borzoi is a quiet but athletic and independent dog. Most borzoi are almost silent, barking only very rarely. They do not have strong territorial drives and cannot be relied on to raise the alarm upon sighting a human intruder. They are gentle and highly sensitive dogs with a natural respect for humans, and as adults they are decorative couch potatoes with remarkably gracious house-manners. Borzois should never display dominance or aggression towards people. Typically however, they are rather reserved and sensitive to invasion of their personal space; this can make them nervous around children unless they are brought up with them from an early age. Despite their size they adapt very well to suburban living, provided they have a spacious yard and regular opportunities for free exercise.
 Pumi
The Pumi is a medium-small terrier-type breed of sheep dog from Hungary. Most Pumis are gray, and any shade of gray is accepted in the show ring. Gray Pumis are born black but puppies usually start graying at the age of 6 to 8 weeks, and the shade gradually lightens. The final shade can be predicted by the color of the parents. Other accepted colors are black, white, and maszkos fakó, which is yellow-brown with a darker mask. This color is known as sable with mask in other breeds, such as the Terveuren. The graying often also affects the maszkos fakó Pumi puppies, and the adults are often just slightly shaded. Other colors are possible, but not accepted for shows. Black and tan, brown, blue, and wolf-colored puppies are born occasionally.
 Bouvier des Flandres
The Bouvier des Flandres is a herding dog breed originating in Flanders. They were originally used for general farm work including cattle droving, sheep herding, and cart pulling, and nowadays as guard dogs and police dogs, as well as being kept as pets. The French name of the breed means, literally, "Cow Herder of Flanders", referring to the Flemish origin of the breed. Other names for the breed are Toucheur de Boeuf (cattle driver) and Vuilbaard (dirty beard).The Bouvier is a powerfully built compact rough coated dog of rugged appearance. It gives the impression of size and strength without clumsiness or heaviness. Perhaps its most notable feature is the impressive head which is accentuated by a heavy beard and mustache. The ears and tail of the Bouvier are traditionally cropped. The weight of males ranges from 75 to 90 pounds or 45 to 55 kilograms, slightly smaller for females.[citation needed] They are powerfully built, with a thick double coat, which can be fawn, black, grey brindle, or "pepper and salt" in color. Bouviers are sometimes considered non-shedding, but in fact do lose hair, like all dogs. Most of the hair that they lose is caught within the double coat which results in matting. They require weekly brushing and combing to maintain the coat. In addition to weekly brushing, the coat should be trimmed approximately every 3–5 weeks if it is to be a show dog. Trimming requires practice to achieve the proper look.Bouviers des Flandres are rational, gentle, loyal, and protective in nature. The breed's particular blend of characteristics makes them good family pets, as well as keen guard dogs. Unlike some animals bred for aggressive nature and power, the Bouvier possesses sophisticated traits, such as complex control, intelligence, and accountability.The Bouvier des Flandres is an obedient dog with a pleasant nature. They look intimidating, but are actually calm and gentle. They are enthusiastic, responsible, even-tempered, and fearless, and are excellent guard and watchdogs that are easy to train. This breed learns commands relatively fast.They require well-balanced training that remains consistent in nature. It is important to consistently make the dog aware, without being harsh or rough, that the owner is, and will remain, the boss. This breed needs an experienced owner to prevent dominance and over-protectiveness problems.Bouviers should be socialized well, preferably starting at an early age, to avoid shyness, suspiciousness, and being overly reserved with strangers (although the breed is naturally aloof with strangers). Protection of the family when danger is present is not something that needs to be taught, nor is it something one can train out of them. The dog will rise to the occasion if needed. A good family dog, the Bouvier likes, and is excellent with, children. The Bouvier is very adaptable and goes about its business quietly and calmly. Obedience training starts at an early age. Their behavior depends on the owner's ability to communicate what is expected, and on the individual dominance level of the dog. They are usually good with other dogs if they are raised with them from puppyhood. Dominant individuals can be dog-aggressive if the owners are not assertive and do not communicate to the dog that fighting is unwanted. Slow to mature both in body and mind, the Bouvier does not fully mature until the age of 2–3 years.
 Portugese Water Dog
The Portuguese Water Dog is a breed of working dog as classified by the American Kennel Club. Portuguese Water Dogs are originally from the Portuguese region of the Algarve, from where the breed expanded to all around Portugal's coast, where they were taught to herd fish into fishermen's nets, to retrieve lost tackle or broken nets, and to act as couriers from ship to ship, or ship to shore. Portuguese Water Dogs rode in bobbing fishing trawlers as they worked their way from the warm Atlantic waters of Portugal to the frigid fishing waters off the coast of Iceland where the fleets caught cod to bring home. Portuguese Water Dogs were often taken with sailors during the Portuguese discoveries.In Portugal, the breed is called Cão de Água (pronounced Kow-the-Ah-gwa; literally "water dog"). In its native land, the dog is also known as the Algarvian Water Dog ("Cão de Água Algarvio"), or Portuguese Fishing Dog (Cão Pescador Português). Cão de Água de Pêlo Ondulado is the name given the wavy-haired variety, and Cão de Água de Pêlo Encaracolado is the name for the curly-coated variety.The Portuguese Water Dog is a fairly rare breed; only 15 entrants for Portuguese Water Dogs were made to England's Crufts competition in 2002. Though some breeders claim they are a hypoallergenic dog breed, there is no scientific evidence to support the claim that hypoallergenic dog breeds exist. However, their non-shedding qualities have made them more popular in recent years.The closest relatives of the PWD are widely thought to be the Kerry Blue Terrier, Barbet and Standard Poodle. Like Poodles and several other water dog breeds, PWDs are highly intelligent, can have curly coats, have webbed toes for swimming, and do not shed.[5] However, Portuguese Water Dogs are more robustly built, with stout legs, and can have a wavy coat instead of tightly curled. If comparing the structure to that of a Poodle, there are significant differences between the two breeds. The Portuguese Water Dog built of strong substantial bone; well developed, neither refined nor coarse, and a solidly built, muscular body. The Portuguese Water Dog is off-square, slightly longer than tall when measured from prosternum to rearmost point of the buttocks, and from withers to ground. Portuguese Water Dog eyes are black or various tones of brown, and their coats can be black, brown, black and white or brown and white.Male Portuguese Water Dogs usually grow to be about 20 to 23 inches (51 cm to 58 cm) tall, and they weigh between 40 and 60 pounds (18 kg to 27 kg), while the females usually grow to be about 17 to 21 inches (43 cm to 53 cm) tall, and they weigh between 35 and 50 pounds.PWDs have a single-layered coat that does not shed[6] (see Moult), and therefore their presence is tolerated extremely well among many people who suffer from dog allergies. Some call PWDs hypoallergenic dogs, but any person with dog allergies who would like a dog with these qualities should actually spend time with the animals before purchasing, to test whether the dog is truly non-allergenic to them.Most PWDs, especially those shown in conformation shows, are entirely black, black and white, brown, or silver-tipped; it is common to see white chest spots and white paws or legs on black or brown coated dogs. "Parti" or "Irish-marked" coats, with irregular white and black spots, are rare but visually striking. "Parti" dogs are becoming more common in the United States. However, in Portugal the breed standard does not allow more than 30% white markings. Overall, white is the least common Portuguese Water Dog color, while black with white markings on the chin ("milk chin") and chest is the most common color combination.
 Boxer
Developed in Germany, the Boxer is a breed of stocky, medium size, short-haired dog. The coat is smooth and fawn, brindled, white, or even reverse brindled with or without white markings. Boxers are brachycephalic (they have broad, short skulls), and have a square muzzle, mandibular prognathism (an underbite), very strong jaws and a powerful bite ideal for hanging on to large prey. The Boxer was bred from the Old English Bulldog and the now extinct Bullenbeisser and is part of the Molosser group.Boxers were first exhibited in a dog show for St. Bernards at Munich in 1895, the first Boxer club being founded the next year. Based on 2009 American Kennel Club statistics, Boxers are the sixth most popular breed of dog in the United States for the third year in a row—moving up in 2007 from the seventh spot, which they'd held since 2002The head is the most distinctive feature of the Boxer. The breed standard dictates that it must be in perfect proportion to the body and above all it must never be too light. The greatest value is to be placed on the muzzle being of correct form and in absolute proportion to the skull. The length of the muzzle to the whole of the head should be a ratio of 1:2. Folds are always present from the root of the nose running downwards on both sides of the muzzle, and the tip of the nose should lie somewhat higher than the root of the muzzle. In addition a Boxer should be slightly prognathous, i.e., the lower jaw should protrude beyond the upper jaw and bend slightly upwards in what is commonly called an underbite or "undershot bite".Boxers were originally a docked and cropped breed, and this tradition is still maintained in some countries. However, due to pressure from veterinary associations, animal rights groups and the general public, both cropping of the ears and docking of the tail have been prohibited in many countries around the world. There is a line of naturally short-tailed (bobtail) Boxers that was developed in the United Kingdom in anticipation of a tail docking ban there; after several generations of controlled breeding, these dogs were accepted in the Kennel Club (UK) registry in 1998, and today representatives of the bobtail line can be found in many countries around the world. However, in 2008, the FCI added a "naturally stumpy tail" as a disqualifying fault in their breed standard, meaning those Boxers born with a bobtail are no longer able to be shown (or, in some cases, bred) in FCI member countries. In the United States and Canada as of 2009, cropped ears are still more common in show dogs. In March 2005 the AKC breed standard was changed to include a description of the uncropped ear, but to severely penalize an undocked tail. Although a Boxer may not be as big as another breed, make no mistake, what a Boxer may lack in size or weight, it makes up for in near unmatchable strength.Boxers are a bright, energetic and playful breed and tend to be very good with children. They are active and incredibly strong dogs and require adequate exercise to prevent boredom-associated behaviors such as chewing, digging, or licking. Boxers have earned a slight reputation of being "headstrong," which can be related to inappropriate obedience training. Owing to their intelligence and working breed characteristics, training based on corrections often has limited usefulness. Boxers, like other animals, typically respond better to positive reinforcement techniques such as clicker training, an approach based on operant conditioning and behaviorism, which affords the dog an opportunity to think independently and to problem-solve. Stanley Coren's survey of obedience trainers, summarized in his book The Intelligence of Dogs, ranked Boxers at #48 - average working/obedience intelligence. Many who have worked with Boxers disagree quite strongly with Coren's survey results, and maintain that a skilled trainer who uses reward-based methods will find Boxers have far above-average intelligence and working ability.The Boxer by nature is not an aggressive or vicious breed but, when provoked, is a formidable guardian of any family or home and, like all dogs, requires socialization. Boxers are generally patient with smaller dogs and puppies, but difficulties with larger adult dogs, especially those of the same sex, may occur. More severe fighting can also occur among female boxers.[14] Boxers are generally more comfortable with companionship, in either human or canine form.
 Pug
The pug is a "toy" (very small) breed of dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face, and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colors, and a compact square body with well-developed muscle. They have been described as multum in parvo ("much in little"), referring to the pug's personality and small size. Known in ancient China as lo-sze, they may have been responsible for both the modern Pekingese and King Charles spaniel. They have Chinese origins, but were popularised in Western Europe by the House of Orange of the Netherlands and the House of Stuart of England, Ireland and Scotland.They can suffer from a variety of health issues, including overheating, obesity, pharyngeal reflex and two fatal conditions which are necrotizing meningoencephalitis and hemivertebrae. In addition, care must be taken by their owner to clean their ears, and the folds of skin on their faceThe breed is often summarized as multum in parvo ("much in little"), describing the pug's remarkable personality despite its small size. While the pugs appearing in eighteenth century prints tended to be long and lean, modern breed preferences are for a square, cobby body, a compact form, a deep chest, and well-developed muscle. Pugs have two distinct shapes for their ears, "rose" and "button". "Rose" ears are smaller than the standard style "button" and are folded with the front edge against the side of the head. Breeding preference goes to "button" style pugs. The legs are very strong, straight, of moderate length, and are set well under. The shoulders are moderately laid back. The pasterns are strong, neither steep nor down. The feet are neither so long as the foot of the hare, nor so round as that of the cat; well split-up toes, and the nails black. The lower teeth normally protrude further than their upper, meeting in an under-bite
 Bracco Italiano
The Bracco - or Italian Pointer- should be athletic and powerful in appearance, most resembling a cross between a German Shorthaired Pointer and a Bloodhound, although it is nothing like them in character. It has pendulous upper lips and long ears that create a serious expression. It should be "almost square", meaning that its height at the withers should be almost the same as the length of its body. It should not however be actually square as this would render its famous rear driving push off and front/rear extension to be compromised, thus losing much of its powerful grace. The tail can be docked, mostly due to the strong possibility of injury in rough/dense terrain when hunting, however there has been a sea-change in Italy, with some now working the breed with full tail.Braccos are very much a people-loving dog and thrive on human companionship, having a strong need to be close to their people. They are a particularly good family dog, and many have a strong love of children. They get along well with other dogs and pets, if trained to do so - it is, afterall, a hunting breed - and must be taught what to chase and what not to. They are very willing to please as long as they have decided that your idea is better than theirs. Obedience training is a must for a Bracco, and the more is asked of them, the better they do. Harsh reprimands do not work with this breed unless the reprimand is a fair one - and harshness must occasionally be used with some dogs to remind them who is actually in charge. Although not an aggressive breed, many Braccos will alert if there is a reason, and some will bark or growl if there's a good reason.The breed loves to hunt, and they excel at it - in fact, a non-hunting Bracco is not a happy Bracco, and will act out in various other ways. Hunting without a gun is an area in which the Bracco can excel and this can be a great opportunity for training the dog to connect with the owner. They are an active breed, but require more mental exercise than physical exercise to keep them happy- but regular free running will actually entertain both their minds and senses satisfactorily and so should be encouraged.
 Pyrenean Mastiff
The Pyrenean Mastiff (Mastín del Pirineo) is a large breed of dog originally from the Aragonese Pyrenees in Spain.The Pyrenean Mastiff is a very large dog, males 77 cm (30 in) and females 71 cm (28 in) at the withers, although they can be up to 81 cm (32 in). They have a heavy white coat with large darker spots. The average weight is about 180 pounds, although males can often weigh over 220 pounds.This Mountain dog is descended from an ancient livestock guardian dog type. It has been documented since 1977 as a modern purebred breed by the Club del Mastín del Pirineo de España in Spain. The breed is now being taken from its native region and promoted as a pet in other countries like USA by the Pyrenean Mastiff Club of America It was recognised by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1982.
 Briard
The Briard is a large breed of dog, one of many herding breeds. The Briard has been known for some centuries. Charlemagne, Napoleon, Thomas Jefferson, and Lafayette all owned Briards. This ancient sheep guard and herder has also been used by the French Army as a sentry, messenger, and to search for wounded soldiers because of its fine sense of hearing. They were used in the First World War almost to the point of extinction. It became popular only after the Paris dog show of 1863 - in large part due to the improvement of the dog's looks achieved by crosses with the Beauceron and the Barbet. The Briard is named either for Aubry of Montdidier, a man who was supposed to have owned an early Briard, or for the French province of Brie, although the dog probably does not originate in that locale. The Briard still serves as a herder and flock guardian today, as well as an esteemed companion dog. Some of the Briard's talents are search and rescue, police work, military work, herding, watchdogging and guarding. Currently the population of Briards is slowly recovering. Experts state they are related to the Berger Picard.The Briard can be any of several different solid colors or lighter colors with darker or light ears and face. Briards stand 58 to 69 cm (22 to 27 inches) at the withers. Ear cropping has been common in the breed, although more breeders are leaving the ears in their natural state since ear cropping is becoming illegal in most European countries, including the Briard's land of origin, France. Their long coat requires an extensive amount of grooming. Briards come in a variety from different colors and the ones with lighter colors are often mistaken for haystacks.They were originally bred to herd as well as guard flocks of sheep. And they were often left to their own devices in order to accomplish their assigned tasks. This makes the Briard different from those breeds that only guard and those that only herd. The breeds that just herd are often smaller in size, agile, and swift of foot. Those breeds that just guard are usually larger and heavier.The breed characteristics of the Briard, are of a medium sized, rugged, agile dog, having harsh coat and double dewclaws mounted low on each rear leg, resembling additional toes. Each double dew claw should have bone substance and nail, giving the appearance of a wider rear foot. Bred for centuries to herd, the additional digits on each rear foot give the Briard the ability of pivoting on one foot for quick turns and complete turn arounds, which are necessary when herding and guarding their flocks. Throughout history, the Briard has retained an appropriate balance of size and build that is required for both herding and protection of their flocks. They are not too large to tire during herding yet large enough to fend off predators such as fox and wolves.The Briard is a very loyal and protective breed. The Briard is also called a heart of gold wrapped in fur. Once they have bonded to their family members, they will be very protective. They can be aloof with strangers - new introductions should be on the dog's terms, including furniture or the addition of a new baby into the household. They require showing that the new intrusion is friendly and free of conflict. They must be taught that it is a good thing and not harmful. They have proven to be a very good breed to have around children of all ages.It is also important that the Briard be introduced to several different individuals of all ages and in all types of situations. Socialization starting at a very young age is mandatory. Briards should be walked as often as possible, to many different places, and they will develop into a well rounded animal. Pet stores, city parks and malls are a good place to start.The Briard has been bred for centuries to herd and to protect their flocks. To domesticated briards, their family is the flock and all strangers may appear to be predators. Letting them know that the public in general are friendly and not harmful will help them establish a lifelong socialization pattern which will result in an outgoing and happy dog. This socialization with the public in general will not diminish their capacity for protecting and guarding their family.The Briard has a very good memory. Once a lesson is learned, good or bad, the knowledge will be retained for a long time to come. Sometimes they may appear to be strong minded and stubborn but these are a few of the Briard's characteristics. They were bred for centuries to think for themselves and to act upon their conclusions, sometimes to the point of thinking what the "flock" will do ahead of time.These are some of the traits that the Briard has retained throughout history. Even if a Briard is a city dweller, they have a degree of herding ability within them. If ever, during their lifetime, they are introduced to sheep or cattle, they will automatically start doing what they were bred to do, herding. They will even herd humans by nibbling on their ankles or guiding with their heads and guide them to his master if ordered.
 Pyrenean Mountain Dog
The Pyrenean Mountain Dog, known as the Great Pyrenees in North America, is a large breed of dog used as a livestock guardian dog.The Great Pyrenees is a very old breed, and has been used for hundreds of years by shepherds, including those of the Basque people, who inhabit parts of the region in and around the Pyrenees Mountains of southern France and northern Spain. One of the first descriptions of the breed dates from 1407, and from 1675 the breed was a favourite of The Grand Dauphin and other members of the French aristocracy. By the early nineteenth century there was a thriving market for the dogs in mountain towns, from where they would be taken to other parts of France. However as late as 1874 the breed was not completely standardised in appearance, with two major sub-types recorded, the Western and the Eastern. They are related to several other large white European livestock guardian dogs (LGD), including the Italian Maremma Sheepdog, Kuvasz (Hungary), Akbash Dog (Turkey) and Polish Tatra or Polski Owczarek Podhala?ski, and somewhat less closely to the Newfoundland and St. Bernard.Males grow to 110–120 pounds (50–54 kg) and 27–32 inches (69–81 cm), while females reach 80–90 pounds (36–41 kg) and 25–29 inches (63–74 cm). On average, their lifespan is 10 to 12 years.Their coats are white and can have varying shades of gray, red (rust), or tan around the face (including a full face mask), ears and sometimes on the body and tail. As Great Pyrenees mature, their coats grow thicker and the longer colored hair of the coat often fades on those dogs that were not born completely white. Sometimes a little light tan or lemon will appear later in life around the ears and face. Being a double-coated breed, the undercoat can also have color and the skin as well. The color of the nose and on the eye rims should be jet black. Grey or tan markings that remain lend the French name, "blaireau," (badger) which is a similar grizzled mixture color seen in the European badger. More recently, any color is correctly termed "Badger" or "Blaireau."Great Pyrenees Breed Standard; Working GroupGeneral Appearance: The Great Pyrenees dog conveys the distinct impression of elegance and unsurpassed beauty combined with great overall size and majesty. He has a white or principally white coat that may contain markings of badger, gray, or varying shades of tan. He possesses a keen intelligence and a kindly, while regal, expression. Exhibiting a unique elegance of bearing and movement, his soundness and coordination show unmistakably the purpose for which he has been bred, the strenuous work of guarding the flocks in all kinds of weather on the steep mountain slopes of the Pyrenees.
 Bull Terrier
The Bull Terrier's most recognizable feature is its head, described as 'egg shaped' when viewed from the front, almost flat at the top, with a Roman muzzle sloping evenly down to the end of the nose with no stop. The unique triangle-shaped eyes are small, dark, and deep-set. The body is full and round, while the shoulders are robust and very muscular and the tail is carried horizontally. It walks with a jaunty gait, and is popularly known as the 'gladiator of the canine race'.There is no designated height or weight for the breed, but the average is, Height: 52–61 cm (21-24 inches), Weight: 22–38 kg (50-85 pounds) The Bull Terrier is the only recognized breed that has triangle-shaped eyes.Though this breed was once known as a fierce gladiator, it is much gentler today. A Bull Terrier might have a preventive effect, and it will certainly defend its owner in a truly critical situation. Bull terriers are known to be courageous, scrappy, fun-loving, active, clownish and fearless. The Bull Terrier tends to be a loyal and polite dog. They become very attached to their owners. The Bull Terrier thrives on a firm, consistent leadership and affection. This breed can be a wonderful pet if very thoroughly socialized and trained. They are fond of people of all ages, but if they do not get enough physical and mental exercise they may be too energetic for small children. Children should be taught how to display leadership towards the dog. Meek owners will find them to become very protective, willful, possessive and/or jealous. Bull Terriers may try to join into family roughhousing or quarrel. Bull Terriers generally must be given a lot of structure. Unaltered males may not get along with other male dogs. Males and females can live together happily, and two females can also be a good combination with care and supervision. They should be introduced in a proper fashion to other non-canine pets such as cats, hamsters, and guinea pigs etc.
 Rhodesian Ridgeback
The Rhodesian Ridgeback is a dog breed developed in Southern Africa where it was used (among other things) to hunt lions. This is most likely why this dog is known for its bravery. Its European forebears can be traced to the early pioneers of the Cape Colony of southern Africa, who crossed their dogs with the semi-domesticated, ridged hunting dogs of the Khoikhoi.In the earlier parts of its history, the Rhodesian Ridgeback has also been known as Van Rooyen's Lion Dogs, the African Lion Hound or African Lion Dog—Simba Inja in Ndebele, Shumba Imbwa in Shona—because of their ability to distract a lion while awaiting their master to make the kill.The original breed standard was drafted by F.R. Barnes, in Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), in 1922. Based on that of the Dalmatian, the standard was approved by the South African Kennel Union in 1926. This dog is now used to help athletes train.The Khoikhoi people occupied the Cape Peninsula during the mid 17th century when the Dutch began trading with the area and set up a trading station. These people had a dog which was used for hunting; described as ugly, but noted for its ferocity when acting as a guard dog. This dog measured 18 inches (46 cm) at the withers, with a lean but muscular frame. The ears have been described both as erect and hanging, but the most distinct feature was the length of hair growing in the reverse direction along its back. Within 53 years of the Dutch settlement, the Europeans were using these local dogs themselves.By the 1860s, European settlers had brought a variety of dog breeds to this area of Africa, including Bloodhounds, Greyhounds, terriers, and Foxhounds. These breeds were bred with the indigenous African dogs, including the dog of the Khoikhoi people, which resulted in the Boer hunting dogs, a forerunner to the modern Rhodesian Ridgeback.Reverend Charles Helm traveled to the Hope Fountain Mission in Southern Rhodesia in the 1870s, taking two ridged dogs with him. It was there that Cornelius van Rooyen, a big–game hunter saw them, and decided to breed his own dogs with them to incorporate their guarding abilities. The offspring were dogs with red coats and ridges, and became the foundation stock of a kennel which developed dogs over the next thirty five years with the ability to bay lions. This term was used as the dogs were meant to hold it at bay, while the hunter made the kill. The dogs were not limited to lions, but were also used for other game including wild pigs and baboons, with a Ridgeback having the ability to kill a baboon independent of a hunter. The first breed standard was written by Mr F.R. Barnes in Bulawayo, Rhodesia in 1922. Based on that of the Dalmatian, it was approved in 1926 by the South African Kennel Union.The first Rhodesian Ridgebacks in Britain were shown by Mrs. Edward Foljambe in 1928. The breed was admitted into the American Kennel Club in 1955 as a member of the Hound Group.
 Bulldog (English Bulldog)
A Bulldog is the common name for a breed of dog also referred to as the English Bulldog. Other Bulldog breeds include the American Bulldog and the French Bulldog. The Bulldog is a muscular heavy dog with a wrinkled face and a distinctive pushed-in nose. The American Kennel Club (AKC), The Kennel Club (UK) and the United Kennel Club (UKC) oversee breeding standards.The Bulldog is a breed with characteristically wide shoulders and a matching head. There are generally thick folds of skin on a Bulldog's brow, followed by round, black, wide-set eyes, a short muzzle with characteristic folds called "rope" above the nose, with hanging skin under the neck, drooping lips, and pointed teeth. The coat is short, flat and sleek, with colors of red, fawn, white, brindle (mixed colors, often in waves or irregular stripes), and piebald.In the US, the size of a typical mature male is about 55-60 pounds and that for mature females is about 45 pounds for a Standard English Bulldog. In the United Kingdom, the breed standard is 55 pounds for a male and 50 pounds for a female.While some canine breeds have their tails cut or docked soon after birth, Bulldogs are one of very few breeds whose tail is naturally short and curled.Despite their famous "sourpuss" expression, Bulldogs are generally docile and easy to please. They can move quickly over short distances. Bulldogs do not need a lot of physical exercise, so they are well-suited for living in apartments and other urban environments. They are friendly and gregarious, but occasionally willful and well trained if training is done right. The phrase "stubborn as a Bulldog" is loosely rooted in fact. They rank 78th out of 80 in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of lowest degree working/obedience intelligence.Breeders have worked to breed aggression out of the breed, and as such, the dog is known to be of generally good temperament. Due to their friendly, patient nature, Bulldogs are known for getting along well with children, other dogs, and pets. Bulldogs can be so attached to home and family that they will not venture out of the yard without a human companion.
 Rottweiler
The Rottweiler is a medium to large size breed of domestic dog that originated in Rottweil, Germany. The dogs were known as "Rottweil butchers' dogs" (German: Rottweiler Metzgerhund) because they were used to herd livestock and pull carts laden with butchered meat and other products to market. Some records indicate that earlier Rottweilers may have also been used for hunting, although the modern Rottweiler has a relatively low hunting instinct.The Rottweiler was employed in its traditional roles until the mid-19th century when railroads replaced droving for getting livestock to market. While still used in herding, Rottweilers are now also used in search and rescue, as guide dogs for the blind, as guard or police dogs, and in other roles.Although a versatile breed used in recent times for many purposes, the Rottweiler is primarily known as one of the oldest herding breeds. A multi-faceted herding and stock protection dog, it is capable of working all kinds of livestock under a variety of conditions.The breed's history dates to the Roman Empire. In those times, the Roman legion travelled with their meat on the hoof and required the assistance of working dogs to herd the cattle. One route the army travelled was through Württemberg and on to the small market town of Rottweil. The principal ancestors of the first Rottweilers during this time are believed to be the Roman droving dog, local dogs the army met on its travels, and dogs with molosser appearance coming from England and the Netherlands.[citation needed]This region was eventually to become an important cattle area, and the descendants of the Roman cattle dogs proved their worth in both driving and protecting the cattle from robbers and wild animals. Rottweilers were said to have been used by travelling butchers at markets during the Middle Ages to guard money pouches tied around their necks. However, as railroads became the primary method for moving stock to market, the breed had declined so much that by 1900 there was only one female to be found in the town of Rottweil.[citation needed]The build up to World War I saw a great demand for police dogs, and that led to a revival of interest in the Rottweiler. During the First and Second World Wars, Rottweilers were put into service in various roles, including as messenger, ambulance, draught, and guard dogs.Deutscher Rottweiler-Klub (DRK, German Rottweiler Club), the first Rottweiler club in Germany, was founded January 13, 1914, and followed by the creation of the Süddeutscher Rottweiler-Klub (SDRK, South German Rottweiler Club) on April 27, 1915 and eventually became the IRK (International Rottweiler Club). The DRK counted around 500 Rottweilers, and the SDRK 3000 Rottweilers. The goals of the two clubs were different. The DRK aimed to produce working dogs and did not emphasize the morphology of the Rottweiler.The various German Rottweiler Clubs amalgamated to form the Allgemeiner Deutscher Rottweiler Klub (ADRK, General German Rottweiler Club) in 1921. This was officially recorded in the register of clubs and associations at the district court of Stuttgart on January 27, 1924.[ The ADRK is recognised worldwide as the home club of the Rottweiler.In 1935 the Rottweiler was officially recognized by the American Kennel Club. In 1936, Rottweilers were exhibited in Britain at Crufts. In 1966, a separate register was opened for the breed. In fact, in the mid 1990s, the popularity of the Rottweiler reached an all time high with it being the most registered dog by the American Kennel Club
 Cairn Terrier
The Cairn Terrier is one of the oldest terrier breeds, originating in the Scottish Highlands and recognized as one of Scotland's earliest working dogs. It is used for hunting and burrowing prey among the cairns.Although the breed had existed long before, the name Cairn Terrier was a compromise suggestion after the breed was originally brought to official shows in the United Kingdom in 1909 under the name Short-haired Skye terriers. This name was not acceptable to The Kennel Club due to opposition from Skye Terrier breeders, and the name Cairn Terrier was suggested as an alternative. They are usually left-pawed, which has been shown in dogs to correlate to superior performance in tasks related to scent. Cairn Terriers are ratters. In Scotland they would search the cairns (man-made pile of stones) for rats and other rodents. Thus if one is kept as a household pet it will do the job of a cat, specifically catching and killing mice, rabbits, and squirrels.The Cairn Terrier has a harsh, weather-resistant outer coat that can be cream, wheaten, red, sandy, gray, or brindled in any of these colours. Pure black, black and tan, and white are not permitted by many kennel clubs. While registration of white Cairns was once permitted, after 1917 the American Kennel Club required them to be registered as West Highland White Terriers. A notable characteristic of Cairns is that brindled Cairns frequently change colour throughout their lifetime. It is not uncommon for a brindled Cairn to become progressively more black or silver as it ages. The Cairn is double-coated, with a soft, dense undercoat and a harsh outer coat. A well-groomed Cairn has a rough-and-ready appearance, free of artifice or exaggeration.Referred to as a "big dog trapped in a small dog's body" Cairn Terriers are adventurous, intelligent, strong, loyal and tough not a delicate lapdog. Like most terriers, they love to dig after real or imagined prey. They are vermin hunters. Cairns have potential aggression toward other animals with strong chasing instincts but will co-exist with them more readily than some other terriers. However, strange animals may be a different story, as the Cairn Terrier was bred to hunt and will chase anything that moves. They are protective of their families, and will defend their territory with courage and devotion, but they are also people-oriented and are friendly with everyone they meet. They generally do well with other dogs, but will stand their ground if challenged and also have been known to harass, and sometimes hurt cats. There is very little a Cairn cannot learn if his owner takes the time to teach him. Cairn Terriers have a strong prey instinct and will need comprehensive training. However, they are intelligent and, although wilful, can be trained. Training of the Cairn Terrier has the best results when training as a puppy, as they become wilfully stubborn. Although it is often said that they are disobedient, this is not the case provided correct training is applied. They've been called "the best little pal in the world" and they are always a work in progress. If there is no fenced yard, the Cairn must be exercised on a leash, as it is impossible to train a Cairn to resist the urge to chase squirrels, cats, rabbits, other dogs, etc. (Cairns were bred to hunt). Walking is excellent exercise for Cairns and their owners. A brisk walk daily, on leash, is ideal. From the Cairn's point of view, the longer the walk the better. Although small in size at nine to ten inches at the shoulder with weight ranging from thirteen to fourteen pounds, the Cairn is a big dog trapped in a little dog's body. There has been cases for Cairns to take on a much larger and fiercer dogs only to come out on the losing end because they do not know when to back down. For that reason the Cairn must be kept in a suitable enclosure. Cairn Terriers generally are gentle and adapt well to children and are suitable family dogs, but will not tolerate mistreatment. They are not usually problem barkers, but will bark if bored or lonely.
 Rough Collie
The Rough Collie (also known as the Long-Haired Collie) is a long coated breed of medium to large size dog that in its original form was a type of collie used and bred for herding in Scotland. Originating in the 1800's, it is now well known through the works of author Albert Payson Terhune, and through the Lassie novel, movies, and television shows. There is also a smooth-coated variety; some breed organisations, including both the American and the Canadian Kennel Clubs, consider the smooth-coat and rough-coat dogs to be variations of the same breed. Rough Collies generally come in shades of sable, merles, and bi- or tri-coloured. This breed is very similar to the smaller Shetland Sheepdog which is partly descended from the Rough Collie.Both Rough and Smooth collies are descended from a localised variety of herding dog originating in Scotland and Wales. The Scottish variety was a large, strong, aggressive dog, bred to herd highland sheep. The Welsh variety was small and nimble, domesticated and friendly, and also herded goats. When the English saw these dogs at the Birmingham market, they interbred them with their own variety of sheepdogs producing a mixture of short and long haired varieties. After the industrial revolution, dog ownership became fashionable, and these early collies were believed to have been crossed with the Borzoi (Russian Wolfhound) to get a more "noble" head, which is today one of the true characteristics of the Rough Collie. Though it is not known conclusively if the Borzoi cross made it into the mainstream of the breed. When Queen Victoria acquired a Rough Collie, after seeing one at Balmoral Castle, they were transformed into something of a fashion item. Continued breeding for show purposes drastically changed the appearance of the dogs; in the 1960s, it was a much taller dog than it is today (in the UK; in the US, the size standard has not been revised downward and dogs have remained between 24-26"). Earlier dogs were also more sturdy in build and reportedly capable of covering up to 100 miles in one day. In the UK the Rough Collie is no longer used for serious herding, having been replaced by the Border Collie. Though in the United States and a number of European countries, there has been a resurgence in the use of the Collie as a working and performance dog.
 Canaan Dog
The Canaan dog is a Canaanite breed of dog which may have existed in the eastern Mediterranean seaboard for millennia, as referenced in ancient sculptures. The Canaan dog, known in Israel as (Hebrew: ??? ?
 Saluki
The Saluki, also known as the Royal Dog of Egypt and Persian Greyhound (Persian: ?????, Arabic: ?????) is one of the oldest known breeds of domesticated dog. From the period of the Middle Kingdom onwards, Saluki-like animals appear on the ancient Egyptian tombs of 2134 BC. They have connections both to the Bible and Imperial China. Modern breeding in the west began in 1895 when Florence Amherst imported a breeding pair of Salukis from Lower Egypt and began working to popularize the breed. Salukis were recognized by The Kennel Club in 1923, and by the American Kennel Club in 1929.The Saluki is a sighthound and historically travelled throughout the Middle East with nomadic desert tribes over an area stretching from the Sahara to the Caspian Sea. Accepted as clean by the Islamic faith, they have been used to hunt quarry such as gazelles in the Middle East. Shaped like a typical sighthound, they come in two varieties, smooth and feathered. The feathered variety is more common, and the breed is known for the hair on its ears, tail and the back of its legs. Though they are an independent breed that needs patient training, they are gentle and affectionate with their owners. Health issues include cancer and cardiac problems.
 Canadian Eskimo Dog
The Canadian Eskimo Dog is an Arctic breed of dog (Canis lupus familiaris), which is often considered to be North America’s oldest and rarest remaining purebred indigenous domestic canine. Other names include Qimmiq (Inuit for "dog"). Although once used as the preferred method of transportation by Inuit in the Canadian Arctic, traditional working dog teams became increasingly rare in the North after the 1960s. This is often cited a result of snowmobiles becoming more popular, however it may also be the result of the alleged organized and systematic mass slaughter of Inuit sled dogs in the Eastern Arctic between 1950 and 1970 by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.The Canadian Eskimo Dog should always be powerfully built, athletic, and imposing in appearance. It should be of "powerful physique giving the impression that he is not built for speed but rather for hard work." As is typical of spitz breeds, it has erect, triangular ears, and a heavily feathered tail that is carried over its back. Males should be distinctly more masculine than females, who are finer boned, smaller, and often have a slightly shorter coat.Its superficial similarity to wolves was often noted by explorers during the Coppermine Expedition of 1819–1822. They noted that the ears of the Eskimo dogs they encountered were similar to those of American wolves, and their forelegs lacked the black mark above the wrist characteristic of European wolves. The most sure way to distinguish the two species was said to be through the length and posture of the tail, which was shorter and more curved in the dog.There is significant variance in size among Canadian Eskimo Dogs, and the weight and height should be proportionate to each other. The average size of Canadian Eskimo Dogs is:Height (at the withers) Males: 58 – 70 cm (23 – 28 in)[14]Females: 50 – 60 cm (19½ - 23½ in)[12]Weight Males: 30 - 40 kg (66 - 88 lb)[14]Females: 18 – 30 kg (40 - 66 lb).The Canadian Eskimo Dog's temperament reflects its original work and environment. It is loyal, tough, brave, intelligent, and alert. It is affectionate and gentle, and develops a deep bond with its owner and is intensely loyal. When used as sled dogs, they were often required to forage and hunt for their own food. Consequently, many Canadian Eskimo Dogs have stronger prey drive than some other breeds. Owing to their original environment, they take pure delight in cold weather, often preferring to sleep outside in cold climates. Like most spitz breeds they can be very vocal.
 Schipperke
A Schipperke (English pronunciation: /?sk?p?rki?/, Dutch: [?sx?p?rk?]) is a small Belgian breed of dog that originated in the early 16th century. There has been a long informal debate over whether this type of dog is a spitz or miniature sheepdog.Their small, pointed ears are erect atop the head. Schipperkes are double coated with a soft, fluffy undercoat that is covered by a harsher-feeling and longer outer coat. One of the breed characteristics is a long ruff that surrounds the neck and then a strip trails down towards the rear of the dog. They also have longer fur on their hind legs called culottes.Dogs of this breed usually weigh 3–9 kg (7–20 lbs). Puppies are born with tails in different lengths; and, in Canada and the United States, the tail is usually docked the day after birth. In countries that have bans on docking, Schipperkes display their natural tails, which curve over the back of the dog (if the dog is happy and the tail is long enough).Known for a stubborn, mischievous, and headstrong temperament, the Schipperke is sometimes referred to as the "little black fox", the "Tasmanian black devil", or the "little black devil". They are naturally curious and high-energy dogs and require ample exercise and supervision. Schipperkes are very smart and independent; and sometimes debate listening to owners, instead choosing to do whatever benefits them the most. First-time dog owners would be well advised to familiarize themselves with the breed prior to purchase. Schipperkes require training and a secure, fenced-in space to run. They are formidable barkers and can be aggressive with other dogs.Schipperkes were first recognized as a formal breed in the 1880s, their standard being written in 1889. Much of what is known of their origins and early history comes from Chasse et Pêche (French for "Hunting and Fishing") magazine, articles of which were translated into English and published by the English magazine The Stockkeeper.The breed name of "Schipperke", officially taken in 1888, in English-speaking nations to mean "little boatman". In the 1920s, however, the people of Belgium decided they wanted the name to be a corruption of the Dutch word "Shapocke" or "Scheperke", meaning "little shepherd", because they noticed resemblance to the Belgium Sheepdog (Groenendael). This idea was first presented in an article in 1894 in the Chasse et Peche, where a Belgian man wrote, "if the little dog had not always been and was not still currently the watchdog of the boats from which he gets his name of “schipperke” (little boatman), you could have written “scheperke” (little shepherd)." It has been suggested that the idea of "little sailor" was an invention of the English, who mistook the Schipperke for a Dutch barge dog, this, however, has been disproved by the actual historical records. Some reports say they were found frequently as working dogs aboard barges in the canals, with three jobs onboard: security (barking vigorously when anyone approached the barge), keeping the barges free of vermin, and nipping at the towing horses' heels to get them moving to tow the barge. Due to their bravery and adventurous character, not to mention low center of gravity, Schipperkes are to this day known as excellent boat dogs, and are often found cruising the world aboard sailing yachts and powerboats. They are not prone to seasickness.Before the name "Schipperke" was officially taken, the breed was also known colloquially as "Spitzke". It is thought that the name change was to distinguish it from the German Spitz. Schipperkes are widely referred to in the United States, albeit erroneously, as "Belgian barge dogs" or "Belgian ship dogs."In World War II, the Belgian Resistance used the dogs to run messages between various resistance hideouts and cells, and the Nazis never caught on.
 Cardigan Welsh Corgi
The Cardigan Welsh corgi (pronounced /?k?r?i/) is one of two separate dog breeds known as Welsh corgis that originated in Wales, the other being the Pembroke Welsh corgi. It is one of the oldest herding breeds.Cardigan Welsh corgis can be extremely loyal family dogs. They do, however, need daily physical and mental stimulation. For their size, they need a surprising amount of exercise. Cardigans are a very versatile breed and a wonderful family companion. They can live in a variety of settings, from apartments to farms.The Cardigan is a long, low dog with upright ears and a bottle brush tail. The old American Kennel Club standard called it an "Alsatian on short legs". The Cardigan's tail is long (unlike the Pembroke Welsh corgi, whose tail may be long, short, naturally bobbed or docked. Cardigans can be any shade of red, sable, or brindle; they can also be black with or without tan brindle or blue merle with or without tan or brindle points. They usually have white on the neck, chest, legs, muzzle, underneath, tip of the tail, and as a blaze on the head, known as the "Irish pattern." Other markings include ticking on the legs and muzzle, smutty muzzles, monk's hoods, and others. A few other unofficial colors can occur, such as red merle. These colors are not considered an acceptable color per the Cardigan standard. An average Cardigan is around 10.5 to 13 inches (260 to 315 mm) tall at the withers and weighs from 30 to 38 lb. (13.6 to 17.2 kg) for the male and 25 to 34 lb. (11.3 to 15.4 kg) for the female.Originally bred for farm work, including herding sheep and cattle, they have proven themselves as excellent companion animals and are also competitive in sheepdog trials dog agility, competitive obedience and rally obedience. Cardigan Welsh corgis were bred long and low to make sure that any kicks by cattle would travel safely over the dogs' heads without touching them. Like most herding breeds, Cardigans are highly intelligent, active, athletic dogs. Affectionately known as "a big dog in a small package," Cardigans are affectionate, devoted companions that can also be alert and responsible guardians. Some Cardigan corgis are 'one-man dogs'. They tend to be wary of strangers and to reserve their affection for a select few with whom they are familiar. If socialized at a young age, they can be nice with other dogs and housepets.Cardigans are typically excellent watchdogs, as they are highly alert to the approach of strangers to their territory, and will be very vocal until they and/or their owner are assured that the stranger poses no threat.
 Schnauzer ( Standard)
The Standard Schnauzer is the original breed of the three breeds of Schnauzer, and despite its wiry coat and general appearance, is not related to the British terriers. Rather, its origins are in old herding and guard breeds of Europe. Generally classified as a working or utility dog, this versatile breed is a robust, squarely built, medium-sized dog with aristocratic bearing. It has been claimed that it was a popular subject of painters Sir Joshua Reynolds, Albrecht Dürer and Rembrandt, but actual proof remains elusive.Standard Schnauzers are either salt-and-pepper or black in color, and are known for exhibiting many of the "ideal" traits of any breed. These include high intelligence, agility, alertness, reliability, strength and endurance. This breed of dog has been very popular in Europe, specifically Germany where it originated. The breed was first exhibited at a show in Hanover in 1879, and since then have taken top honors in many shows including the prestigious "Best in Show at Westminster Kennel Club" in the United States in 1997.Inside the US and Canada, ears and tail and dewclaws are typically docked as a puppy. Veterinarians or experienced breeders will cut tails and dewclaws between 3 and 7 days of age. Tails are traditionally docked to around three vertebrae. Ear cropping is usually performed at about 10 weeks of age in a veterinary clinic. Many breeders inside North America have begun to crop only those puppies retained for show purposes, or those puppies whose owners request it. There is still somewhat of a bias against natural ears in the North American show ring. However, there is a growing sentiment among breeders and judges that both ear types are equally show-worthy, and many North American show breeders enjoy both cropped and natural eared dogs in their kennels. However, unlike in Europe, the majority of North American breeders believe that the choice of whether to cut ears and/or tails should continue to remain with the breeders and owners. Outside of North America, most Standard Schnauzers retain both their natural ears and tail as docking is now prohibited by law in many countries.The smallest of the working breeds, the Standard schnauzer makes loyal family dog with guardian instincts. Most will protect their home from uninvited visitors with a deep and robust bark. Originally a German farmdog, they adapt well to any climatic condition, including cold winters. In general, they typically are good with children and were once known in Germany as "kinderwachters". If properly trained and socialized early to different ages, races, and temperaments of people, they can be very patient and tolerant in any situation. Like other working dogs, Standard Schnauzers require a fairly strong-willed owner that can be consistent and firm with training and commands.Standard Schnauzers also widely known to be intelligent and easy to train. They have been called "the dog with a human brain", and in Stanley Coren's book The Intelligence of Dogs, they are rated 18th out of 80 breeds on the ability to learn new commands and to obey known commands. Standard Schnauzers are extremely versatile, excelling at dog sports such as agility, obedience, tracking, Disc dog, Flyball and herding. Members of the breed have been used in the last 30 years in the United States as for bomb detection, search and rescue, and skin and lung cancer-detection.Like most working dogs, Standard Schnauzers will be rambunctious until about the age of two; and lots of exercise will keep them busy. Owners must be prepared to mentally and physically stimulate their Schnauzer every day, even into their old age. Like other high-intelligence breeds, a bored Schnauzer is a destructive Schnauzer.According to the Standard Schnauzer Club of America, “The Standard Schnauzer is considered a high-energy dog. They need ample exercise not only for physical well-being, but also for emotional well-being. The minimum amount an adult dog should get is the equivalent of a one long walk a day. This walk should be brisk enough to keep the dog at a steady trotting pace in order to keep the dog in prime physical condition. The Standard Schnauzer puppy is constantly exploring, learning and testing his limits. As adults, they are always ready for a walk in the woods, a ride in the car, a training session or any other activity that allows them to be with their owner. This is a breed that knows how to be on the alert, even when relaxing by the feet of their owner.
 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small breed of Spaniel-type dog, and is classed as a toy dog by most kennel clubs. It is one of the most popular breeds in the United Kingdom. Since 2000, it has been growing in popularity in the United States. It is a smaller breed of spaniel, and Cavalier adults are often the same size as adolescent dogs of other spaniel breeds. It has a silky coat and commonly an undocked tail. The breed standard recognizes four colours (Blenheim, Tricolour [black/white/tan], Black and Tan, and Ruby). The breed is generally friendly, affectionate and good with both children and other animals.The King Charles changed drastically in the late 17th century, when it was interbred with flat-nosed breeds. Until the 1920s, the Cavalier shared the same history as the smaller King Charles Spaniel. Breeders attempted to recreate what they considered to be the original configuration of the breed, a dog resembling Charles II's King Charles Spaniel of the Restoration.Various health issues affect this particular breed, most notably mitral valve disease, which leads to heart failure. This will appear in most Cavaliers at some point in their lives and is the most common cause of death. The breed may also suffer from Syringomyelia, in which cavities are formed in the spinal cord, possibly associated with malformation of the skull that reduces the space available for the brain. Cavaliers are also affected by ear problems, a common health problem among spaniels of various types, and they can suffer from such other general maladies as hip dysplasia, which are common across many types of dog breeds.The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is one of the largest toy breeds. Historically it was a lap dog, and modern day adults can fill a lap easily. Nonetheless, it is small for a spaniel, with fully grown adults comparable in size to adolescents of other larger spaniel breeds. Breed standards state that height of a Cavalier should be between 12 to 13 inches (30 to 33 cm) with a proportionate weight between 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg). The tail is usually not docked, and the Cavalier should have a silky coat of moderate length. Standards state that it should be free from curl, although a slight wave is allowed. Feathering can grow on their ears, feet, legs and tail in adulthood. Standards require this be kept long, with the feathering on the feet a particularly important aspect of the breed's features.The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and the English Toy Spaniel can be often confused with each other. In the United Kingdom, the English Toy Spaniel is called the King Charles Spaniel while in the United States, one of the colours of the Toy Spaniel is known as King Charles. The two breeds share similar history and only diverged from each other about 100 years ago. There are several major differences between the two breeds, with the primary difference being the size. While the Cavalier weighs on average between 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg), the King Charles is smaller at 9 to 12 pounds (4.1 to 5.4 kg). In addition their facial features while similar, are different, the Cavalier's ears are set higher and its skull is flat while the King Charles's is domed. Finally the muzzle length of the Cavalier tends to be longer than that of its King Charles cousin
 Scottish Terrier
The Scottish Terrier (also known as the Aberdeen Terrier), popularly called the Scottie, is a breed of dog. Initially one of the highland breeds of Terrier that were grouped under the name of Skye Terrier, it is one of five breeds of terrier that originated in Scotland, the other four being the modern Skye, Cairn, Dandie Dinmont, and West Highland White Terrier. They are an independent and rugged breed with a wiry outer coat and a soft dense undercoat. The Fourth Earl of Dumbarton nicknamed the breed "the diehard." The modern breed is said to be able to trace its lineage back to a single female, named Splinter II.They are a small breed of Terrier with a distinctive shape and have had many roles in popular culture. They have been owned by a variety of celebrities, including the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whose Scottie "Fala" is included with FDR in a statue in Washington, DC, as well as the 43rd President George W. Bush. They are also well known for being a playing piece in the board game Monopoly. Described as a territorial, feisty dog, they can make a good watchdog and tend to be very loyal to their family. Healthwise, Scottish Terriers can be more prone to bleeding disorders, joint disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergies, and cancer than some other breeds of dog and there is a condition named after the breed called Scotty cramp. They are also one of the more successful dog breeds at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show with a recent best in show in 2010.
 Cesky Terrier
The Cesky Terrier is a small terrier type dog originating in Czechoslovakia. The name is pronounced /?t??ski/ chess-kee (after its Czech name ?eský teriér, literally Czech Terrier).The ?eský Terrier was created by a Czech breeder, František Horák, in 1948, as a cross between a Sealyham Terrier and a Scottish Terrier, to create a terrier suitable for hunting in the forests of Bohemia. Although not a trained scientist, Horák worked for many years as a research assistant at the Czechoslovak Academy of Science, and used knowledge gained there in his dog breeding. Czechoslovakia was ruled by a Communist regime, and as Horák's dogs became more popular around the world, he received visits from the secret police due to the large volume of mail he was getting from outside the country. František Horák died in 1997.The ?eský Terrier was recognized for international competition by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1963 as breed number 246 in Group 3, Terriers. The breed is now recognized by all of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world. The cesky terrier is one of the six most rare dog breeds worldwide.The Cesky Terrier is short-legged (achondroplastic dwarf) and moderately long-bodied, resembling the Sealyham Terrier and the Scottish Terrier.The Cesky Terrier has a long head, bushy beard, mustache, and eyebrows. The body is solid, but not heavy. The wavy, silky coat usually comes in various shades of gray-blue with tan, gray, white, or yellow furnishings or light coffee, though puppies are born black. The coat lightens between birth and two years of age.The Cesky Terrier's eyes are brown in gray-blue dogs and yellow in brown dogs. The noses and lips of blue-gray dogs are black; for brown dogs it is liver. The ears are triangular, folding forward close to the head. The head is long, but not too wide, with a well-defined stop.The breed standard calls for a calm dog, and aggression is a disqualifying fault. Cesky terriers are reputed to be less active and quieter than other terriers. This may or may not make them suitable pets for families with children.
 Shar Pei
The Shar Pei, or Chinese Shar-Pei, is a breed of dog known for its distinctive features of deep wrinkles and a blue-black tongue. The breed comes from China. The name (??, pinyin: sh? pí; English name probably derived from British spelling of the Cantonese equivalent, s? pèih) translates to "sand skin" and refers to the texture of its short, rough coat. As puppies, Shar Pei have numerous wrinkles, but as they mature, these wrinkles disappear as they "grow into their skin". Shar Pei were in 1978 named as the world's rarest dog breeds by Time magazine and the Guinness Book of World Records, and the American Kennel Club did not recognize the breed until 1991.Small, triangular ears, a muzzle shaped like that of a hippopotamus, and a high-set tail also give the Shar Pei a unique look. For show standard, "the tail is thick and round at the base, tapering to a fine point" (AKC standard February 28, 1998).The Shar Pei is often suspicious of strangers, which pertains to their origin as a guard dog. In general, the breed has proved itself to be a loving, devoted family dog. They are also a very independent and reserved breed. Nevertheless, the Shar Pei is extremely devoted, loyal and affectionate to its family and is amenable to accepting strangers given time and proper introduction at a young age. If poorly socialized or trained, it can become especially territorial and aggressive. Even friendly and well-socialized individuals will retain the breed's watch dog proclivities (such as barking at strangers). It is a largely silent breed, barking only when playing or when worried. The Shar Pei were originally bred as palace guards in China. This breed is also very protective of its home and family, a powerful dog that is willing to guard its family members. The breed is amenable to training but can get bored from repetition. Overall, the Shar Pei is a dog that is loyal and loving to its family while being very protective and independent
 Chesapeake Bay Retriever
The Chesapeake Bay Retriever is a breed of dog belonging to the Retriever, Gundog, and Sporting breed groups. Members of the breed may also be referred to as a Chessie, CBR, or Chesapeake. The breed was developed in the United States Chesapeake Bay area during the 19th century. Historically used by area market hunters to retrieve waterfowl, it is primarily a family pet and hunting companion. They are often known for their love of water and their ability to hunt. It is a medium to large sized dog, similar in appearance to the Labrador Retriever. The Chesapeake have a curly coat, rather than the Labrador's smooth coat. They are described as having a bright and happy disposition, courage, willingness to work, alertness, intelligence, and love of water as some of their characteristics.Distinctive features include eyes that are very clear, of yellowish or amber hue, hindquarters as high or a trifle higher than the shoulders, and a double-coat that tends to wave on shoulders, neck, back, and loins. The waterproof coat feels slightly oily and is often associated with a slight musky odor. Three basic colors are generally seen in the breed: brown, which includes all shades from a light to a deep dark brown; sedge, which varies from a reddish yellow through a bright red to chestnut shades; and deadgrass in all its shades, varying from a faded tan to a dull straw color. The breed standard states that white may also appear but it must be limited to the breast, belly, toes, or back of the feet. The head is round and broad with a medium stop and muzzle. The lips are thin, and the ears are small and of medium leather. The forelegs should be straight with good bone. The hindquarters are especially strong and the toes webbed since excellent swimming ability is important for the Chesapeake. This breed is also known for its large and powerful chest, used to break apart ice when diving into cold water while duck hunting.The coat of the Chesapeake Bay Retriever is given the most consideration of any trait when judging conformation. The hair on the face and legs should be very short and straight with a tendency to wave, never curl, on the shoulders, neck, back, and loins only and nowhere over 1.5 inches long. Moderate feathering on the rear of the hindquarters and tail is permissible although not longer than 1.75 inches long. The texture of the thick double-coat is important in protecting the dog from cold water and icy conditions. The oil in the harsh outer coat and woolly undercoat resists water, keeping the dog dry and warm. Maintenance of the coat is minimal and mainly consists of brushing with a short-tooth brush once a week. It is difficult to get a Chesapeake Bay Retriever thoroughly wet, but they should be bathed every 3–4 months using a suitably mild shampoo, then dried thoroughly. Brushing or bathing more often can ruin the texture since it strips the protective oil from the coat and may even remove the undercoat. The color of the coat must be similar to the working surroundings. Any color of brown, sedge or deadgrass is acceptable and one color is not preferred over another. The American Chesapeake Club includes a discussion on color:Three basic colors are generally seen in the breed: Brown which includes all shades from a light cocoa (a silvered brown) to a deep bittersweet chocolate color; sedge which varies from a reddish yellow through a bright red to chestnut shades; deadgrass which takes in all shades of deadgrass, varying from a faded tan to a dull straw color. Historic records show that some of the deadgrass shades can be very light, almost white in appearance, while darker deadgrass colors can include diluted shades of brown called ash, that appear as either gray or taupe. The almost white and ash/taupe/gray shades are not commonly seen, but are acceptable.The difference between a sedge and a deadgrass is that the deadgrass shades contain no significant amount of red, while the sedge shades do have red. Coat and texture also play a factor in the perception of color. The self-color pattern is preferred by the standard (One color with or without lighter and darker shadings of the same color). You will see dogs with varying degrees of other markings such as: masking on top of the skull, striping effect of light & dark through the body and on legs, distinct & indistinct saddle markings, agouti coloring and tan points. All are acceptable, they are just not preferred.A white spot on the breast (not extending above the sternum), belly, toes or back of the feet is permissible, but the smaller the spot the better. White beyond these areas and black anywhere on the body is not allowed in the breed standard.The Chesapeake Bay Retriever is valued for its bright and happy disposition, intelligence, quiet good sense, and affectionate protective nature. Some of them can be quite vocal when happy, and some will 'smile' by baring their front teeth in a peculiar grin - this is not a threat but a sign of joy or submissiveness.Like other dogs, Chesapeake Bay Retrievers can make excellent family dogs when socialized properly. Chesapeakes can be more assertive and willful and may be reserved with strangers while others are passive and outgoing with people. It simply depends on the personality of the dog.
 Shetland Sheepdog
The Shetland Sheepdog, often known as the Sheltie, is a breed of herding dog.They are small to medium dogs, and come in a variety of colors, such as sable/white, tri-color, and blue merle. They are vocal, excitable, energetic dogs who are always willing to please and work hard. They are partly derived from dogs used in the Shetland Isles for herding and protecting sheep.The breed was formally recognized by the Kennel Club in 1909.The Shetland Sheepdog's early history is not well-known. They were originally a small mixed-breed dog, often 8–10 inches (200–250 mm) in height and it is thought that the original Shetland herding dogs were of Spitz type, and were crossed with collie-type sheepdogs from mainland Britain. In the early 20th century, James Loggie added a small Rough Collie to the breeding stock, and helped establish what would become the modern Shetland sheepdog. The original name of the breed was "Shetland Collie", but this caused controversy among Rough Collie breeders at the time, so the breed's name was formally changed to Shetland Sheepdog.The general appearance of the Sheltie is that of a miniature Rough Collie. They are a small, double coated, working dog, agile and sturdy. Blue merle and the undesirable white Shelties may have blue eyes, but all others have dark coloured eyes. Their expression should be that of alertness with a gentle and sometimes reserved nature. They carry their tail down low, only lifted when alert and never carried over the back. They are an intensly loyal breed, sometimes reserved with strangers but should not be shy or showing timidness as per the AKC breed standard.Shelties normally weigh around 5–14 kilograms (11–31 lb)[citation needed]. In general males are taller and heavier than females. Accepted height ranges may differ depending on country and standard used. In the USA and Canada, breed standards state that males and females can be between 33–41 centimetres (13–16 in), all other standards (Australia, New Zealand and U.K.) specify Males: 37 cm ± 2½ cm, Females: 35.5 cm ± 2½ cm except F.C.I. which specifies Females: 36 cm ± 2½ cm at the shoulder (withers), however, some shelties can be found outside of these ranges but are not considered truly representative of the breed.The Shetland sheepdog is lively, intelligent, playful, trainable, and willing to please and obey. They are loving, loyal, and affectionate with their family, but are naturally aloof with strangers; for this reason Shelties must be socialized. The Shetland Sheepdog Standard from the AKC allows them to be reserved to strangers, but they should not show fear. Shelties do well with children if they are reared with them from an early age; however, their small size makes it easy for a child to accidentally injure them, so supervision is necessary. Shelties are vocal dogs.The average Sheltie is an excellent watch dog.The herding instinct is strong in many Shelties. They love to chase and herd things, including squirrels, ducks, children, and if an owner is not watchful, cars. Shelties love to run in wide-open areas. They do well with a sensitive, attentive owner. Neglecting a Sheltie's need for exercise and intellectual stimulation can result in undesirable behaviors, including excessive barking, phobias, and nervousness. Fortunately, the reverse is also true; annoying behaviors can be lessened greatly by an hour of exercise that engages the dog with its owner.Shelties have a high level of intelligence. According to Dr. Stanley Coren, an expert on animal intelligence, the Shetland sheepdog is one of the brightest dogs, ranking 6th out of 132 breeds tested. His research found that an average Sheltie could understand a new command in less than 5 repetitions and would obey a command the first time it was given 95% of the time or better.
 Chinese Crested Dog
At first look, the "Hairless", and "Powderpuff" varieties of Chinese crested Dogs appear to be two different breeds, but hairlessness is an incomplete dominant trait within a single breed. The Hairless has soft, humanlike skin, as well as tufts of fur on its paws ("socks") and tail ("plume") and long, flowing hair on its head ("crest"). In addition to being an incomplete dominant gene, the "hairless" gene has a prenatal lethal effect when homozygous. Zygotes affected with double hairless genes (1 in 4) never develop into puppies, and are reabsorbed in the womb. All hairless Cresteds are therefore heterozygous.The Hairless variety can vary in amount of body hair. Fur on the muzzle, known as a beard, is not uncommon. A true Hairless often does not have as much furnishings (hair on the head, tail, and paws). The difference between a very hairy Hairless and a Powderpuff is that the Hairless has a single coat with hairless parts on the body, while the Powderpuff has a thick double coat. The skin of the Hairless comes in a variety of colors, ranging from a pale flesh to black. Hairless Cresteds often lack a full set of premolar teeth, but this is not considered a fault.A Powderpuff has a long, soft coat. Both Hairless and Powderpuff varieties can appear in the same litter. The look of the Powderpuff varies according to how it is groomed. When its fur is completely grown out on its face, it strongly resembles a terrier; however, the Powderpuff is usually shaved around the snout as a standard cut.The amount of body hair on the hairless variety varies quite extensively, from the true hairless which has very little or no body hair and furnishings, to what is called a 'hairy hairless', which if left ungroomed often grows a near-full coat of hair. These hairy hairless are not a mix between powderpuffs and hairless Chinese cresteds, but are merely a result of a weaker expression of the variable Hairless gene. The mutation responsible for the hairless trait was identified in 2008.One famous Chinese crested dog was the hairless purebred named Sam, was the winner of the World's Ugliest Dog Contest from 2003 to 2005. He died before he could compete in 2006. Other Chinese cresteds, either purebreds or in mixes with chihuahuas, have finished high in the event as well.
 Shih Tzu
The Shih Tzu ( /??i?tsu?/ sheet-soo; Mandarin: [???ts?]) is a breed of dog weighing 4–7.25 kilograms (8.8–16.0 lb) with long silky hair. The breed originated in China and is among the earliest breeds. Shih Tzu were officially recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1969. The name is both singular and plural.Shih Tzu (simplified Chinese: ???; traditional Chinese: ???; pinyin: Sh?zi G?u; Wade–Giles: Shih-tzu Kou; literally "Lion Dog"), is the Chinese name rendered according to the Wade-Giles system of romanization in use when the breed was first introduced in America; the Chinese pronunciation is approximately shirr-ts?. The name translates as Lion Dog, so named because the dog was bred to resemble "the lion as depicted in traditional oriental art," such as the Chinese guardian lions. The Shih Tzu is also often known as the "Xi Shi quan" (???), based on the name of Xi Shi, regarded as the most beautiful woman of ancient China, and, less often, the Chrysanthemum Dog, a nickname coined in England in the 1930s. The dog may also be called the Tibetan Lion Dog, but whether or not the breed should be referred to as a Tibetan or Chinese breed is a source of argument, the absolute answer to which "may never be known".A small dog with a short muzzle and large deep dark eyes, with a soft long, double coat, the Shih Tzu stands no more than 26.7 cm (101?2 in.) at the withers and with an ideal weight of 4.5 to 7.3 kg (10 to 16 lbs). Drop ears are covered with long fur, and the heavily furred tail is carried curled over the back. The coat may be of any color, although a blaze of white on the forehead and tail-tip is frequently seen. The Shih Tzu is slightly longer than tall, and dogs ideally should carry themselves "with distinctly arrogant carriage." A very noticeable feature is the underbite, which is required in the breed standard.The traditional long silky glossy coat that reaches the floor requires daily brushing to avoid tangles. Because of their long coat and fast growing hair, regular grooming is necessary which may be a costly expense and should be considered when looking at this breed. Often the coat is clipped short to simplify care, in a "puppy clip". For conformation showing, the coat must be left in its natural state, although trimming for neatness around the feet and anus is allowed.
 Curly Coated Retriever
The Curly Coated Retriever (often referred to as a Curly) is a breed of dog originally bred in England for upland bird and waterfowl hunting. It is the tallest of the retrievers and is easily distinguishable by the mass of tight curls covering its body. Curly Coated and Wavy Coated (now known as the Flat-Coated Retriever) were the first two recognised retriever breeds, established as early as 1860.The Curly is an active, well-muscled dog bred for upland bird and waterfowl hunting. The Curly is somewhat different in structure than the more common retrievers. A well-bred Curly will appear slightly leggy but is actually slightly longer than tall. The breed sports a coat of tight, crisp curls. It is balanced and agile with a significant air of endurance, strength, and grace.Show standards call for dogs: 25 - 27 in at the withers and females: 23 - 25 in however a wide range of sizes occurs, particularly in those dogs bred for the field, which generally run smaller.Weight should be in correct proportion to the size of the dog.The Curly Coated Retriever was originally developed as a gun dog and their temperament and conformation reflect this purpose. Curlies are still used in many countries as bird hunting companions, including in both upland and waterfowl hunting. Like most retrievers, they are valued as pets and are a lively and fun-loving breed. As long as the Curly has enough exercise, it can be calm and laid back in the home environment, which makes them both a great activity dog as well as a placid member of the family.The Curly can be sometimes aloof with strangers but are usually very loyal and affectionate with their owners and family. Curlies are extremely intelligent in general, but training can sometimes be difficult as they can easily get bored with repetitive training. They rank 41st in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of average working/obedience intelligence.
 Siberian Husky
The Siberian Husky (Russian: ????????? ?????, Sibirskiy haski, "Siberian husky") is a medium-size, wolf-like, dense-coat working dog breed that originated in eastern Siberia. The breed belongs to the Spitz genetic family. It is recognisable by its thickly furred double coat, sickle tail, erect triangular ears, and distinctive markings.Huskies are an active, energetic, and resilient breed whose ancestors came from the extremely cold and harsh environment of the Siberian Arctic. Siberian Huskies were bred by the Chukchi of Northeastern Asia to pull heavy loads long distances through difficult conditions. The dogs were imported into Alaska during the Nome Gold Rush and later spread into the United States and Canada. They were initially sent to Alaska and Canada as sled dogs but rapidly acquired the status of family pets and show dogs.Siberian Huskies share many outward similarities with the Alaskan Malamute as well as many other Spitz breeds such as the Samoyed, which has a comparable history to the Huskies. They come in a variety of colors and patterns, usually with white paws and legs, facial markings, and tail tip. The most common coats are black and white, copper-red and white, gray and white, pure white, and the rare "Agouti" coat, though many individuals have blondish or piebald spotting. Striking masks, spectacles, and other facial markings occur in wide variety. They tend to have a wolf-like appearance.Siberian Huskies are highly intelligent, which allows them to excel in obedience trials, though many clubs would like to keep the Husky's instinct by doing sled-racing. However, because of their intelligence, they can easily become bored and may stop listening to commands. Many dog trainers usually attempt to avoid this behavior by keeping them busy with new activities. Also due in part to their intelligence, Huskies tend to be very observant on the actions of people around them and have been known to mimic common household activities such as turning on lights with their paws and opening doors with their canines. Some undesirable behaviors they can exhibit include opening refrigerators (and eating the food inside), climbing fences or digging tunnels in the backyard to escape. These behaviors can be prevented if the dog is given enough activity to occupy it. Huskies require both mental and physical stimulation for optimum health.
 Dachshund
The dachshund (UK: /?dæks?nd/, US: /?d??ksh?nd/, German: [?daks?h?nt]) is a short-legged, long-bodied dog breed belonging to the hound family. The standard size dachshund was bred to scent, chase, and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature dachshund was developed to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits. In the American West they have also been used to hunt prairie dogs.The name "dachshund" is of German origin and literally means "badger dog", from Dachs ("badger") and Hund ("dog"). The pronunciation varies widely in English: variations of the first syllable include /?d??ks/, /?dæks/, /?dæ?/, and of the second syllable /h?nt/, /h?nd/, /?nd/. In German it is pronounced [?daksh?nt]. Because of their long, narrow build, they are often nicknamed hot dog, wiener dog or sausage dog. Although "dachshund" is a German word, in modern German they are also commonly known by the name Dackel; in the case of the formally certified hunting and tracking rank, the name Teckel is used.While classified in the hound group or scent hound group in the United States and Great Britain, there are some who consider this classification to be arguable, speculating that it arose from the fact that the word Hund is similar to the English word hound – and the word "Dachshund" has even been anglicized as "Dash Hound". Many dachshunds, especially the wire-haired subtype, may exhibit behavior and appearance that are similar to that of the terrier group of dogs. An argument can be made for the scent (or hound) group classification because the breed was developed to use scent to trail and hunt animals, and probably descended from scent hounds, such as bloodhounds, pointers, Basset Hounds, or even Bruno Jura Hounds; but with the dogged and persistent personality and love for digging that probably developed from the terrier, it can also be argued that they could belong in the terrier, or "earth dog", group. In the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (World Canine Federation), or FCI, the dachshund is actually in its own group, Group 4, which is the dachshund group. Part of the controversy is because the dachshund is the only certifiable breed of dog to hunt both above and below groundThe typical dachshund is long-bodied and muscular, with short and stubby legs. Its paws are unusually large and paddle-shaped, for efficient digging. It has skin that is loose enough not to tear while tunneling in tight burrows to chase prey. The dachshund has a deep chest to allow enough lung capacity to keep going when hunting. Its snout is long with an increased nose area that absorbs odors.There are three types, classified by their coats: short-haired, called "smooth"; long-haired; and wire-haired
 Sloughi
The Sloughi ( /?slu??i/) is a North African breed of dog, specifically a member of the sighthound family. It is found in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. Sloughis are likely closely related to the Azawakh, but not to the Saluki. The Sloughi belongs to the Sighthound family. In appearance, it is a short-haired, middle-sized, strong sighthound with drooping ears. Its expression is often described to be melancholy. Its muscular system is "dry", that is, the Sloughi has flat and long muscles, which must not be as brawny as those of Greyhounds or Whippets, even when in excellent physical condition. Its back is nearly horizontal (the lumbar region must be slightly vaulted). It has a moderate angulation and a tucked up underline.The Sloughi's eyes are ideally dark brown, though sometimes of amber colour. Its coat colour varies from light-sand, to red-sand, red- or mahogany with or without brindling, black mantle, black mask, black ears. According to the standard, a Sloughi may only have a small white patch on its chest. Extensive white markings and parti-colored coats are not allowed. The Sloughi's gait is feather-light, with a moderate and energy-efficient stride.The Sloughi's general view is compact and strong; it may not be too dainty.It is of a sensitive nature yet is an alert and intelligent hound. It is said that Sloughis have a mighty longing for moving and that is not easy to keep them in flats with families; however, a Sloughi does not need more exercise than other dogs of similar size. It loves variety, walking on the leash, romping in the countryside, and racing. A Sloughi is faithful to his owner and it needs him close by. Sloughis are easy to bring up and to train, if you know how to do it. Because the Sloughi is somewhat sensitive, its training should not be oppressive, and any punishment should be omitted. What it likes is a friendly confirmation of its behaviour.
 Deerhound
The Scottish Deerhound, or simply the Deerhound, is a breed of hound (a sighthound), once bred to hunt the Red Deer by coursing.The Scottish Deerhound resembles a rough-coated Greyhound. It is however, larger in size and bone. Height of males from 30 to 32 inches (75-80cm) or more, weight 85 to 110 pounds (40-50kg); height of females from 28 inches (70cm) upwards, weight from 75 to 95 pounds (35-43kg). It is one of the tallest sighthounds, with a harsh 3-4 inch long coat and mane, somewhat softer beard and mustache, and softer hair on breast and belly. It has small, dark "rose" ears which are soft and folded back against the head unless held semi-erect in excitement. The harsh, wiry coat in modern dogs is only seen in self-coloured various shades of gray (blue-gray is preferred). Historically, Deerhounds also could be seen with true brindle, yellow, and red fawn coats, or combinations. 19th century Scottish paintings tend to indicate these colours were associated with a wire haired coat, but, with show breeders preferring a longer coat, these genes now appear to be lost. A white chest and toes are allowed, and a slight white tip to the tail; a white blaze on the head or a white collar are not accepted. The head is long, skull flat, with little stop and a tapering muzzle. The eyes are dark, dark brown or hazel in colour. The teeth should form a level, complete scissor bite. The long straight or curved tail, well covered with hair, should almost reach the ground.The Scottish Deerhound is gentle and extremely friendly. The breed is famed for being docile and eager to please, with a bearing of gentle dignity. It is however a true sighthound which has been selected for generations to pursue game; consequently, most Deerhounds will be eager to chase. The Deerhound needs considerable exercise when young to develop properly and to maintain its health and condition. That does not mean it needs a large house to live in, however it should have regular access to free exercise in a fenced or otherwise "safe" area. Deerhounds should not be raised with access only to leash walking or a small yard, this would be detrimental to their health and development . City dwellers with conviction, however, can keep the dog both healthy and happy, as long as they are willing to take their Deerhounds to nearby parks for lengthy runs and rigorous fetching sessions within these wider running courses. Young Deerhounds can sometimes, depending on the individual, be quite destructive especially when they are not given sufficient exercise; however, the average adult Deerhound may want to spend most of the day stretched out on the floor or a couch sleeping. They do require a stimulus, preferably another Deerhound, and a large area to exercise properly and frequently. They are gentle and docile indoors and are generally good around company and children (however they require supervision with young children due to their size).
 Smooth Fox Terrier
The Smooth Fox Terrier is a breed of dog, one of many terrier breeds. It was the first breed in the fox terrier family to be given official recognition by The Kennel Club (circa 1875; breed standard 1876). It is well known, and although not a widely popular breed today outside of hunting and show circles, it is extremely significant due to the large number of terriers believed descended from it.The Smooth Fox Terrier is a balanced, well-proportioned terrier with a distinctive head that has a tapering muzzle, fiery dark eyes, and folded v-shaped ears set well up on the head, but not prick. It is a sturdy dog in that it is well-muscled and exhibits endurance, but should not appear in any way coarse or cloddy.The male Fox terrier is tame but it will also respond to your commands. Shoulder height of a male Smooth Fox Terrier should be no taller than 15.5" with females proportionally less, and a male in show condition should weigh approximately 18 lbs.The tail should be set well up on the back and be straight or slightly curved, but not carried over the back or curled like an Akita's.Its coat is hard, flat, and abundant. This breed does shed somewhat. In color they should be predominantly white—some are even all white—but typically have markings of black and tan. Red, liver, or brindle are objectionable and disqualifying faults in the show ring. Heads are usually solid colored, but a variety of white markings are permissible, including half or split faces, blazes, or color only over the eyes and/or ears. It is commonly tri-colored.Smooth Fox Terriers make excellent family pets. Because this is an intelligent and active breed, they must be kept exercised, and interested, and a part of the family. They are affectionate and playful. They have well-developed hunting instincts. Left to their own devices and deprived of human companionship, undesirable behaviour may be exhibited, including chasing of small animals, or escaping if ignored.
 Dobermann Pinscher
The Doberman Pinscher (alternatively spelled Dobermann in many countries) or simply Doberman, is a breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann. Dobermann Pinschers are among the most common of pet breeds, and the breed is well known as an intelligent, alert, and loyal companion dog. Although once commonly used as guard dogs or police dogs, this is less common today.[citation needed]In many countries, Dobermann Pinschers are one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media attention (see temperament). Careful breeding has improved the disposition of this breed, and the modern Dobermann Pinscher is an energetic and lively breed suitable for companionship and family life.Kennel club standards describe Doberman Pinschers as dogs of medium size with a square build and short coat. They are compactly built and athletic with endurance and speed. The Doberman Pinscher should have a proud, watchful, determined, and obedient temperament. The dog was originally intended as a guard dog, so males should have a masculine, muscular, noble appearance. Females are thinner, but should not be spindly.Two different color genes exist in the Doberman, one for black and one for color dilution (D). There are nine possible combinations of these allelles (BBDD, BBDd BbDD BbDd, BBdd, Bbdd, bbDD, bbDd, bbdd), which result in four different color phenotypes: black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella). The traditional and most common color occurs when both the color and dilution genes have at least one dominant allele (i.e., BBDD, BBDd, BbDD or BbDd), and is commonly referred to as black or black and rust (also called black and tan). The red, red rust or brown coloration occurs when the black gene has two recessive alleles but the dilution gene has at least one dominant allele (i.e., bbDD, bbDd). "Blue" and "fawn" are controlled by the color dilution gene. The blue Doberman has the color gene with at least one dominant allele and the dilution gene with both recessive alleles (i.e., BBdd or Bbdd). The fawn (Isabella) coloration is the least common, occurring only when both the color and dilution genes have two recessive alleles (i.e., bbdd). Thus, the blue color is a diluted black, and the fawn color is a diluted red.Expression of the color dilution gene is a disorder called Color Dilution Alopecia. Although not life threatening, these dogs can develop skin problems Since 1994 the blue and fawn colors have been banned from breeding by the Dobermann Verein in Germany and under FCI regulations Blue and Fawn are considered disqualifying faults in the international showing.In 1976, a "white" Doberman Pinscher was whelped, and was subsequently bred to her son, who was also bred to his litter sisters. This tight inbreeding continued for some time to allow the breeders to "fix" the mutation. White dobermans are a cream color with pure white markings and icy blue eyes. Although this is consistent with albinism, the proper characterization of the mutation is currently unknown. The animals are commonly known as tyrosinase-positive albinoids, lacking melanin in oculocutaneous structures, but no known mutation has been identified.The Doberman Pinscher's natural tail is fairly long, but individual dogs often have a short tail as a result of docking, a procedure in which the majority of the tail is surgically removed shortly after birth.The practice of docking has been around for centuries, and is older than the Doberman as a breed. The putative reason for docking is to ensure that the tail does not get in the way of the dog's work. Docking has always been controversial. The American Kennel Club standard for Doberman Pinschers includes a tail docked near the 2nd vertebra. Docking is a common practice in North America, Russia and Japan (as well as a number of other countries with Doberman populations), where it is legal. In many European countries, docking has been made illegal, and in others it is limited.Doberman Pinschers will often have their ears cropped, as do many other breeds, a procedure that is functionally related to breed type for both the traditional guard duty and effective sound localization. Like tail docking, ear cropping is illegal in some countries, and in these Doberman Pinschers have natural ears. Doberman Pinscher ear cropping is usually done between 7 and 9 weeks of age. Cropping done after 12 weeks has a low rate of success in getting the ears to stand. Some Doberman Pinscher owners prefer not to have their pet's ears cropped because they are concerned the procedure is painful for the animal.The process involves trimming off part of the animal's ears and propping them up with posts and tape bandages, which allows the cartilage to develop into an upright position as the puppy grows. The incision scabs fall off within a week and stitches are removed a week after that. The puppy will still have the ability to lay the ears back or down. The process of posting the ears generally takes about a month, but longer show crops can take several months. Posting techniques and the associated discomfort vary from one posting technique to the next.In some countries' conformation shows, Doberman Pinschers are allowed to compete with either cropped or natural ears. In Germany a cropped or docked dog cannot be shown regardless of country of origin. Special written exception to this policy does occur when Germany is the location for international eventsAlthough they are considered to be working dogs, Doberman Pinschers are the target of a stereotype of ferocity and aggression. As a personal protection dog, the Doberman was originally bred for these traits: it had to be large and intimidating, fearless and willing to defend its owner, but sufficiently obedient and restrained to only do so on command. These traits served the dog well in its role as a personal defense dog, police dog or war dog, but were not ideally adapted to a companionship role. In recent decades, the Doberman Pinscher's size, short coat, and intelligence made it a desirable house dog. Although these dogs are known for their aggression, they are also extremely loyal. They can easily learn to 'Respect and Protect' their owners.In response, they are excellent guard dogs that protect their loved ones. They are generally sociable towards humans and can be with other dogs, ranking among the more-likely breeds to show aggressive behaviour toward strangers and other dogs but not among the most likely. They are very unlikely to show aggressive behaviour towards their owners, an unlikely behaviour that can only be allowed to grow up in the puppy if the owner doesn't has some previous dog experience. There is evidence that Doberman Pinschers in North America are calmer than their European counterparts because of these breeding strategies. Because of these differences in breeding strategies, different lines of Doberman Pinschers have developed different traits. Although many contemporary Doberman Pinschers in North America are gentle, loyal, loving, and intelligent dogs, some lines are bred more true to the original personality standard.Although the stereotype is largely mistaken, the personality of the Doberman Pinscher is peculiar to the breed. There is a great deal of scientific evidence that Doberman Pinschers have a number of stable psychological traits, such as personality factors and intelligence. As early as 1965, studies have shown that there are several broad behavioral traits that significantly predict behavior and are genetically determined. Subsequently, there have been numerous scientific attempts to quantify canine personality or temperament by using statistical techniques for assessing personality traits in humans. These studies often vary by identifying different personality factors, and by ranking breeds differently along these dimensions. One such study found that Doberman Pinschers, compared to other breeds, rank high in playfulness, average in curiosity/fearlessness, low on aggressiveness and low on sociability. Another such study ranked Doberman Pinschers low on reactivity/surgence, and high on aggression/disagreeableness and openness/trainability.Although they are considered to be working dogs, Doberman Pinschers are the target of a stereotype of ferocity and aggression. As a personal protection dog, the Doberman was originally bred for these traits: it had to be large and intimidating, fearless and willing to defend its owner, but sufficiently obedient and restrained to only do so on command. These traits served the dog well in its role as a personal defense dog, police dog or war dog, but were not ideally adapted to a companionship role. In recent decades, the Doberman Pinscher's size, short coat, and intelligence made it a desirable house dog. Although these dogs are known for their aggression, they are also extremely loyal. They can easily learn to 'Respect and Protect' their owners.In response, they are excellent guard dogs that protect their loved ones. They are generally sociable towards humans and can be with other dogs, ranking among the more-likely breeds to show aggressive behaviour toward strangers and other dogs but not among the most likely. They are very unlikely to show aggressive behaviour towards their owners, an unlikely behaviour that can only be allowed to grow up in the puppy if the owner doesn't has some previous dog experience.There is evidence that Doberman Pinschers in North America are calmer than their European counterparts because of these breeding strategies. Because of these differences in breeding strategies, different lines of Doberman Pinschers have developed different traits. Although many contemporary Doberman Pinschers in North America are gentle, loyal, loving, and intelligent dogs, some lines are bred more true to the original personality standard.Although the stereotype is largely mistaken, the personality of the Doberman Pinscher is peculiar to the breed. There is a great deal of scientific evidence that Doberman Pinschers have a number of stable psychological traits, such as personality factors and intelligence. As early as 1965, studies have shown that there are several broad behavioral traits that significantly predict behavior and are genetically determined. Subsequently, there have been numerous scientific attempts to quantify canine personality or temperament by using statistical techniques for assessing personality traits in humans. These studies often vary by identifying different personality factors, and by ranking breeds differently along these dimensions. One such study found that Doberman Pinschers, compared to other breeds, rank high in playfulness, average in curiosity/fearlessness, low on aggressiveness and low on sociability. Another such study ranked Doberman Pinschers low on reactivity/surgence, and high on aggression/disagreeableness and openness/trainability.Canine intelligence is an umbrella term that encompasses the faculties involved in a wide range of mental tasks, such as learning, problem-solving, and communication. The Doberman Pinscher has ranked amongst the most intelligent of dog breeds in experimental studies and expert evaluations. For instance, Psychologist Stanley Coren ranks the Doberman as the 5th most intelligent dog in the category of obedience command training, based on the selective surveys he performed of some trainers (as documented in his book The Intelligence of Dogs). Additionally, in two studies, Hart and Hart (1985) ranked the Doberman Pinscher first in this category. and Tortora (1980) gave the Doberman the highest rank in trainability,. Although the methods of evaluation differ, these studies consistently show that the Doberman Pinscher, along with the Border Collie, German Shepherd and Standard Poodle, is one of the most trainable breeds of dog.
 Staffordshire Bull Terrier
The Staffordshire Bull Terrier (informally: Staffie, Stafford, Staffy or Staff) is a medium-sized, short-coated, old-time breed of dog. It is an English dog, where it is the 5th most popular breed, and related to the bull terrier.The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a medium-sized, stocky, and very muscular dog with athletic ability, with a similar appearance to the American Staffordshire terrier and American pit bull terriers sharing the same ancestor. They have a broad head, defined occipital muscles, a relatively short foreface, dark round eyes and a wide mouth with a clean scissor-like bite (the top incisors slightly overlap the bottom incisors). The ears are small. The cheek muscles are very pronounced. Their lips show no looseness. From above, the head loosely resembles a triangle. The head tapers down to a strong well-muscled neck and shoulders placed on squarely spaced forelimbs. They are tucked up in their loins and the last 1-2 ribs of their ribcage are usually visible. Their tail resembles an old fashioned pump handle. Their hind quarters are well-muscled and are what give the Stafford drive when baiting. They are coloured brindle, black, red, fawn, blue, white, or any blending of these colors with white. White with any other colour broken up over the body is known as pied. Liver-colored and black and tan dogs can occur but are rare and not desirable due to it being believed having a different terrier mixed into it resulting in this colour. The coat is smooth and clings tightly to the body giving the dog a streamlined appearance.The dogs stand 36 to 42 cm (14 to 17 in) at the withers and weigh 14 to 18 kg (31 to 40 lb) for males; bitches are 11 to 15.4 kg (24 to 34 lb).Although individual differences in personality exist, common traits exist throughout the Staffords. Due to its breeding, the modern dog is known for its character of indomitable courage, high intelligence, and tenacity. This, coupled with its affection for its friends, its off-duty quietness and trustworthy stability, make it a foremost all-purpose dog. It has been said that "No breed is more loving with its family" It is the only breed to have the words 'totally reliable' in its breed standard. Furthermore, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier is one of only two breeds from over 190 recognized by the UK Kennel Club to have a mention of the breed's suitability with children.[citation needed]The breed is naturally muscular and may appear intimidating; however, because of their natural fondness for people, most Staffords are temperamentally ill-suited for guard or attack-dog training. Staffordshire Bull Terrier puppies are very easy to house train
 English Cocker Spaniel
The English Cocker Spaniel is a breed of gun dog. The English Cocker Spaniel is an active, good-natured, sporting dog, standing well up at the withers and compactly built. There are "field" or "working" cockers and "show" cockers. It is one of several varieties of spaniel and somewhat resembles its American cousin, the American Cocker Spaniel, although it is closer to the working-dog form of the Field Spaniel and the Springer Spaniel.Outside the US, the breed is usually known simply as the Cocker Spaniel, as is the American Cocker Spaniel within the US. Due to the breed's happy disposition and continuously wagging tail, it has been given the cute nickname "merry cocker". They can be also dominant and loyal to their companion. Their health issues are typical for a purebred dog breed; however they are closely associated with rage syndrome even though cases are really quite rare. The word cocker is commonly held to stem from their use to hunt woodcock.Spaniel type dogs have been found in art and literature for almost 500 years. Initially, spaniels in England were divided among land spaniels and water spaniels. The differentiation among the spaniels that led to the breeds that we see today did not begin until the mid-19th century. During this time, the land spaniels became a bit more specialised and divisions among the types were made based upon weight. According to the 1840 Encyclopedia of Rural Sports, Cockers were 12–20 lb (5.5–9 kg). At this time it was not uncommon for Cockers and Springers to come from the same litter. Even a puppy from a “Toy” sized lineage could grow to be a springer.There is no indication from these early sources that spaniels were used to retrieve game. Rather they were used to drive the game toward the guns.During the 1850s and 1860s, other types of Cockers were recorded. There were Welsh Cockers and Devonshire Cockers. Additionally, small dogs from Sussex Spaniel litters were called Cockers. In 1874 the first stud books were published by the newly formed kennel club. Any spaniel under 25 lb (11 kg) was placed in the Cocker breeding pool, however the Welsh Cocker was reclassified as a Springer in 1903 due to its larger size and shorter ear. "...in those days only those dogs up to a hard day’s work and sensible specimens were allowed to live, as absolute sporting purposes were about their only enjoyment and dog shows were hardly heard of..." Cocker Spaniel circa 1915The sport of conformation showing began in earnest among spaniels after the Spaniel Club was formed in 1885. When showing, the new Springer and Cocker, both were in the same class until The Spaniel Club created breed standards for each of the types. The Kennel Club separated the two types eight years later. Since then, the Springer and Cocker enthusiasts have bred in the separate traits that they desired. Today, the breed differ in more ways than weight alone.At Crufts, the English Cocker Spaniel has been the most successful breed in winning Best in Show, winning on a total of seven occasions between 1928 and 2009, with wins in 1930, 1931, 1938, 1939, 1948, 1950 and 1996. In addition, the breed make up three of the four winners who have won the title on more than one occasion with all three coming from H.S. Lloyd's Ware kennel. Due to World War II, the English Cocker Spaniel managed to be the only breed to have won the title between 1938 and 1950, although the competition was only held on four occasions during that period. The most recent best in show was Sh. Ch. Canigou Cambrai in 1996.[The English Cocker Spaniel can be stubborn, but can be easily trained and make a good medium-sized family pet. The breed does not like being alone, and will bond strongly to an individual person in a family. Known for optimism, intelligence and adaptability, the breed is extremely loyal and affectionate. They rank 18th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of excellent working/obedience intelligence.A link between coat colour and temperament has been proposed. This link could be the colour pigment melanin, which is biochemically similar to chemicals that act as transmitters in the brain. A study made by the University of Cambridge involving over 1,000 Cocker Spaniel households throughout Britain concluded that solid colour Cockers were more likely to be aggressive in 12 out of 13 situations. Red/golden Cockers were shown to be the most aggressive of all, in situations involving strangers, family members, while being disciplined, and sometimes for no apparent reason. A study by Spanish researchers at the Autonomous University of Barcelona revealed a similar link between golden Cockers and aggression. Males were also more likely to be aggressive. The study found the English Cocker Spaniel to have the highest level of owner- and stranger- directed aggression compared to other breeds.
 Sussex Spaniel
The Sussex Spaniel is a breed of dog developed in Sussex in southern England. It is a low, compact spaniel and is similar in appearance to the Clumber Spaniel. They can be slow paced, but can have a clownish and energetic temperament. They suffer from health conditions common to spaniels and some large dogs, as well as a specific range of heart conditions and spinal disc herniation.First bred in 1795 in Hastings, East Sussex for specific hunting conditions, they nearly became extinct during the Second World War. They are now more popular in the United States than any other country and are recognised by all major kennel clubs. Notably, a Sussex Spaniel won the best in show in 2009 at the 133rd Westminster Kennel Club.The Sussex Spaniel is a low compact spaniel similar in appearance to a small, dark Clumber Spaniel. It is normally no taller than 13–15 in (33–38 cm) at the withers and the usual weight range is between 35–45 lb (16–20 kg) with a roughly rectangular appearance. The Clumber Spaniel meanwhile is normally between 17–20 in (43–51 cm) high at the shoulder, and weighing 55–85 lb (25–39 kg).One of the noticeable features is their golden liver-coloured coat which is unique to the breed. Historically however, there have also been examples of both black and sandy coloured Sussex Spaniels. The coat is thick (sometimes with a slight wave to it), feathering on the chest, legs and ears and consists of a weather resistant undercoat with a silky outer coat. The eyes are hazel in colour. The silky ears are lobe-shaped typical of the Spaniel, and set moderately low.The Sussex Spaniel is a slow paced, calm breed with somewhat clownish behaviour that normally keeps his energy and enthusiasm in check. He is always eager to be around people, is excellent around children, and can be quite protective of the family. They make excellent candidates for therapy dog work. Most Sussex Spaniels are primarily family pets, but they are competent enough to aid a hunter though quite stubborn to train. They tend to have a natural ability to quarter in the field, have excellent noses, and can be used to retrieve, given training. The breed is the only spaniel to howl once a game's scent is picked up.
 Entlebucher Mountain Dog
The Entlebucher Sennenhund or Entlebucher Mountain Dog is the smallest of the four Sennenhunds, a dog type that includes four regional breeds. The name Sennenhund refers to people called Senn, herders in the Swiss Alps. Entlebuch is a municipality in the canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The breed is also known in English as the Entelbuch Mountain Dog, Entelbucher Cattle Dog, and similar combinations.All of the Sennenhund breeds are believed to be descended from large molossers brought to Switzerland by the Romans in the first century B.C. However, the Entlebucher was only described as a separate breed in 1889, although for many years little distinction was made between the Appenzeller Sennenhund and the Entlebucher Sennenhund. In 1913, four bobtail Entlebucher Sennenhund were shown to Albert Heim, an advocate for the increasingly rare Sennenhund breeds. The breed was entered into the Swiss Kennel Club stud book, but World War I intervened, and at first after the war no examples of the breed could be found. The first breed club was not formed until 1926, sixteen dogs of the type were found in 1927, and the breed slowly was restored. Although originally kept for guarding and herding, today the breed is usually kept as a lively companion.The Entlebucher Sennenhund is a square, sturdy, medium-sized dog. It has small, triangular ears and rather small brown eyes. The head is well proportioned to the body, with a strong flat skull. The long jaw is well formed and powerful. The feet are compact supporting its muscular body. The smooth coat is close and harsh with symmetrical markings of black, tan, and white. This tricolor coat has white on its toes, tail-tip, chest and blaze; the tan always lies between the black and the white. It has muscular broad hips. The hocks are naturally well angled. The tail is sometimes docked, a practice which is now prohibited by law in many countries, or it may have a natural bobtail. Height at the withers is 19-20 ins (48–50 cm) and weight is 45-65 lbs (20.5–30 kg).As with all large, active working dogs, this breed should be well socialized early in life with other dogs and people, and be provided with regular activity and training. Temperament of individual dogs may vary, the Standard says that the breed is "Good-natured and devoted towards people familiar to him, slightly suspicious of strangers
 Swedish Vallhund
The Swedish vallhund is a breed of dog. It is believed that the Swedish vallhund distinguished itself during the age of Vikings, more than 1,000 years ago. Known as the "Viking dog", the vallhund were bred to herd cattle, catch vermin (such as rats), and guard the home. The vallhund were also referred to as "the little cattle dog of the Vikings".The vallhund are a powerful, fearless, watchful, energetic, alert, intelligent, friendly, and healthy small breed of dog. They have few known genetically inherited health issues, and are considered hardy, healthy and robust with a good long life span of typically over 14 years. However, they are sometimes prone to spine illnesses because of their short legs. Swedish Vallhunds are suitable as working farm dogs and as companion pets. They fit well into the rural lifestyle and suburban living.Height for these little dogs at withers : Dogs 33 cm. Bitches 31 cm. A variation of 1.5 cm above or below these heights is permitted. Weight : Between 9 - 14 kg or 19.8 - 30.8 pounds." They should be strong for their size and have a muscular body. They are quite a substantial dog, with short legs.This breed makes a great companion and can also be used for herding and ratting. They love human attention and are very devoted to their owners. They are a clownish type dog and can be a show-off at times. The Swedish vallhund is responsive and even-tempered with most people, but they can be wary of strangers and should be properly socialized and trained as a puppy as to avoid over-protective behavior as an adult. They will try to guard your home even if they are three sizes too small, so to say, for the job at hand. They are also known for heel nipping due to their inbuilt herding traits. This is a habit that can either be encouraged for working farm dogs or discouraged in companion pets.
 Estrela Mountain Dog
The Estrela Mountain Dog is a breed of dog that has been used to guard herds and homesteads in the Estrela Mountains of Portugal for centuries.Desirable height for mature males is 25½ - 28½ inches and for mature females is 24½ - 27 inches. Mature males in good working condition weigh between 88 and 110 pounds. Mature females in good working condition weigh between 66 and 88 pounds.A large, athletic dog, the Estrela Mountain Dog is a formidable opponent for any predator- fortunately, it's often called upon to rise to anyone's life-or-death defense. It is calm but fearless and will not hesitate to react to danger, making it an exceptional watchdog. It is intelligent, loyal, and faithful, affectionate to those it knows but wary of those it does not. It is instinctively protective of any children in its family. It needs early and continued socialization to be trustworthy around small pets and other dogs.It's important to begin training and socializing the Estrela from puppyhood to nurture its acceptance of different situations. This is a strong independent-minded breed that will need persistent training and consistent leadership. It has a tendency to bark. As with most livestock guardians, the Estrela is not a "pet" for everyone. Strong ownership is paramount.
 Tamaskan
The Tamaskan Dog is a rare dog breed of sleddog type, originating from Finland. It is a highly versatile breed that is known to excel in agility, obedience and working trials. It is also capable of pulling sleds, which is inherited from its Siberian Husky and Alaskan Malamute ancestors. Morphologically, Tamaskans have been bred to look like wolves and have a notable lupine appearance, although they contain no recent wolf ancestry. Although there are fewer than 3000 registered Tamaskan Dogs worldwide, increasing interest has resulted in their spread throughout continental Europe, the UK and the USA, as well as Canada and Australia.All pedigree Tamaskan Dogs are registered with the Tamaskan Dog Register (TDR) and are DNA profiled; there are notable differences between genuine Tamaskan Dogs and the copycat versions with regards to appearance, temperament and healthTamaskans are large, athletic dogs; slightly taller in size than German Shepherds. With regards to build, they are substantially larger than their Siberian Husky ancestors but smaller than the Alaskan Malamute.On average, Tamaskan adults measure around 24-28 inches (60–70 cm) tall at the shoulder and typically weigh between 55-88 pounds (25-40 kg)–the heaviest recorded Tamaskan males (to date) weigh just under 50 kg. Females are usually slightly smaller and lighter than males, with a distinct feminine appearance. Males are more heavyset with broader heads and a heavier bone structure. Tamaskans have a lupine appearance with a straight bushy tail and thick double coat that comes in three main colors: Wolf Grey, Red Grey, and Black Grey. Each individual guard hair is agouti banded along its length. The almond-shaped eyes are yellow through amber and brown, with lighter colored eyes being very rare. Blue eyes are not acceptable, nor are mismatched eyes.Tamaskans are highly intelligent and have been known to excel in agility, obedience and working trials. They also make good sled dogs and many Tamaskans living in colder climates regularly participate in recreational, and occasionally competitive, dogsled racing as well as skijoring. They make excellent search and rescue dogs due to their keen sense of smell, stamina and endurance. Tamaskans can also be successfully trained as therapy or assistance dogs due to their friendly and laid-back personality. As a breed they are very social and are good with people, children, and other dogs, as well as other family pets (cats, chickens, rabbits, hamsters, parakeets, etc.). However, Tamaskan Dogs do not cope well without company and if left alone for long periods of time they may become bored, which can lead to destructive behavior and/or escape attempts. Moreover, Tamaskan Dogs love to dig holes and can pull quite strongly on the leash; both traits they have inherited from their arctic heritage. However, unlike some of their husky ancestors, Tamaskans generally respond well off the leash and, with a small amount of training, will return when called.
 Eurasier
The Eurasier, sometimes referred to as Eurasian, is a breed of dog of spitz type that originated in Germany. It is widely known as a wonderful companion that maintains its own personality, has a dignified reserve to strangers, a strong bond to its family and that is relatively easy to train.The Eurasier is a balanced, well-constructed, medium-sized Spitz (Spitzen) type dog with prick ears. It comes in different colors: fawn, red, wolf-grey, solid black, and black and tan. All color combinations are allowed, except for pure white, white patches, and liver color. Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) standards call for the Eurasier to have a thick undercoat and medium-long, loosely lying guard hair all over the body, with a short coat on the muzzle, face, ears, and front legs. The tail and the back of the front legs (feathers) and hind legs (breeches) should be covered with long hair. The coat on the Eurasier's neck should be slightly longer than on the body, but not forming a mane. The breed may have a pink, blue-black or spotted tongue.The male has a height of 52 to 60 cm (20-23.5 inches) at the withers and weighs approximately 23 to 32 kg (50-70 lb).The female has a height of 48 to 56 cm (19-22 inches) at the withers and weighs anywhere from 18 to 26 kg (40-57 lb).Eurasiers are calm, even-tempered dogs. They are watchful and alert, yet reserved towards strangers without being timid or aggressive. From Chow Chows, the Euraiser gets the affectionate teddy bear personality. Eurasiers form a strong link to their families. For the full development of these qualities, the Eurasier needs constant close contact with its family, combined with understanding, yet consistent, training. They are extremely sensitive to harsh words or discipline and respond best to soft reprimand. The Eurasier is a combination of the best qualities of the Chow Chow, the Wolfspitz, and the Samoyed (dog), resulting in a dignified, intelligent breed.Eurasiers were bred as companion dogs; as such they do poorly in a kennel environment such as those commonly used for institutionally trained service dogs, nor are they well suited for the social stresses of working as a sled or guard dog. Training should always be done through family members, not through strangers or handlers. Eurasiers should never be restricted to only a yard, kennel, crate, or chained up. They would pine and become depressed. Within these limitations, Eurasiers can work very well as service or therapy dogs. This breed enjoys all kinds of activities, especially if the activities involve their family. Eurasiers are calm and quiet indoors, outdoors they are lively and enjoy action. Eurasiers rarely bark but if they do, they usually have a good reason.
 Tibetan Spaniel
The Tibetan Spaniel is a breed of assertive, small, intelligent dogs originating in the Himalayan mountains of Tibet. They share ancestry with the Pekingese, Japanese Chin, Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, and Pug. This breed is not a true Spaniel; its breeding and role differs quite a bit (Spaniels are gun dogs.) The name Spaniel may have been given due to its resemblance to the bred-down lapdog versions of the hunting Spaniels, such as the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel.The Tibetan Spaniel has a domed head that is small,in comparison to the body. It has a short blunt muzzle. Teeth meet in an undershot or level bite. The nose is black. The eyes are medium but in keeping with the face and are set wide apart, these are oval in shape. The Tibetan Spaniel does not have extra skin around the eyes and this helps to tell the breed apart from the Pekingese. The ears hang down either side of the head to cheek level and are feathered. The neck is covered in a mane of hair, which is more noticeable in the dog of the breed. The Tibetan Spaniel front legs are a little bowed and the feet are hare-like. This dog has a great feathered tail that is set high and is carried over their back. The coat is a silky double coat lying flat and is short and smooth on the face and leg fronts, it is medium in length on the body and has feathering on the ears, toes and tail. The Tibetan Spaniel dog can come in all colours and be solid, shaded and multi- coloured. Colour's that is seen is red, fawn, gold, white, cream, black and tan, black often there is white markings on the feet. The Tibetan Spaniels' life expectancy is 12-15 years. By show standard this breed grows to about 10 inches and the weight is 9-15 pounds. Slightly larger Tibetan Spaniels can often be found outside the show ring.The Tibetan Spaniel is a reliable little watchdog and lapdog. They are active, alert, lively, happy, and intelligent. They can be independent thinkers, and have been known to open doors and purses. They like to please you but they also like to do things their own way.They are especially reluctant to come when you call them, so they do best walking on lead or playing in a fenced-in area. They are friendly and outgoing with their families, yet they are not prone to yap unnecessarily. Mostly, they like to lie around all day peering out the window, and they will often climb up onto the back of the sofa or the dining room table to get the best vantage point. Tibbies only need moderate exercise. A daily walk will satisfy. They do well with children, but interactions should be supervised. They do well with other dogs and animals. They are famous for being able to understand and respond to your moods and feelings. Some recommend that you don't fight in front of your Tibbie, as he will become the most upset of anyone involved. They love to give kisses by licking your face and they love to cuddle up in your lap. They can live anywhere, in a mansion, or an apartment. The Tibetan Spaniel will want to spend time with his family. They do very well with children and like to play with them. They are good companions for older people, because, at minimum, they require small amounts of exercise that can be released by playing games in the house.
 Field Spaniel
The Field Spaniel is a medium-sized breed dog of the spaniel type. They were originally developed to be all black show dogs in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and were unpopular for work as a hunting dog. However during the mid 20th century they were redeveloped as a longer legged dog that was more suitable to be used for field work. They are now considered to be a rare breed, and are registered as a Vulnerable Native Breed by The Kennel Club.Their fur is lighter than other spaniels and have no undercoat. Their coats come mostly in solid colours with some occasional markings on the chest. They can make good family dogs and are patient with children, but can require some sort of The standard size for a Field Spaniel is 17–18 inches (43–46 cm) tall at the withers, and a weight of between 40–55 pounds (18–25 kg). This places it roughly between the English Cocker Spaniel and the English Springer Spaniel in size. Its long, silky coat comes in solid colours of black, liver, or roan. Tan points, white markings on the throat and the chest can be ticked or the same colour as the rest of the body.They have a moderately long single coat with no undercoat. Feathering of the fur appears on the chest, belly, ears and on the back of the legs. The coat is not as heavy as that of a Cocker Spaniel but will require grooming in order to prevent mats from appearing in the fur.The Field Spaniel can be a good family dog while it has a job to do. They are suitable for dog agility and hunting. Without some sort of purpose, the dog can often try to amuse itself and cause mischief. However, they are patient with children and like to stay close to their family. When socialised, they are good with other dogs. They are generally docile and independent, and are not as excitable as Cocker Spaniels. Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs lists the breed as being above average in working intelligence.
 Tibetan Terrier
The Tibetan Terrier is not a member of the terrier group, the name being given to it by European travelers to Tibet who were reminded of terriers from back home when they first encountered the breed. Its origins are uncertain: Some sources claim them to be lucky temple dogs, whereas others place them as farm dogs.The Tibetan Terrier is a dog with many uses, able to guard, herd, and also be a suitable companion dog. Their utility in Tibet meant that the first examples of the breed available in the west were generally given as gifts, as the Tibetan Terrier, along with other Tibetan breeds, were too valuable to the people who owned them to casually sell. As such, the early history of the breed is linked to only a handful of foundation dogs.The Tibetan name for the breed, Tsang Apso, roughly translates to "shaggy or bearded (apso) dog, from the province of Tsang". Some old travelers' accounts give the name "Dokhi Apso," or "outdoor" Apso, indicating a working dog which lives outdoors. Other "Apso" dogs from Tibet include the smaller and more familiar Lhasa Apso (called the Lhasa Terrier in the early 1900s) and the very rare Do Khyi Apso (bearded Tibetan Mastiff, sometimes considered as a TT/TM cross.)Recent DNA analysis has concluded that the Tibetan Terrier is descended from the most ancient dog breedsThe appearance of the Tibetan Terrier is that of a powerful, medium sized dog of square proportions, with a shaggy coat. Overall, there should be a feel of balance. Fully grown, he or she should look like a miniaturized Old English Sheepdog.The head is moderate, with a strong muzzle of medium length, and a skull neither rounded nor flat. The eyes are large, dark, and set fairly far apart. The V-shaped drop ears are well feathered, and should be set high on the sides of the skull. Although the preferred colour for the nose is black, in showdogs, they are also sometimes brown.The body is well muscled and compact. The length of the back should be equal to the height at the withers, giving the breed its typical square look. Height for either sex is 14-16 in (35–41 cm) and weight is 18-30 lb (8–14 kg), with 20-24 lb (9.5–11 kg) preferred, but all weights acceptable if in proportion to the size.The tail is set high, well feathered, and carried in a curl over the back.One of the more unusual features of the Tibetan Terrier is the broad, flat feet with hair between the toes. They are ideal for climbing mountains and act as natural snow shoes.The temperament has been one of the most attractive aspects of the breed since it was first established. They are amiable and affectionate family dogs, sensitive to their owners and gentle with older children. As is fitting a dog formerly used as a watch dog, they tend to be reserved around strangers, but should never be aggressive nor shy with them.Suitable for apartment living, the Tibetan is still an energetic and surprisingly strong dog, and needs regular exercise. Their energy level and intelligence is well suited for dog sports such as agility. They are steadfast, determined, and clever, which can lead to them being stubborn. Some dogs of this breed can often be jealous, which can make it hard to live with another pet.Though not yappy, the Tibetan Terrier has an assertive bark, likened to a rising siren.Energy Level: moderate to high General Nature: happy, active, lively, intelligent, agileWith Children: good if properly introduced, supervised with well behaved childrenWith other pets: generally goodWith dogs: generally good ,sometimes shySocialization requirements: required to help address inclination to shyness to strangersIdeal home characteristics: one devoted to regular grooming and care of the coat in addition to other needsTemperament Notes: charming and loyal, sensitive and intelligentTraining requirement: dependent entirely on goalsIntelligent and sensitive nature. Training kept interesting and positive will move quickly. This is not a dog that will benefit from force of any form.
 Finnish Spitz
A Finnish Spitz (Finnish language: Suomenpystykorva) is a breed of dog originating in Finland. The breed was originally bred to hunt all types of game from squirrels and other rodents to bears. It is a "bark pointer", indicating the position of game by barking to attract the hunter's attention. Its original game hunting purpose was to point to game that fled into trees, such as grouse, and capercaillies, but it also serves well for hunting moose and elk. Some individuals have even been known to go after a bear. In its native country, the breed is still mostly used as a hunting dog. The breed is friendly and in general loves children, so it is suitable for domestic life. The Finnish Spitz has been the national dog of Finland since 1979.The Finnish Spitz resembles a fox. The proper conformation is a square build, meaning that the length of the body is the same or slightly shorter than the height of the withers to the ground. The length of the body is measured from the point of the shoulder or forechest in front of the withers to the rump. Females are usually a little longer in the back than males. Both sexes should appear slightly longer in the leg than the back.Dew claws can appear on front and/or back feet. If back claws appear, they should be removed. The front dewclaws can be removed, but they generally are not since they are usually small.Males: 17½ to 20 inches (44.5 to 50.8 cm)Females: 15½ to 18 inches (39.4 to 45.7 cm)Weight:Males: 47-53 lb (21–24 kg)Females: 40-47 lb (18–21 kg)This breed is active, alert and lively. They need one or two long walks each day and will be fairly inactive indoors. This breed will not adapt well to a strictly kenneled living situation; they need a balance of outdoor exercise and indoor play time with the family.Finnish Spitzes are considered to interact well with people and they are especially good with children. They are always ready to play with children but if ignored, they will usually walk away. As with all dogs, young children and dogs should always be supervised when together. It is an independent breed and will be attached to its family while remaining aloof with strangers. The Finnish Spitz tends to be protective; males have more domineering traits than females.Most Finnish Spitzes get along well with other dogs in the home. They are bred as a hunting dog and thus are unreliable around small animals, but on an individual basis may live well with cats.
 Poodle (Toy)
Most poodles have a curly, non-shedding coat that requires regular grooming. Since poodles do not have the plush double coat of many breeds, their fur is often referred to as "hair", a term usually reserved for humans. Most poodles are solid-colored, and many registries allow only solid colors in conformation shows. Poodles come in a wide variety of solid colors including white, black, blue, gray, silver, brown, cafe-au-lait, apricot, red and cream. "Parti" (short for parti-colored) poodles have large patches of colors different from the main body color. "Phantom" poodles have tan points, a pattern similar to that of a Doberman Pinscher or Rottweiler.Unlike most breeds, poodles can come in a variety of sizes, distinguished by adult shoulder (withers) height. The exact height cutoffs among the varieties vary slightly from country to country. Non-F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale kennel clubs generally recognize three sizes, standard, miniature, and toy, sometimes as sizes of the same breed, and sometimes as separate breeds. The F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale recognizes four sizes of one breed, standard, medium, miniature, and toy. Only the F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale describes a maximum size for standard poodles. France is the country responsible for the breed in the F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale, and in this country the puppies of all sizes are listed together. The terms royal standard, teacup, and tiny teacup are marketing names, and are not recognized by any major kennel club.Comparison of poodle sizes defined by major kennel clubs Size The Kennel Club (UK) Australian National Kennel Council New Zealand Kennel Club Canadian Kennel Club American Kennel Club United Kennel Club F�d�ration Cynologique Internationale Standard, Grande over 38 cm (15 ins) 38 cm (15 ins) and over 38 cm (15 ins) and over over 15 inches (38 cm) over 15 inches (38 cm) over 15 inches (38 cm) over 45 cm to 60 cm (+2 cm) (18ins to 24ins) Medium, Moyen not used not used not used not used not used not used over 35 cm to 45 cm (14ins to 18ins) Miniature - Dwarf, Nain 28 cm to 38 cm (11ins to 15ins) 28 cm to under 38 cm (11ins to 15ins) 28 cm to under 38 cm (11ins to 15ins) over 10ins to under 15ins (25.4 cm to 38 cm) over 10ins to 15ins (25.4 cm to 38 cm) over 10ins up to 15ins (25.4 cm to 38 cm) over 28 cm to 35 cm (11ins to 14ins) Toy under 28 cm (11 ins) under 28 cm (11 ins) under 28 cm (11 ins) under 10ins (25.4 cm) under 10ins (25.4 cm) under 10ins (25.4 cm) 24 cm to 28 cm (9.4ins to 11ins) Otherwise notable is this breed's keen sense for instinctual behavior. In particular, marking and hunting drives are more readily observable than in most other breeds. Even Toys will point birds. Classified as highly energetic, poodles can also get bored fairly easily and have been known to get creative about finding mischief. Poodles like to be in the center of things and are easily trained to do astonishing tricks involving both brains and agility. They have performed in circuses for centuries, beginning in Europe, and have been part of the Ringling Circus in its various forms from its inception. The Grimaldis, the famous British clowns Kenneth and Audrey Austin, "developed a stronger circus act" with a clever poodle named 'Twinkle,' the success of which allowed them to continue performing even as octogenarians."Poodles are extremely people-oriented dogs and generally eager to please. Standard poodles in particular tend to be good with children. Poodles are adaptable and easy to train, but sometimes their intelligence can make them obstinate and stubborn. Like most dogs, they appreciate daily exercise, such as a walk or a play session. Most are fairly agile and athletic.Toy poodles will play ball and love to fetch. Play time is vital, but one must be sure that they get plenty of rest following long play periods and that fresh water is available at all times.Poodles are very easy to housebreak. Whether going outside or being trained on a pad, they learn quickly where to defecate. They are still animals, however, and they need time to understand what is desired of them. It may take a while, but poodles are quite smart and learn more quickly than most dogs.
 German Shepherd Dog
The German Shepherd Dog (GSD, also known as an Alsatian), (German: Deutscher Sch�ferhund) is a breed of large-sized dog that originated in Germany. The German Shepherd is a relatively new breed of dog, with its origin dating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, the German Shepherd is a working dog developed originally for herding and guarding sheep. Because of its strength, intelligence and abilities in obedience training it is often employed in police and military roles around the world. German Shepherds currently account for 4.6% of all dogs registered with the American Kennel Club. Due to its loyal and protective nature, the German Shepherd is one of the most registered of breeds.In Europe during the 1800s, attempts were being made to standardise breeds. The dogs were bred to preserve traits that assisted in their job of herding sheep and protecting flocks from predators. In Germany this was practiced within local communities, where shepherds selected and bred dogs that they believed had traits necessary for herding sheep, such as intelligence, speed, strength, and keen senses of smell. The results were dogs that were able to perform admirably in their task, but that differed significantly, both in appearance and ability, from one locality to another.To combat these differences, the Phylax Society was formed in 1891 with the intention of creating standardised dog breeds in Germany. The society disbanded after only three years due to ongoing internal conflicts regarding the traits in dogs that the society should promote; some members believed dogs should be bred solely for working purposes, while others believed dogs should be bred also for appearance. While unsuccessful in their goal, the Phylax Society had inspired people to pursue standardising dog breeds independently.Max von Stephanitz, an ex-cavalry captain and former student of the Berlin Veterinary College, was one such ex-member. He believed strongly that dogs should be bred for working.In 1899, Von Stephanitz was attending a dog show when he was shown a dog named Hektor Linksrhein. Hektor was the product of few generations of selective breeding and completely fulfilled what Von Stephanitz believed a working dog should be. He was pleased with the strength of the dog and was so taken by the animal's intelligence and loyalty, that he purchased it immediately. After purchasing the dog he changed its name to Horand von Grafrath and Von Stephanitz founded the Verein f�r Deutsche Sch�ferhunde (Society for the German Shepherd Dog). Horand was declared to be the first German Shepherd Dog and was the first dog added to the society's breed register.Horand became the centre-point of the breeding programs and was bred with dogs belonging to other society members that displayed desirable traits. Although fathering many pups, Horand's most successful was Hektor von Schwaben. Hektor was inbred with another of Horand's offspring and produced Beowulf, who later fathered a total of eighty-four pups, mostly through being inbred with Hektor's other offspring. In the original German Shepherd studbook, Zuchtbuch fur Deutsche Schaferhunde (SZ), within the 2 pages of entries from SZ #41 to SZ #76, there are 4 Wolf Crosses. Beowulf's progeny also were inbred and it is from these pups that all German Shepherds draw a genetic link. It is believed the society accomplished its goal mostly due to Von Stephanitz's strong, uncompromising leadership and he is therefore credited with being the creator of the German Shepherd Dog
 Traditional-Shar-Pei
The Shar Pei is an ancient breed, possibly dating back to The Han Dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD), in which it can be seen depicted in statues from this period. The original type of Shar Pei originated from Dali,in the Guangdong province of China. Its less wrinkly that the Western Shar Pei and is sometimes referred to as a Bone Mouth Shar Pei. What the breed were used for depended on the areas of Asia they were bred in. In rural areas they were used within village life, in help of guarding the village and going out on hunts with villagers. Where they were bought up and bred in urban areas such as in Hong Kong they have commonly been used as a "Chinese Fighting Dog".In 1973 the breed was becoming extremely rare and was close to extinction. A man named, Matgo Law called on the Western world, most notably the U.S to help "save the Chinese Shar-Pei". Within just a matter of years, what I will call the Western Shar Pei had been transformed into a softer and much more wrinkly breed, which may well be cuter on the eye for prospective buyers but also comes with a large number of health problems caused by irresponsible and over breeding. Mostly due to the very high prices which puppies could be sold for in the 1970's and 80's. The breeds haven't officially been split into 2 different breeds, so it causes alot of confusion between the types of breeds which are viewed so differently by some, especially those from Asia who tend look in disbelief at what the Western world has done to the breed. Appearance The traditional Shar Pei has wrinkles on its face and head but to a much lesser extent that the Shar Pei we see in the Western world.The ears are proportionally small to the head size and positioned on the head above the eyes. There's less padding around the muzzle, most notably there should be clear smooth curved surface on top of the muzzle like the vast majority of normal dogs.The tail should be set high and pointing towards the head. The coat should be Horse Coat, which is the shortest of all known coat types for the breed overall Colours For color, traditional Shar-pei has solid color of Fawn and black (or named by Chinese rusty black). What it means is a black with tint of reddish rust tone. The closest to your Western color description may be is the "seal color". There can be sometimes diluted color called "Five point red" is also acceptable. Light fawn and light cream is also acceptable provided with proper pigmentation of nose, tongue and ear (light cream dog should have darker fawn color ear).A completely white dog is not acceptable.Temperament. The traditional Shar Pei is a working dog so expect it to be territorial, retain its guarding instinct and be very alert. they would of course make good guard dogs. Height and Weight 46 - 51 cm in height and approximately 18 - 25 kg in weight.Common Health Problems The Traditional Shar Pei is much healthier than its Western world counterpart and doesn't suffer from any specific health problems. Living Conditions Can live anywhere, town, country, house or apartment. Of course if in an apartment will need extra exercise. More active than the Western world Shar Pei so.Exercise Requirements High energy working dog which enjoys regular walks.Training Requirements Need firm obedience training and good leadership.Life Expectancy10 - 12 years.
 German Shorthaired Pointer
The breed is streamlined yet powerful with strong legs that make it able to move rapidly and turn quickly. It has moderately long floppy ears set high on the head. Its muzzle is long, broad, and strong, allowing it to retrieve even heavy game. The dog's profile should be straight or strongly Roman nosed; any dished appearance to the profile is incorrect. The eyes are generally brown, with darker eyes being desirable; yellow or "bird of prey" eyes are a fault. The tail is commonly docked, although this is now prohibited in some countries. The correct location for docking for GSP is after the caudal vertebrae start to curl, leaving enough tail to let the dog communicate through tail wagging and movement. The docked tail should not be too long or too short but should balance the appearance of the head and body. The GSP tail is carried at a jaunty angle, not curled under. When the GSP is in classic point stance, the tail should be held straight out from the body forming a line with the pointing head and body. Like all German pointers, GSP have webbed feet.Since the German shorthaired pointer was developed to be a dog suited to family life as well as a versatile hunter, the correct temperament is that of an intelligent, bold, and characteristically affectionate dog that is cooperative and easily trained. They rank 17th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being excellent working dogs. Shyness, fearfulness, over submissiveness, aloofness, lack of biddability, or aggression (especially toward humans) are all traits that can occur, but are more less likely to exhibit than not. The GSP is usually good with children, although care should be taken because the breed can be boisterous especially when young. These dogs love interaction with humans and are suitable pets for active families who will give them an outlet for their considerable energy; in this regard some competitively trained GSPs are walking dynamos; they must be avidly run multiple times a week. Most German shorthaired pointers make excellent watchdogs. The breed generally gets along well with other dogs, though females appear to be much more dominant during interbreed interaction. A strong hunting instinct is correct for the breed, which is not always good for other small pets such as cats or rabbits. With training, however, the family dog should be able to discern what is prey and what is not, and they can live quite amicably with other family pets.The German shorthaired pointer needs plenty of vigorous activity. This need for exercise (preferably off lead) coupled with the breed's natural instinct to hunt, means that training is an absolute necessity. The GSP distinctly independent character and superior intelligence mean that any unused energy will likely result in the dog amusing itself, most probably in an undesirable manner.[citation needed]Failure by the owner to give this active and intelligent dog sufficient exercise and/or proper training can produce a German shorthaired pointer that appears hyperactive or that has destructive tendencies. Thus the breed is not a suitable pet for an inactive home or for inexperienced dog owners. Although these dogs form very strong attachments with their owners, a bored GSP that receives insufficient exercise may feel compelled to exercise himself. These dogs are athletic and can escape from four foot and sometimes six foot enclosures with little difficulty. Regular hunting, running, carting, bikejoring, skijoring, mushing, dog scootering or other vigorous activity can alleviate this desire to escape. The natural instinct to hunt may result in the dog hunting alone and sometimes bringing home occasional dead trophies, such as cats, rats, pigeons and other urban animals. In addition to exercise, especially formal hunting, the GSP needs to be taught to distinguish legitimate prey and off limits animals.Like the other German pointers (the German wirehaired pointer and the less well known German longhaired pointer), the GSP can perform virtually all gundog roles. It is pointer and retriever, an upland bird dog and water dog. The GSP can be used for hunting larger and more dangerous game, and in addition has a scent hound's talented nose. It is an excellent swimmer but also works well in rough terrain. It is tenacious, tireless, hardy, and reliable. In short, it is a superb all-around field dog that remains popular with hunters of many nationalities.The GSP is intelligent and bred for a certain amount of independence (e. g., when a dog is working out of sight or sound of its handler in the field). Along with its superb hunting ability and companionable personality, the intelligence and the obedience of the GSP make it one of the more popular large breeds.During hunting sessions, a completely instinctive scent-hiding activity through rubbing against carrion can be observed.
 Weimaraner
The Weimaraner (English pronunciation: /?va?m?r??n?r/ vy-m?-rah-n?r) is a dog that was originally bred for hunting in the early 19th century. Early Weimaraners were used by royalty for hunting large game such as boar, bear, and deer. As the popularity of large game hunting began to decline, Weimaraners were used for hunting smaller animals like fowl, rabbits, and foxes.The Weimaraner is an all purpose gun dog. The name comes from the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Karl August, whose court, based in the city of Weimar (now in modern day Germany), enjoyed hunting.The Weimaraner is elegant and athletic in appearance. All parts of the dog should be in balance with each other, creating a form that is pleasing to the eye. It must be capable of working in the field, regardless of whether it is from show stock or hunting stock, and faults that will interfere with working ability are heavily penalized.Traditionally, the tail is docked to a third of its natural length shortly after birth. This is part of the AKC breed standard. However, these alterations have since been illegalized in several other countries; as such those dogs are shown with their natural tails (which is uncommon).The eyes of the Weimaraner may be light amber, grey, or blue-grey.From adolescence, a Weimaraner requires extensive exercise in keeping with an energetic hunting dog breed prized for their physical endurance and stamina. No walk is too far, and they will appreciate games and play in addition. An active owner is more likely to provide the vigorous exercising, games, or running that this breed absolutely requires. Weimaraners are high-strung and often wear out their owners, requiring appropriate training to learn how to calm them and to help them learn to control their behavior. Owners need patience and consistent, firm yet kind training, as this breed is particularly rambunctious during the first year and a half of its life. This breed is known for having a penchant for stealing food from table and counter tops whenever given the chance. Like many breeds, untrained and unconfined young dogs often create their own fun when left alone, such as chewing house quarters and furniture. Thus, many that are abandoned have behavioural issues as a result of isolation and inferior exercise.Weimaraners are generally good with children, but may not be appropriate for smaller children due to their tendency to knock a child down in the course of play. They also may knock over elderly people or children by accident. Early training to sit through positive reinforcement is critical to prevent jumping in the future.It should never be forgotten that the Weimaraner is a hunting dog and therefore has a strong, instinctive prey drive. Weimaraners will sometimes tolerate cats, as long as they are introduced to the cats as puppies, but many will chase and frequently kill almost any small animal that enters their garden or backyard. In rural areas, most Weimaraners will not hesitate to chase deer or sheep.This breed of dog tends to be very stubborn. However, with good training, these instincts can be curtailed to some degree. A properly trained Weimaraner is a companion that will never leave its master's side. The Weimaraner has been given the nickname "Velcro Dog", as when once acclimated to its owner, sticks to its owner at all times. Many Weimaraners tend to lean on their owner when sitting or standing, and most will insist on sleeping on their owner's bed unless trained otherwise.
 German Wirehaired Pointer
The German wirehaired pointer is a griffon type breed of dog developed in the 19th century in Germany for hunting. It became a leading gun dog in Germany in the later part of the 20th century. It is the result of the careful mixing of the griffon, Deutscher Stichelhaar, Deutscher Kurzhaar, and the hunting Pudelpointer in the late 19th century.The German wirehaired pointer is a well muscled, medium sized dog of distinctive appearance. Balanced in size and sturdily built, the breed's most distinguishing characteristics are its weather resistant, wire-like coat and its facial furnishings. Typically pointer in character and style, the German wirehaired pointer is an intelligent, energetic and determined hunter. The tail is typically docked to two-fifths of the natural length. In countries where docking is prohibited the tail should be of sufficient length to reach down to the hocks. Like all German pointers, they have webbed feet.The German wirehaired pointer is very affectionate, active and intelligent. Eager to learn and loyal to its family, it needs a handler who is consistent in approach. They like to be occupied and enjoy working for their owner. They are friendly with those they know, but are naturally aloof with strangers and should be socialized at an early age.' This is one breed of dog that does not do well in a kennel environment. German wirehaired pointers are happiest and most well behaved when they are part of the family and can spend time with their people. They can be rather willful and they like to roam. Powerful and energetic, they can become bored and hard to manage without enough exercise. The German Wirehaired pointer is a good all-around gun dog, able to hunt any sort of game on any sort of terrain. This dog has a good nose and can track, point, and retrieve on both land and water. Steady, lively and vigorous. These dogs should have the correct tempermant to live with children of all ages.
 Welsh Springer Spaniel
The Welsh Springer Spaniel is a breed of dog and a member of the spaniel family. Thought to be comparable to the old Land Spaniel, they are similar to the English Springer Spaniel and historically have been referred to as both the Welsh Spaniel and the Welsh Cocker Spaniel. They were relatively unknown until a succession of victories in dog trials by the breed increased its popularity. Following recognition by The Kennel Club in 1902, the breed gained the modern name of Welsh Springer Spaniel. The breed's coat only comes in a single colour combination of white with red markings. Loyal and affectionate, they can become very attached to family members and are wary of strangers. Health conditions are limited to those common among many breeds of dog, although they are affected more than average by hip dysplasia and some eye conditions. They are a working dog, bred for hunting, and while not as rare as some varieties of spaniel, they are rarer than the more widely known English Springer Spaniel with which they are sometimes confused.The Welsh Springer Spaniel is a compact, solidly built dog, bred for hard work and endurance. Their body can give the impression of length due to its obliquely angled forequarters and developed hindquarters. The build of the Welsh Springer Spaniel should be slightly off square, meaning that the length of the dog should be slightly greater than the height at the withers. However, some dogs may be square, and this is not penalised in the show ring as long as the height is never greater than the length. Traditionally a docked breed, dependant on legislation in the country of origin, and where allowed the dew claws can be removed.In conformation showing, eyes should be brown in colour; yellow eyes do sometimes occur but are penalised in the show ring. Ears are small, pendulous, vine-shaped and with a light setter-like feathering. Nostrils are well developed and are black or any shade of brown; a pink nose is penalised in the AKC standard for the show ring, in Britain the colour is not specified in The Kennel Club's breed standard. In showing, a scissors bite is preferred with an undershot jaw severely penalised. Unlike the English Springer Spaniel and English Cocker Spaniel, there is no divergence into show and field types of the breed.Male dogs are 18 to 19 inches (46 to 48 cm) high at the withers, with females a little smaller at 17 to 18 inches (43 to 46 cm). On average, members of the breed weigh between 35 to 45 lb (16 to 20 kg). The coat is soft and flat to the touch, medium in length, and either straight or slightly wavy. The back of the legs, chest, and underside of the body are feathered, and the ears and tail are lightly feathered. The only colour is a rich red-and-white. Any pattern is acceptable and any white area may be flecked with red ticking.Welsh Springers are often confused with the English Springer Spaniel, but there are marked differences. The Welsh Springer is slightly smaller, and its reddish markings on a white background as opposed to the English Springers black or liver-coloured markings. Both breeds are admired for their hunting abilities and their trademark trait of "springing" at game. Some experts believe that the Welsh Springer Spaniel and the Brittany Spaniel share the same ancestry as there is a great deal of resemblance between the two breeds. The colours of the Welsh Springer, while exclusive from the English Springer, appear in the Brittany Spaniel and the Brittany and Welsh Springers are both of similar sizes. The Welsh Springer is larger than the English Cocker SpanielThe Welsh Springer Spaniel is an active, loyal, and affectionate breed. They may meet unfamiliar strangers with barking when in the dog's territory, or act aloof, cautious or wary. The breed is well known for being friendly and demonstrative to all members of the family, especially children, and accepting other pets of the household with a friendly, playful attitude.The breed is quick to learn but can be headstrong, though with correct training can become very obedient. The Welsh Springer was bred for work and endurance, and as with many breeds of hunting dogs requires a regular exercise routine to them keep healthy and content. Without adequate exercise, a Welsh Springer Spaniel may appear hyperactive. Some Welsh Springers can become clingy towards their owners and suffer separation anxiety when alone
 Golden Retriever
The Golden Retriever is a medium-sized breed of dog. They were historically developed as gundogs to retrieve shot waterfowl such as ducks and upland game birds during hunting and shooting parties. As such, they were bred to have a soft mouth to retrieve game undamaged and have an instinctive love of water. The golden retriever has a dense inner coat that provides it with adequate warmth. The outer coat is sleek and water repellent, and lies flat against the body. The official colour of the breed is the varying shades of gold that are most often seen.The breed's intelligence and versatility suit the dogs well for a variety of roles including guide dog for the blind, hearing dog for deaf people, hunting dog, illegal drug detector, and search and rescue participant. Because of their loyal and gentle temperament, golden retrievers are also popular family pets.Golden Retrievers possess a friendly, eager-to-please demeanour, and are the fifth most popular family dog breed (by registration) in the United States the fifth most popular in Australia,[5] and the eighth most popular in the United KingdomAn American Golden is lankier and less stocky than a British Type. A male should stand 22–24 inches (56–61 cm) in height at the shoulders, and females should be 20–22 inches (51–56 cm). The coat is dense and water repellent, in various shades of lustrous gold, with moderate feathering. The gait should be free, smooth, powerful, and well-coordinated.The temperament of the Golden Retriever is a hallmark of the breed and is described in the standard as "kindly, friendly and confident". They are not "one man dogs" and are generally equally amiable with both strangers and those familiar to them. Their trusting, gentle disposition therefore makes them a poor guard dog. Any form of unprovoked aggression or hostility towards either people, dogs or other animals, whether in the show ring or community, is completely unacceptable in a Golden Retriever and is not in keeping with the character of the breed and as such is considered a serious fault. Nor should a Golden Retriever be unduly timid or nervous. The typical Golden Retriever is calm, naturally intelligent and biddable, with an exceptional eagerness to please.Golden Retrievers are also noted for their intelligence, it ranks fourth in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs following the Border Collie, Poodle, and German Shepherd Dog, being one of the brightest dogs ranked by obedience command trainability. These dogs are also renowned for their patience with children.By the time they reach maturity however, Goldens will have become active and fun-loving animals with the exceptionally patient demeanour befitting a dog bred to sit quietly for hours in a hunting blind. Adult Golden Retrievers love to work, and have a keen ability to focus on a given task. They will seemingly work until they collapse, so care should be taken to avoid overworking them.Other characteristics related to their hunting heritage are a size suited for scrambling in and out of boats and an inordinate love for water. Golden Retrievers are exceptionally trainable—due to their intelligence, athleticism and desire to please their handlers—and generally excel in obedience trials. They are also very competitive in agility and other performance events. Harsh training methods are unnecessary as Golden Retrievers often respond very well to positive and upbeat training styles.Golden Retrievers are compatible with children and adults and are good with other dogs, cats and most livestock. Golden Retrievers are particularly valued for their high level of sociability towards people, calmness, and willingness to learn. Because of this, they are commonly used as guide dogs, mobility assistance dogs, and search and rescue dogs. They are friendly and tend to learn tricks easily.They are also known to become excellent surrogate mothers to different species.[citation needed] Kittens and even tiger cubs from zoos are well taken care of by golden retrievers. In some cases, a retriever may produce milk for her adopted even though she may not have been pregnant or nursing recently.
 West Highland White Terrier
The West Highland White Terrier, commonly known as the Westie, is a breed of dog with a distinctive white coat. This breed is not considered a lap dog, as they are very energetic and slightly restless. They are small but are known for their strong-willed and self-confident personality. Originating in Scotland, the breed was used to seek and dig out foxes and badgers. This breed is commonly recognized through its use as a mascot for Black & White (a brand of Scotch whisky), Cesar brand dog food, and various other logos.Commonly, Westies have bright, deep-set, almond-shaped eyes that are dark in color. Their ears are small, pointed, and erect. A male typically weighs between 15 and 20 pounds (6.8 and 9.1 kg) and a female between 13 and 16 pounds (5.9 and 7.3 kg). The average height is 9 to 11 inches (23 to 28 cm) at the withers. The Kennel Club has recommended that their tails, typically "carrot-shaped", should never be docked; hence the tail should be between 5–6 inches (13–15 cm).They also have deep chests, muscular limbs, a huge skull, a large black nose, a short and a closely fitted jaw with "scissors" bite (lower canines locked in front of upper canines, upper incisors locked over lower incisors). The American breed standard states that a level bite is equally acceptable. Their teeth generally appear quite large for the size of the dog. Westies have a very strong bone structure for their size.They have a soft, dense, thick undercoat and a rough outer coat, about 2 inches long, that requires regular grooming. Some Westies have "wheaten tippings" on their backs, though for individuals put forward for conformation showing this can be regarded as undesirable. Also, some Westies do not have a top coarse coat, and just a second silky coat, but this is not considered a correct coat.This breed is a dog which sheds moderately. As they develop into adults, their coarse outer coat is normally removed by either 'hand-stripping', especially for dog-showing, or otherwise clipping. Their coarse coat is easily pulled out as it was designed to do so when the dogs would hunt vermin in underground bramble to prevent them from getting caught.
 Gordon Setter
A Gordon Setter is a large breed of dog, a member of the setter family that also includes both the better-known Irish Setter and the English Setter. Setter breeds are classified as members of either the Sporting or Gundog Group depending on the national kennel club or council. The original purpose of the breed was to hunt gamebirds. Their quarry in the United Kingdom, may be partridge or grouse, pheasant, ptarmigan, blackgame, snipe or woodcock: whilst overseas bird dogs are worked on quail, willow grouse, sand grouse, guinea fowl, sagehen, francolin and any other bird that will sit to a dog - that is to say, will attempt to avoid a potential predator by concealment rather than by taking to the wing at the first sign of danger. It is this combination of a bird that will sit fast in front of a dog that will remain on point that makes bird dog work possible.Gordon setters, also known as "black and tans," have a coal-black coat with distinctive markings of a rich chestnut or mahogany colour on their paws and lower legs, vents, throat, and muzzles; one spot above each eye; and two spots on their chest. A small amount of white is allowed on the chest. Although uncommon, red Gordons are occasionally born to normal-coloured parents, the result of expression of a recessive red gene. Predominantly tan, red, or buff dogs are ineligible for showing. A Gordon's coat is straight or slightly waved (but not curly), long and silky, with chest, stomach, ear, leg, and tail feathering. According to the AKC breed standard, "the bearing is intelligent, noble, and dignified." They are the heaviest of the setter breeds, with males reaching 27 inches at the withers and up to 80 pounds in weight.The AKC describes the Gordon Setter temperament as "alert, gay, interested, and confident. He is fearless and willing, intelligent, and capable. He is loyal and affectionate, and strong-minded enough to stand the rigors of training." Gordons are intensely loyal to their owners; thrive in an attentive, loving environment; and are good family dogs. Puppies and adult dogs can be quite boisterous, and although they are patient by nature, may not be suitable for households with very young children. Gordons are sensitive and empathic, eager to learn, and need firm but gentle handling. Early socialisation and obedience training is important. They are known as great talkers. The breed is one of the slowest to mature, not hitting prime until three years of age or more, and will show puppy-like characteristics well into their older years.Gordons were bred to run, and require 60 to 80 minutes of vigorous exercise daily. Young dogs should not be over-exercised or begin agility training until they are at least 18 months old, to avoid joint problems later in life. Because of their hunting instincts, Gordons should not be allowed to roam freely if unsupervised, as they are apt to wander into a potentially dangerous traffic situation while following a scent.
 Whippet
The Whippet is a breed of dog in the sighthound family. They are active and playful and are physically similar to a small Greyhound.Whippets are a medium-size dog averaging in weight from 15 to 30 lb (6.8–14 kg), with height (under the FCI standard) of 18.5 - 20 inches (47 - 51 cm) for males and 17.5–18.5 inches (44–47 cm) for females. Whippets tend to be somewhat larger in the United States and Canada with their population in show, coursing and some race whippets required to be within the AKC standard of 18.5 to 22.5 inches (47 to 57 cm) for males, and 17.5 to 21.5 inches (44 to 55 cm) for females. Because colour is considered immaterial in judging Whippets, they come in a wide variety of colours and marking patterns, everything from solid black to solid white, with red, fawn, brindle, blue, or cream. All manner of spots and blazes and patches are seen, sometimes all in the same litter.Whippets regularly compete in dog shows, lure course racing and are among the fastest of dogs running a course at 36 mphWhippets are generally quiet and gentle dogs, and may be content to spend much of the day resting. They are loyal and friendly. Because of this, whippets are known to have been used in aged care facilities. They may bark or jump at strangers and animals and may protect their owner if threatened.Whippets are not really well-adapted for living in a kennel, or as outside dogs. Their short coats do not provide insulation to withstand prolonged periods in cold temperatures. Their social nature makes them suitable indoor companions. Whippets are quiet and thus well suited to apartment life, but require regular exercise and the chance to run free. Care should be taken with whippets on the street as it is difficult to instill any sort of traffic sense into them.Whippets have been called a "poor man's racehorse." As their heritage would suggest, whippets are outstanding running dogs and are top competitors in lure coursing, straight racing, and oval track racing. Typically in these events, a temporary track and lure system is set up. The lure is usually a white plastic trash bag, sometimes in conjunction with a "squawker" to simulate a sort of prey sound or with a small piece of animal pelt. With the advent of new methods in motivational obedience training being used, whippets are becoming successful obedience dogs. Many enjoy flyball and agility.
 Great Dane
The Great Dane (18th Cent. French: Grand Danois), also known as German Mastiff (German: Deutsche Dogge) or Danish Hound (German: Dänischer Hund), is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) known for its giant size. The Great Dane is one of the world's tallest dog breeds; the current world record holder, measuring 109 cm (43 in) from paw to shoulder; 220 cm (7.2 ft) from head to tail, is George.As described by the American Kennel Club, "The Great Dane combines, in its regal appearance, dignity, strength and elegance with great size and a powerful, well-formed, smoothly muscled body. It is one of the giant working breeds, but is unique in that its general conformation must be so well balanced that it never appears clumsy, and shall move with a long reach and powerful drive." The Great Dane is a short haired breed with a strong galloping figure. In the ratio between length and height, the Great Dane should be square. The male dog should not be less than 30 in (76 cm) at the shoulders, a female 28 in (71 cm). Danes under minimum height are disqualified.From year to year, the tallest living dog is typically a Great Dane. Previous record holders include Gibson and Titan, however the current record holder is a blue Great Dane named Giant George who stands 43 in (110 cm) at the shoulder. He is also the tallest dog on record (according Guinness World Records), beating the previous holder who was a brindle Great Dane named Shamgret Danzas, who stood 42.5 in (108 cm) at the shoulder.The minimum weight for a Great Dane over eighteen months is 120 lb (54 kg) for males, 100 lb (45 kg) for females. Unusually, the American Kennel Club dropped the minimum weight requirement from its standard. The male should appear more massive throughout than the female, with a larger frame and heavier bone.Great Danes have naturally floppy, triangular ears. In the past, when Great Danes were commonly used to hunt boars, cropping of the ears was performed to make injuries to the dogs' ears less likely during hunts. Now that Danes are primarily companion animals, cropping is sometimes still done for traditional and cosmetic reasons. Today, the practice is common in the United States and much less common in Europe. In some European countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, Germany, parts of Australia, and in New Zealand, the practice is banned, or controlled to only be performed by veterinary surgeons.The Great Dane's large and imposing appearance belies its friendly nature; the breed is often referred to as a gentle giant. Great Danes are generally well-disposed toward other dogs, other non-canine pets and humans, although, when feeling threatened, have been known to attack humans. This is usually brought on by a person that is unfamiliar to the dog. Some breeds may chase or attack small animals, but this is not typical with Great Danes. The great dane is a very gentle and loving animal with proper care and training. They are also very needy, always needing someone. Some may find them frightening because of their huge structure and loud bark, but they have no intention of harming people.
 American English Coonhound
The American English Coonhound, also referred to as the English Coonhound or the Redtick Coonhound, is a breed of dog. It is a type of coonhound that is typically bred in the Southern United States. It has origins from hunting hounds brought to America by settlers during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in the dogs known as the "Virginia Hounds". The breeds first recognition came from the United Kennel Club in 1905 as the English Fox and Coonhound. Further recognition has been granted in recent years by the American Kennel Club, first in the Foundation Stock Service and in 2011 as a fully recognized member of the hound group.The breed is of medium height and proportionate weight, and their coats come predominantly in three types, redtick, bluetick and a tricolor tick pattern. They have a high prey drive and are used in various roles in hunting, including treeing. Health issues that the breed suffers from include overheating whilst out on summer hunting expeditions.
 Greenland Dog
The Greenland Dog (Danish: Grønlandshunden, "The Greenland's Dog"; also known as Greenland Husky) is a large breed of husky-type dog kept as a sled dog and for hunting polar bear and seal. This is an ancient breed, thought to be directly descended from dogs brought to Greenland by the first Inuit settlers.The Greenland Dog is a powerful, heavy-built dog. It has a broad, wedge-shaped head, slightly tilted eyes and small, triangular ears covered with thick fur that prevents frostbite. It has strong, muscular, short-haired legs. The tail is usually rolled along/across its back, but it may also hang down in a wolflike manner. When it lies down and curls up to rest, the tail often covers the nose. Its coat is of medium length and consists of two layers. The inner layer consists of short wool-like fur, the outer layer of longer, coarser, water-repellent fur.A characteristic of most Greenland Dogs is the "úlo", a triangular shaped area on the shoulders. It is named after a common woman’s-knife from Greenland which is of the same shape.Male are significantly larger than females at between 58 and 68 cm (23–27 in) at the withers; females are between 51 and 61 cm (20–24 in).In Greenland this breed exists in much the same condition as it had when originally arriving there, and is kept as chiefly as a working dog valued for its strength and speed rather than a malleable temperament. As a result of living in a pack structure very much similar to their wolf forebears, the Greenland dog takes a very firm and confident owner to make a good pet. Once one has won their respect, however, they can be very loyal and protective of their owners, especially if in a pack.
 Collie - Rough
The Rough Collie (also known as the 'Long-Haired Collie') is a long coated breed of medium to large size dog that in its original form was a type of collie used and bred for herding in Scotland. Originating in the 1800s, it is now well known through the works of author Albert Payson Terhune, and through the Lassie novel, movies, and television shows. There is also a smooth-coated variety; some breed organisations, including both the American and the Canadian Kennel Clubs, consider the smooth-coat and rough-coat dogs to be variations of the same breed. Rough Collies generally come in shades of sable, merles, and tri-coloured. This breed is very similar to the smaller Shetland Sheepdog which is partly descended from the Rough Collie.
 Griffon Bruxellios
The Griffon Bruxellois or Brussels Griffon is a breed of toy dog, named for their city of origin: Brussels, Belgium. The Griffon Bruxellois may refer to three different breeds, the Griffon Bruxellois, the Griffon Belge and the Petit Brabançon. Identical in standard except for coat and colour differences, in some standards they are considered varieties of the same breed, much like Belgian Sheepdogs.The Griffon Bruxellois is known to have a huge heart, and a strong desire to snuggle and be with his or her master. They display a visible air of self-importance. A Griffon should not be shy or aggressive; however, they are very emotionally sensitive, and because of this, should be socialized carefully at a young age. Griffons should also be alert, inquisitive and interested in their surroundings.Griffons tend to bond with one human more than others. This, along with their small size, may make them unsuitable as a family pet, especially for a family with very small children. Griffons tend to get along well with other animals in the house, including cats, ferrets, and other dogs. However, they can get into trouble because they have no concept of their own relative size and may attempt to dominate dogs much larger than themselves.
 Danish Swedish Farmdog
Dansk/svensk gårdshund (Danish–Swedish Farmdog) is a breed of dog that has its origin in Denmark and southern Sweden, but now has become popular all over Scandinavia. DSF is an old native breed which historically lived on farms in the eastern part of Denmark and southernmost part of Sweden (i.e. on both sides of Öresund, the strait that separates Sweden and Denmark), serving as a farmdog, guarding their people, farmed animals and the farm itself from strangers and intruders, catching rats and as a hunting dog. There are some indications that the breed originates from the Pinscher breeds and the British white hunting terriers. DSF has a soft and gentle temperament, but still has the strength to guard its family.
 Hamiltonstovare
The Hamiltonstövare is a breed of dog, bred as a hunting hound. The breed was developed in Sweden by the founder of the Swedish Kennel Club, Count Adolf Hamilton. Its ancestry includes several German hounds as well as English Foxhounds and Harriers.The breed is known by the white blaze on the head, down the neck, four white paws, and a white tail tip. He differs from an English Foxhound in that his frame is lighter.A typical hound in temperament- sweet and friendly to all- the Hamiltonstovare is also a hardworking hunter. It is happy to be with its family, but it is also happy to be out hunting.The Hamiltonstovare is its "own hound," and although it is friendly and gregarious, it naturally defers to doing what it wants rather than what might be requested of it. It takes enthusiasm and praise to persuade the Hamiltonstovare to comply with its owner's requests, but it'll do it if it's inspired.Dogs 53-61 cms (21-24 ins). The ideal size is 57 cms (22 ½ ins).Bitches 49-57 cms (19 ¼ - 22 ½ ins). The ideal size is 53 cms (21 ins).
 Deutscher Wachtelhund
The German Spaniel, also known as the Deutscher Wachtelhund, is a breed of dog that was developed in Germany around 1890, and is used as a hunting dog. Descended from the old German breed, the Stoeberer, which became popular with commoners following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, who required a versatile hunting dog. Stoeberer is now a type of hunting dog in Germany with the Wachtelhund being its sole member. The breed is not very well known outside of Germany, but was recognised by the United Kennel Club in 1996.
 Havanese
The Havanese is a dog breed of the Bichon type, developed from the now extinct Blanquito de la Habana ("little white dog of Havana"). The Blanquito descended from the also now extinct Bichon Tenerife, which was introduced to the Canary Islands by the Cubans. It is believed that the Blanquito was eventually cross-bred with other Bichon types, including the Poodle, to create what is now known as the Havanese. They are sometimes referred to as "Havana Silk Dogs," though this was originally just another name for the Blanquito de la Habana. The Havanese is the National dog of Cuba.The Havanese is small in size and sturdy in structure with a tail carried up over its back and ears that drop and fold. The coat is abundant, long, and silky and comes in all colors. The Havanese has a spirited personality and a curious disposition, and is notable for its springy gait, a characteristic that distinguishes the breed from all others. The Havanese is considered an ideal family pet and a true companion dog. They are highly adaptable to almost any environment, and their only desire is to be with their human companions. Because of their strong social needs, Havanese will not thrive in an environment where they are isolated for several hours each day.The Havanese, while a toy dog, is sturdy and does not appear fragile or overly delicate. Weight can vary greatly, but most are from 7 to 13 pounds. Height is 8½ -11½ inches (22 to 29 cm), with the ideal being 9 to 10½ inches (23 to 27 cm), at the withers. The body, measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, is slightly longer than the height at the withers, giving the dog the appearance of being slightly longer than tall. The length of the body results from the long ribcage, not the loins.A unique aspect of the breed is the topline, which rises just slightly from withers to croup, creating a topline that is straight but not level. This breed is renowned for their flashy, lively gait. When on the move, their strong rear drive and slightly shorter upper arm combine to produce a springy motion rather than a far-reaching one. The angle of the topline does not change while moving at a natural gait.The muzzle is full and tapers slightly at the nose. It does not have the appearance of being short or snipy. Length of skull measured from stop to point of occiput is equal to the length of muzzle. The top of the skull is rather flat and the backskull is rounded.The length from foot to elbow is equal to the length from elbow to withers. The forechest is pronounced. When is a standing position, the sternum lines up with the elbows, creating a deep chest. Ribs are well-sprung and the abdomen is moderately tucked up.The Havanese has dark brown eyes and almond-shaped lids surrounded by black pigment. The ears, when extended, reach half way to the nose. They arc slightly upward at the base and hang down on the sides of the head without touching the face. The tail is carried arched forward up over the back. While the tail's long plume of hair falls on the body, the tail itself never touches the back.The breed standard notes that except for slight trimming around the feet to allow for a tidy foot, they are to be shown untrimmed; any further trimming, back-combing, or other fussing is against type and will not be allowed to the point of precluding placement in dog shows. The breed standard specifies that the tail may not be docked. The American Kennel Club Standard allows head furnishings above each eye to be held in two small braids secured with plain elastic bands. However, many owners prefer to clip their pet's hair short for easy upkeep.The Havanese is a toy dog so it is a great dog to play with. It is smart and can be easily trained. It is best to train this dog at a young age, because some habits will stick as they become older. The Havanese gets very attached to their owners but does not mind spending time away from their owners, as they are very self entertaining dogs. The Havanese is the ideal dog to have in a low maintenance household. This breed does not require regular exercise. The Havanese is satisfied when their owner is satisfied. The dogs are not very vocal unless abusive body movements are shown. They are very friendly dogs, they do not bark at a stranger, but some individuals are shier than other individuals. They do not mind being kept outside as they are fine with playing with their toys but they prefer being inside with their owner. They love to perform in front of others and have a great need for attention
 Dogo Argentino
The Dogo Argentino (also known as the Argentine Mastiff) is a large, white, muscular dog that was developed in Argentina primarily for the purpose of big-game hunting, including wild boar and puma; the breeder, Antonio Nores Martínez, also wanted a dog that would exhibit steadfast bravery and willingly protect its human companion to the death. It was first bred in 1928, from the Cordoba Fighting Dog along with a wide array of other breeds including, but not limited to, the Great Dane.
 Hungarian Kuvasz
The Kuvasz (Hungarian pronunciation: [?kuva?z], pl. Kuvaszok, Hungarian pronunciation: [?kuva?z?k]) is a dog breed of ancient Hungarian origin. Mention of the breed can be found in old Hungarian texts. It has historically been used to guard livestock, but has been increasingly found in homes as a pet over the last seventy years.The Kuvasz is a large dog with a dense double, odorless coat which is white in color and can range from wavy to straight in texture. Although the fur is white, the Kuvasz’s skin pigmentation should be dark and the nose should be black. The eyes should have an almond shape. Females usually weigh between 35–50 kg (75-90 pounds) while males weigh between 50–70 kg (100-150 pounds) with a medium bone structure. The head should be half as wide as it is long with the eyes set slightly below the plane of the muzzle. The stop (where the muzzle raises to the crown of the head) should be defined but not abrupt. The precise standard varies by country. (See the Breed Standards for a more precise description.) To a casual observer, the Kuvasz may appear similar to a Great Pyrenees, Akbash, a Maremma Sheepdog, Samoyed, a white Poodle and Labrador Retriever mix, Slovak Cuvac and the Polish Tatra Sheepdog.As with many livestock guardian dogs, the color of the Kuvasz's coat serves a functional purpose and is an essential breed criterion. Shepherds purposefully bred the Kuvasz to have a light colored coat so that it would be easier for the shepherds to distinguish the Kuvasz from wolves that would prey on the livestock during the night. The Komondor, a cousin of the Kuvasz, has a white coat for the same reason. Traditionally, the Hungarian Kuvasz's coat could be either white or cream colored with a wavy texture. However, there is some debate, particularly in the United States, concerning the appropriateness of "cream" colored coats in show-quality dogs and whether the coat should be straight or wavy in texture. Since washing and brushing out a coat, as done for shows in the US also causes the coat to appear straight, the debate may be circular. Straighter coats may also have appeared as the result of breeding programs that developed after World War II, when the breeding lines in Hungary were isolated from the rest of the world as a result of Soviet & German occupation (see History, below). By Hungarian standard the straight coat is not acceptable. There must be special twirls in the coat.The Kuvasz is an intelligent dog and is often described as having a clownish sense of humor which can last throughout their adolescence and into adulthood.[2] They are intensely loyal yet patient pets who appreciate attention but may also be somewhat aloof or independent, particularly with strangers. They rank 42nd in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs. This misconception is due in part to the centuries of imprinting this breed to "think on its own without instruction". They are hard wired with a different type of thought process and are happiest when they are "working/guarding" their flock and not performing tricks. They are always on the job and require an experienced dog handler/trainer. In keeping with their origins as a livestock guardian, Kuvaszok are known to be fierce protectors of their families. Given their intelligence, constant awareness of their surroundings, as well as their size and strength, they can be quite impressive in this role. A Kuvasz should be courageous, disciplined and stable, while hyperactivity, nervousness and shyness are to be faulted.The combination of intelligence, independence and protectiveness make obedience training and socialization necessities. Furthermore, despite their intelligence, they should not be perceived as easily trained. Their independent personalities can make training a difficult task which can wear on the patience of even experienced owners. As a result, they are not recommended for novices and those who do not have time to train and socialize them properly. An adolescent Kuvasz should be able to learn basic obedience commands and consistently respond to them; however the instinctive need to investigate strangers and protect its owner may cause the Kuvasz to act independently when off leash and ignore the calls of a frustrated handler. Finally, a potential owner should refrain from purchasing a Kuvasz if barking will be a problem at the home. While not all Kuvaszok are prone to barking (socializing them will define what is a threat), many of them fulfill their guardian role by vocally warning off potential threats, both real and imagined. On the other hand, many of these qualities make the Kuvasz excellent guardians for sheep or large estates. The Kuvasz has a very special, close connection to his owner.
 Kai Ken
The Kai Ken (????, also called the Tora Inu or Tiger Dog) is a breed of dog that hails from Japan where it is a natural monument and has been bred for centuries. It is an extremely rare dog even in its native land and is related to the Japanese Spitz dog type. The Kai Ken is intelligent, agile, alert and brave. They are natural hunters and make good guard dogs, being reserved with strangers but loyal to their families. They are friendly, often good with children and are not usually aggressive towards other dogs. Many love to swim, and have been known to cross rivers and climb trees while chasing their prey.
 Hungarian Puli
The Puli is a medium-small breed of Hungarian herding and livestock guarding dog known for its long, corded coat. The tight curls of the coat, similar to dreadlocks, make it virtually waterproof. A similar looking, but much larger Hungarian dog breed is called Komondor.The Puli is a solid-colored dog that is usually black. Other less common coat colors are white, gray, or cream (off white or fakó in Hungarian). A variety of the cream-coated dogs have black masks. The white Pulis are often blue-eyed and called Roxies. The breed standard is for females about 16.5 inches (42 cm) at the withers, and 17 inches for males. Females weigh 23-25 pounds, males slightly more. The coat of some Puli dogs can be different, thinner or thicker cords, either flat or round, depending on the texture of the coat and the balance of undercoat to outer coat. The coat is the result of a controlled matting process. Thin rope-like corded coats are desired and the grooming should control the coat towards the forming of thinner ropes. The Puli's coat needs considerable grooming to keep its cords clean, neat, and attractive. With age the coat can become quite long, even reaching the ground. Alternatively, the coat can be trimmed short regularly for easy maintenance, although the corded coat is what attracts many people to the breed. Contrary to some beliefs, the coat of a healthy puli will grow out again after trimming. This breed has little to no shedding.Pulis are very intelligent, acrobatic dogs. Despite their bulky appearance and very thick coat they are very fast, agile and able to change directions instantly and are obedient enough to train for athletic competition. They are devoted and form close bonds with their owners.The breed does very well in obedience and agility. Traditionally, the Puli dog breed was used both as a livestock guarding dog, and herding dog as well. They make very good Roxies, as they are very protective of their master and territory. The Puli is sensitive, fun loving, courageous, but also tough and headstrong sometimes.[4]They are loyal to their owners and wary of strangers. They are highly active and keep a playful, puppy-like behavior their entire life. They need a lot of exercise and free space, preferably outdoors. They can be trained and housebroken, but Pulis are generally not very well suited to be city or indoor pets. When restricted to closed spaces for long times, they grow restless and might develop unwanted personality traits, such as becoming hyperactive or, instead, increasingly aloof and lazy.As a working dog, the Puli is very obedient, focused and determined when assigned a task. Some of them are used as police dogs. As a livestock guarding dog they are fiercely protective of their territory and flock, and, despite their relatively small size, will fearlessly try to scare and drive any intruder away, however they very rarely inflict any real injuries.As a family dog, they make good security dogs and faithful family guardians. They can be very friendly and playful, even in old age. They regard their family as their flock, and will keep their distance until they are sure the stranger is not a threat. When annoyed, they may attack without warning, so a considerable distance may be advisable for strangers. They can be extremely independent and obstinate, and only accept strong willed individuals as master
 Kishu Ken
The Kishu (??? Kish?-inu?), sometimes called Kishu Ken or Kishu Inu, is a Japanese breed of dog, developed there for thousands of years. It is descended from ancient medium-sized breeds and named after the Kishu region, now Wakayama Prefecture. This breed is similar to the Akita Inu and the Shiba Inu but predates both breeds[citation needed]. Sometimes it is mistaken for the white variant of Hokkaido or a white Japanese Spitz because of very similar appearance. The Japanese originally used this breed of dog for boar and deer hunting. Like the Shiba, they are often quiet. Kishu will stalk prey quietly rather than bark.
 Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla
The Wirehaired Vizsla (English pronunciation: /?vi??l?/ veesh-l?, Hungarian: [?vi?l?]; English plural: Vizslas or sometimes Vizslak, based on the Hungarian plural vizslák [?vi?la?k]), is a dog breed originating in Hungary. Wirehaired Vizslas are known as excellent hunting dogs, and also have a level personality making them suited for families. The Wirehaired Vizsla is a versatile, natural hunter endowed with an excellent nose and an above average trainability. Although they are lively, gentle mannered, demonstrably affectionate and sensitive, they are also fearless and possessed of a well-developed protective instinct. The breed has a firmness on point, is an excellent retriever, and has the determination to remain on the scent even when swimming. The overall appearance embodies the qualities of a multi-purpose pointing dog, endurance, working ability and an easily satisfied nature. This is a dog of power and drive in the field, yet is a tractable and affectionate companion in the home.The Wirehaired Vizsla is a wire-coated hunting dog, with a distinguished appearance and bearing. They have a lean build and are very robust. The coat is an attractive russet to golden sand in color. Where permitted the tail may be docked to three-fourths of its original length.The Wirehaired Vizsla is a rare dog breed in Hungary with an estimated 30 litters (approximately 140-150 dogs) being registered annually.The coat is wiry, close-lying, strong, and dense, 0.75 inches to 1.25 inches (2–3 cm) long with a dense, water-repellent undercoat. The outline of the body is not to be hidden by the longer coat. Pronounced eyebrows along with a strong, harsh beard, 0.75 inches to 1.25 inches (2–3 cm) long on both sides of the muzzle reinforce the determined expression. The coat should never be long, soft, silky, shaggy, crinkle, wooly, thin, lacking undercoat or lacking brushes on the legs.Males Height: 22¾–25¼ inches (58–64 centimetres)Weight: 45–65 pounds (20–29 kilograms)Females Height: 21¼ inches–23¼ inches (54–60 cm.)Weight: 40–55 lb (18–25 kg)Overall balance and symmetry are not to be compromised for sizeLike the Vizsla, Wirehaired Vizslas are very high energy, gentle-mannered, loyal, caring, and highly affectionate. They quickly form close bonds with their owners, including children. They are quiet dogs, only barking if necessary or if they are provoked.They are natural hunters with an excellent ability to take training . Not only are they great pointers, but they are excellent retrievers as well. They will retrieve on land and in the water, making the most of their natural instincts. However, they must be trained gently and without harsh commands or strong physical correction, as they have sensitive temperaments and can be easily damaged if trained too harshly (Gottlieb, 1992). Vizslas are excellent swimmers and often swim in pools if one is available. Like all gun dogs, Vizslas require a good deal of exercise to remain healthy and happy. Thirty minutes to an hour of exercise daily in a large off-leash area is optimal (Coffman 1992).The Wirehaired Vizsla thrives on attention, exercise, and interaction. It is highly intelligent, and enjoys being challenged and stimulated, both mentally and physically. Vizslas that do not get enough attention and exercise can easily become destructive or hyperactive. Under-stimulated Vizslas may also become depressed or engage in obsessive-compulsive behaviours such as persistent licking (Coffman 1992). Vizslas are very gentle dogs that are great around children. The Vizsla wants to be close to its owner as much of the time as possible. Many Vizslas will sleep in bed with their owners if allowed, burrowing under the covers.
 Mudi
The Mudi is a rare herding dog breed from Hungary. It is closely related to the Puli and Pumi, from which it was separated in the 1930's. Today, the Mudi is bred for work, companionship, and show. They continue to be used in herding, as well as participating in a variety of dog sports. The Mudi is a versatile farm dog that can hunt, exterminate rodents, and act as a capable herding dog and flock guardian. Although the breed is much less popular than the better-known Puli and Komondor in its native country, owners of the Mudi claim that it is incomparable for its versatile talents and pleasant disposition.
 Ibizan Hound
The Ibizan Hound (also named Podenco Ibicenco), pronounced "I-bee-zan" or "I-beeth-an", is a lean, agile dog of the hound family. There are two hair types of the breed: smooth and wire. The more commonly seen type is the smooth. Some consider there to be a third type, long, but the longhair is most likely a variation of the wire.The Ibizan Hound is an elegant and agile breed, with an athletic and attractive outline and a ground-covering springy trot. Though graceful in appearance, it has good bone girth and is a rugged/hardy breed. Its large upright ears - a hallmark of the breed - are broad at the base and frame a long and elegant headpiece. The neck is long and lean. It has a unique front assembly with well laid-back shoulders and relatively straight upper arm. It comes in both smooth and wire-coated varieties. It is either red, white, or a combination of red and white. Its nose is flesh colored, as are its ears, eye rims, and pads of feet. Its eyes are a striking amber color and have an alert and intelligent expression. The Ibizan may range in height from 24 to 29 inches (61 to 74 cm) and weigh from 45 to 65 pounds (20 to 29 kg), males being larger than females.Ibizan Hounds are moderately intelligent, active, and engaging by nature. They rank 53rd in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of average working/obedience intelligence. They are true "clowns" of the dog world, delighting in entertaining their people with their antics. Though somewhat independent and stubborn at times, they do take well to training if positive methods are used, but will balk at punitive training methods. They are generally quiet, but will alarm bark if necessary, so they make good watch dogs. They are sensitive hounds, and very good around children and other dogs alike. They generally make good house dogs, but are active and athletic, therefore need a lot of daily exercise. They do not make good kennel dogs.Ibizan Hounds are "escapologists": they are able to jump incredible heights from a stand still. As such, they need very tall fences. They also have been known to climb. They have a strong prey drive, therefore they cannot be trusted off leash unless in a safely enclosed area.
 Treeing Walker Coonhound
The Treeing Walker Coonhound is a breed of hound descended from the English and American Foxhounds. They were first recognized as a separate breed in 1945.Thomas Walker had imported the English Foxhound to Virginia in 1742. The breed originated in the United States when a stolen dog of unknown origin, known as the "Tennessee Lead", was crossed into the Walker Hound in the 19th century. The Treeing Walker Coonhound was recognized officially as a breed by the American Kennel Club in January of 2012. The Treeing Walker Coonhound is used to hunt small game, particularly raccoons and opossums. They are fast, agile, and tireless in pursuit. They are vocal with a distinctive bay that allows their owners to identify their hounds from great distances. These hounds are affectionate as family pets and enjoy living indoors, but they were bred for a life of action, and require a great deal of outdoor exercise.
 Irish Water Spaniel
The Irish Water Spaniel is a stout and cobby dog native to Ireland. The coat, consisting of dense curls, sheds very little. The colour is liver/puce and has a very definite purple hue unlike the colour of any other known breed. The non-shedding characteristic of the coat means that people usually allergic to dogs might have less of an allergic reaction to Irish Water Spaniels.The dogs are strongly built, and a bit taller and more squarish than other spaniels. There is a curly topknot upon the head and the face is smooth. The most distinguishing characteristic of these dogs is their not-too-long "rat-like" tails, which are a striking contrast to their otherwise curly coats. Dogs range in height from 22 to 24 inches (56–61 cm), and weigh 55 to 65 pounds (25–30 kg). As their name would imply these dogs love water. To this end they have evolved slightly webbed feet.TemperamentThis is an active breed that is often found in a real working retriever environment. They are intelligent, quick to learn, alert, and inquisitive, especially when it suits their purposes. They sometimes display humorous antics while working, earning them their "clownish" reputation. With proper socialization they can be gentle dogs with family and children, but are often shy around strangers if they have not had lots of socialization as youngsters. Irish Water Spaniels require regular exercise and need an experienced trainer however, when looked after properly, make extremely loving and loyal pets. They benefit from access to water to swim, an activity they specialise in.
 Shiba Inu
The Shiba Inu (???) is the smallest of the six original and distinct spitz breeds of dog from Japan. The Shiba's frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males are 141?2 inches to 161?2 inches (35–43 cm) at withers. Females are 131?2 inches to 151?2 inches (33–41 cm). The preferred size is the middle of the range for each sex. Average weight at preferred size is approximately 23 pounds (10 kg) for males, 17 pounds (8 kg) for females. Bone is moderate. Coat: Double coated with the outer coat being stiff and straight and the undercoat soft and thick. Fur is short and even on the fox-like face, ears, and legs. Guard hairs stand off the body are about 11?2 to 2 inches long at the withers. Tail hair is slightly longer and stands open in a brush. Shibas may be red, black and tan, or sesame (red with black-tipped hairs), with a cream, buff, or grey undercoat. They may also be white (cream), though this color is considered a "major fault" by the American Kennel Club and should never be intentionally bred in a show dog, as the required markings known as "urajiro" (???) are not visible; "Urajiro" literally translates to "underside white". Conversely, a white (cream) coat is perfectly acceptable according to the British Kennel Club breed standard
 Japanese Akita Inu
The Akita Inu (????) is a Japanese breed of large dog. Named for Akita Prefecture, where it is thought to have originated, it is sometimes called the Akita-ken based on the Sino-Japanese reading of the same kanji. In most countries (with the exception of the Australian, American and Canadian Kennel Clubs), it is considered a separate breed from the American Akita and is also colloquially known as the "Japanese Akita". "Inu" means "dog.Breed standards state that male Akita Inus height should range from 64-70cms (25 ¼-27 ½ ins), and females 58-64 cms (22 ¾-25 ¼ ins) at the withers.The Akita Inu comes in only five colors: Red, Fawn, Sesame, Brindle, and Pure White. All except white must have whitish hair on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, the neck, chest, body and tail, known as "Urajiro". Black masks, as seen in the American Akita, are not permitted in the Japanese Akita Inu. In contrast, all colors are accepted in the American Akita. The Pinto color is not accepted as an Akita Inu color, but is as an accepted American Akita color.Akita Inu are renowned as loyal dogs and are also intelligent. The loyalty of an Akita named Hachiko established the breed as truly loyal to their owners. The famous Akita Hachiko spent nine years waiting daily at the Shibuya railway station for his deceased master to return home. Hachiko's popularity brought back the Akita from the brink of extinction.Because of their intelligence, Akitas get bored very easily and as a result, they often become destructive and aggressive if not given anything to do. Akita Inu can live happily in apartments as long as they are given plenty of exercise. They need to be socialized as puppies so they are friendly dogs and should have experienced owners. Although they love human companionship, they are quite happy to be outside dogs as well, but should still be taken out for walks to prevent destruction of the yard. Akita Inu often become excitable when seeing their owners, often wiggling around and making happy grunts.Akita Inu are very good with youngsters from their own family, and often quite playful, although they should be watched around other people's children as they could knock them over during play.
 Russian Toy
The Russkiy Toy (also commonly called the Russian Toy) is a very small breed of dog originally bred in isolation in Russia from the English Toy Terrier. There are two types, smooth haired/coated and long haired, which were known by a variety of different names until brought together under the same standard as the Russkiy Toy in 2000. The breed was nearly wiped out twice; first following in the 1920s with the rise of Communism due to the toy dog's traditional link to the aristocracy and secondly in the 1990s with the influx of foreign breeds following the fall of the Iron Curtain. The smooth haired type is the older of the two, with the long haired type first appearing in 1958.
 Japanese Chin
The Japanese Chin (?), also known as the Japanese Spaniel) is the dog of Japanese royalty. A lap dog and companion dog, this toy breed has a distinctive heritage.Japanese Chin stand about 20 to 27 cm (8 to 11 in) in height at the withers and weight can vary from a low of 4 lbs to a high of 20 lbs, with an average of 7 to 9 pounds being the most common. The American Kennel Club and the Fédération Cynologique Internationale give no weight requirement for the Chin.This breed is considered one of the most cat-like of the dog breeds in attitude: it is alert, intelligent, and independent, and it uses its paws to wash and wipe its face. Other cat-like traits include their preference for resting on high surfaces such as the backs of sofas and chairs, their ability to walk across a coffee table without disturbing an item, and some of the surprising places their owners often find them in. They rank 62nd in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of fair working/obedience intelligence. A companion dog, it is loving and loyal to its owner and typically happy to see other people, though a few are distrustful of strangers. Chin prefer familiar surroundings, but do quite well in new situations and are often used as therapy dogs because of this trait and their love of people. Very early socialization of Chin puppies leads to a more emotionally well-balanced Chin that is more accepting of different situations and people.The Chin will bark for the purpose of alerting the household to the arrival of a visitor or something out of the ordinary, but are otherwise very quiet.Chin were bred for the purpose of loving and entertaining their people. While typically a calm little dog, they are well known for performing many enjoyable antics such as the "Chin Spin", in which they turn in rapid circles; dancing on their hind legs while pawing their front feet, clasped together, in the air; and, some even "sing", a noise that can range from a low trill to a higher, almost operatic quality noise, and which sounds much like “boooo”.
 Slovensky Cuvac
The Slovak Cuvac is a Slovak breed of dog, bred for use as a livestock guard dog. This mountain dog—also known as Slovensky Cuvac, Slovak Chuvach, Tatransky Cuvac and Slovensky Kuvac—is closely related to the Hungarian Kuvasz. The alternate German and English spelling Tchouvatch reflects the pronunciation: chew-votch. The breed is recognised under sponsorship from Slovakia by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale with the name Slovenský ?uva?. Despite the multiple renderings in English, these refer to only one breed. The United Kennel Club in the US uses the English version of the name Slovak Cuvac.
 Japanese Shiba Inu
The Shiba Inu (???) is the smallest of the six original and distinct breeds of dog from Japan.A small, agile dog that copes very well with mountainous terrain, the Shiba Inu was originally bred for hunting. It is similar in appearance to the Akita, though much smaller in stature. It is one of the few ancient dog breeds still in existence in the world today.Inu is the Japanese word for dog, but the origin of the prefix "Shiba" is less clear. The word shiba means "brushwood" in Japanese, and refers to a type of tree or shrub whose leaves turn red in the fall. This leads some to believe that the Shiba was named with this in mind, either because the dogs were used to hunt in wild shrubs, or because the most common color of the Shiba Inu is a red color similar to that of the shrubs. However, in an old Nagano dialect, the word shiba also had the meaning of "small", thus this might be a reference to the dog's small size. Therefore, the Shiba Inu is sometimes translated as "Little Brushwood Dog.The Shiba's frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males are 141?2 inches to 161?2 inches (35–43 cm) at withers. Females are 131?2 inches to 151?2 inches (33–41 cm). The preferred size is the middle of the range for each sex. Average weight at preferred size is approximately 23 pounds (10 kg) for males, 17 pounds (8 kg) for females. Bone is moderate.Coat: Double coated with the outer coat being stiff and straight and the undercoat soft and thick. Fur is short and even on the fox-like face, ears, and legs. Guard hairs stand off the body are about 11?2 to 2 inches long at the withers. Tail hair is slightly longer and stands open in a brush. Shibas may be red, black and tan, or sesame (red with black-tipped hairs), with a cream, buff, or grey undercoat. They may also be cream, though this color is considered a "major fault" and should never be intentionally bred in a show dog, as the required markings known as "urajiro" (???) are not visible. "Urajiro" literally translates to "underside white". The urajiro (cream to white ventral color) is required in the following areas on all coat colors: on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, inside the ears, on the underjaw and upper throat inside of legs, on the abdomen, around the vent and the ventral side of the tail. On reds: commonly on the throat, forechest, and chest. On blacks and sesames: commonly as a triangular mark on both sides of the forechest.Shiba Inus are generally independent and intelligent dogs. Some owners struggle with obedience training, but as with many dogs, socialization at a young age can greatly affect temperament. Traits such as independence and intelligence are often associated with ancient dog breeds, such as the Shiba Inu. Shibas should always be on a leash, unless in a secured area, because of their strong prey drive.From the Japanese breed standard:A spirited boldness, a good nature, and an unaffected forthrightness, which together yield dignity and natural beauty. The Shiba has an independent nature and can be reserved toward strangers but is loyal and affectionate to those who earn his respect. They can be aggressive toward other dogs.The terms "spirited boldness" (??, kan'i?), "good nature" (??, ry?sei?), and "artlessness" (
 Wirehaired Vizsla
The Wirehaired Vizsla (English pronunciation: /?vi??l?/ VEESH-l?, Hungarian: [?vi?l?]; English plural: Vizslas or sometimes Vizslak, based on the Hungarian plural vizslák [?vi?la?k]), is a dog breed originating in Hungary. Wirehaired Vizslas are known as excellent hunting dogs, and also have a level personality making them suited for families. The Wirehaired Vizsla is a versatile, natural hunter endowed with an excellent nose and an above average trainability. Although they are lively, gentle mannered, demonstrably affectionate and sensitive, they are also fearless and possessed of a well-developed protective instinct. The breed has a firmness on point, is an excellent retriever, and has the determination to remain on the scent even when swimming. The overall appearance embodies the qualities of a multi-purpose pointing dog, endurance, working ability and an easily satisfied nature. This is a dog of power and drive in the field, yet is a tractable and affectionate companion in the home
 Keeshond
The Keeshond ( /?ke?z.h?nd/ kayz-hond; plural: Keeshonden) is a medium-sized dog with a plush two-layer coat of silver and black fur with a 'ruff' and a curled tail. It originated in Germany, and its closest relatives are the other German spitzes such as the Pomeranian. Originally called the German Spitz, more specifically the Wolfsspitz, the name was officially changed to Keeshond, in 1926 in England, where it had been known as the Dutch Barge Dog.A member of the spitz group of dogs, the Keeshond in American Kennel Club (AKC) standard is 17 inches (43 cm) to 18 inches (46 cm) tall and 19.25 inches (48.9 cm) ± 2.4 inches (6.1 cm) in the FCI standard and weighs 35 pounds (16 kg) to 45 pounds (20 kg). Sturdily built, they have a typical spitz appearance, neither coarse nor refined. They have a wedge-shaped head, a medium-length muzzle with a definite stop, small pointed ears, and an expressive face. The tail is tightly curled and, in profile, should be carried such that it is indistinguishable from the compact body of the dog.Like all spitz, the Keeshonden have a dense double coat, with a thick ruff around the neck. Typically, the males of this breed will have a thicker, more pronounced, ruff than the females. The tail is well plumed, and feathering on the fore and hind legs adds to the soft look of the breed. The coat is shown naturally and should not be wavy, silky, or long enough to form a natural part down the back. The top layer should be smooth, and the under layer should be woollen.The Keeshond is a color-specific spitz type; many of the names of the dog refer to the distinctive wolf color of the breed. The color is a mix of grey, black, and cream. The top coat is tipped with black, while the undercoat is silver or cream (never tawny). The color can range from very pale to very dark; but it should neither be black nor white. The ruff and "trousers" of the hind legs should be a distinctly lighter silver or cream.The plumed tail should be silver or cream with a black tip on the very end. The tail should be tightly curled over the back. The tail is an important part of the Keeshond's shape. The ears and muzzle are to be black, although some tend to develop "milk mouth", a white shading around the nose and front of the muzzle. This increases as the dog ages. In American shows, this white shading is acceptable, although not desired.According to the American Kennel Club breed standard, the legs and feet are to be cream; feet that are totally black or white are severe faults. Black markings more than halfway down the foreleg, except for pencilling, are faulted.The other important marking is the "spectacles," a delicate dark line running from the outer corner of each eye toward the lower corner of each ear, which, coupled with markings forming short eyebrows, is necessary for the distinct expressive look of the breed. All markings should be clear, not muddled or broken. Absence of the spectacles is considered a serious fault. The eyes should be dark brown, almond-shaped with black eye rims.Ears should be small, triangular, and erect.Keeshonden tend to be very playful, with quick reflexes and strong jumping ability. They are quick learners and eager to please. Because Keeshonden are quick learners, they also learn things you did not necessarily wish to teach them—very quickly. However, Keeshonden make excellent agility and obedience dogs. So amenable to proper training is this bright, sturdy dog that Keeshonden have been successfully trained to serve as guide dogs for the blind; only their lack of size has prevented them from being more widely used in this role.They love children and are excellent family dogs, preferring to be close to their humans whenever possible. They generally get along with other dogs as well and will enjoy a good chase around the yard. Keeshonden are very intuitive and empathic and are often used as comfort dogs. Most notably, at least one Keeshond, Tikva, was at Ground Zero on 9/11 to help comfort the rescue workers.[3] The breed has a tendency to become especially clingy towards their owners, even in comparison to other dogs. If their owner is out, or in another room behind a closed door, they may sit, waiting for their owner to reappear, even if there are other people nearby. Many have been referred to as their "owner's shadow," or "velcro dogs".They are known by their loud, distinctive bark. Throughout the centuries, the Keeshond has been very popular as a watch dog on manors in the Netherlands and middle Europe. This trait is evident to this day, and they are alert dogs that warn their owners of any new visitors. Although loud and alert, Keeshonden are not aggressive towards visitors. They generally welcome visitors affectionately once their family has accepted them. Unfortunately, barking may become a problem if not properly handled. Keeshonden that are kept in a yard, and not allowed to be with their humans, are unhappy and often become nuisance barkers.
 Thai Ridgeback
The Thai Ridgeback (Thai: ??????????, RTGS: Thai Lang-An) is an ancient breed of dog. The breed was formerly unknown outside of Thailand, but is gaining notice in the Western world. They are also known as a Mah Thai Lang Ahn. The Thai Ridgeback is one of only three breeds that has a ridge of hair that runs along its back in the opposite direction to the rest of the coat. The other two are the Rhodesian Ridgeback and the Phu Quoc Ridgeback.
 Kerry Blue Terrier
The Kerry Blue Terrier is a breed of dog mistakenly thought to be of County Kerry in South West Ireland; it is actually from Tipperary. In its motherland it is often called the Irish Blue Terrier. Over time the Kerry became a general working dog used for a variety of jobs, including herding cattle and sheep and as a guard dog. It was, however, primarily developed for controlling "vermin" including rats, rabbits, badgers, foxes, otters and hares. Today the Kerry has spread around the world as a companion and working dog. Despite a Kerry Blue winning Crufts - the most important UK dog show - in 2000, it remains an uncommon breed. Not as threatened as some of the other terrier breeds (Skye Terrier, Sealyham Terrier, Dandie Dinmont Terrier), it is still distinctly uncommon.Some characteristics of the Kerry Blue Terrier include a long head, flat skull, deep chest, and a soft wavy to curly coat that comes in several shades of blue (from blue-black to light slate grey). The coat is considered to have more "color" or to be more "blue" when it carries more of the grey/blue color (or the lighter the coat is). Puppies are born black; the blue appears gradually as the puppy grows older, usually up to 2 years of age. All kennel clubs have statements in their standard similar to that of the American Kennel Club: "Black on the muzzle, head, ears, tail and feet is permissible at any age." This indicates the presence of the melanistic mask gene. The ideal Kerry should be 18½ inches at the withers for a male, slightly less for the female. The most desirable weight for a fully developed male is from 33 to 40 pounds, females weighing proportionately less.The coat is the key feature of the Kerry. It is soft and wavy with no undercoat. The texture is similar to that of fine human hair and like human hair is not shed but continues to grow throughout the year. This means the Kerry Blue requires very regular grooming (at least once per week) and clipping an average of every 6 weeks. As they do not lose their hair, a home can stay much cleaner. Kerrys have little to no scent; they do not have that dog smell. In fact, their scent is almost pleasant.Kerry Blue Terriers are strong-headed and highly spirited. They have always been loyal and affectionate towards their owners and very gentle towards children.[1] In the early days of competitive dog showing the Irish Kennel Club required Kerries to pass a "gameness" test, known as Teastas Mor certification, before they were deemed worthy of being judged. These tests included catching rabbits and bringing a badger to bay in its set. They are fast, strong, and intelligent. They do well in obedience, dog agility, sheep herding, and tracking. They have been used as police dogs in Ireland. Modern breeders have attempted to retain high spirits while breeding out aggression.As a long-legged breed, the activity level of the Kerry Blue Terrier ranges from moderate to high. They require an active, skilled owner who can provide them with early socialization and obedience training. Kerries require daily exercise.
 Rat Terrier
The Rat Terrier is an American dog breed with a rich and varied background as an all-around farm dog and hunting companion. Traditionally more of a type than a breed, they share much ancestry with the tough little mixed-breed dogs known as feists. Several private associations have maintained Rat Terrier registries for some decades, but more recently there have been movements to obtain breed recognition by the major canine organizations. Once common throughout America on family farms in the 1920s and 1930s, they are generally considered a rare breed. Today's Rat Terrier is an intelligent, active little dog that is cherished both for pest control and as a family pet.
 King Charles Spaniel
The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small breed of Spaniel-type dog, and is classed as a toy dog by most kennel clubs. It is one of the most popular breeds in the United Kingdom. Since 2000, it has been growing in popularity in the United States. It is a smaller breed of spaniel, and Cavalier adults are often the same size as adolescent dogs of other spaniel breeds. It has a silky coat and commonly an undocked tail. The breed standard recognizes four colours (Blenheim, Tricolour [black/white/tan], Black and Tan, and Ruby). The breed is generally friendly, affectionate and good with both children and other animals.The King Charles changed drastically in the late 17th century, when it was interbred with flat-nosed breeds. Until the 1920s, the Cavalier shared the same history as the smaller King Charles Spaniel. Breeders attempted to recreate what they considered to be the original configuration of the breed, a dog resembling Charles II's King Charles Spaniel of the Restoration.Various health issues affect this particular breed, most notably mitral valve disease, which leads to heart failure. This will appear in most Cavaliers at some point in their lives and is the most common cause of death. The breed may also suffer from Syringomyelia, in which cavities are formed in the spinal cord, possibly associated with malformation of the skull that reduces the space available for the brain. Cavaliers are also affected by ear problems, a common health problem among spaniels of various types, and they can suffer from such other general maladies as hip dysplasia, which are common across many types of dog breeds.The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is one of the largest toy breeds. Historically it was a lap dog, and modern day adults can fill a lap easily. Nonetheless, it is small for a spaniel, with fully grown adults comparable in size to adolescents of other larger spaniel breeds. Breed standards state that height of a Cavalier should be between 12 to 13 inches (30 to 33 cm) with a proportionate weight between 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg). The tail is usually not docked, and the Cavalier should have a silky coat of moderate length. Standards state that it should be free from curl, although a slight wave is allowed. Feathering can grow on their ears, feet, legs and tail in adulthood. Standards require this be kept long, with the feathering on the feet a particularly important aspect of the breed's features.The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and the English Toy Spaniel can be often confused with each other. In the United Kingdom, the English Toy Spaniel is called the King Charles Spaniel while in the United States, one of the colours of the Toy Spaniel is known as King Charles. The two breeds share similar history and only diverged from each other about 100 years ago. There are several major differences between the two breeds, with the primary difference being the size. While the Cavalier weighs on average between 10 to 18 pounds (4.5 to 8.2 kg), the King Charles is smaller at 9 to 12 pounds (4.1 to 5.4 kg). In addition their facial features while similar, are different, the Cavalier's ears are set higher and its skull is flat while the King Charles's is domed. Finally the muzzle length of the Cavalier tends to be longer than that of its King Charles cousin.The breed is highly affectionate, playful, extremely patient and eager to please. As such, dogs of the breed are good with children and other dogs. Cavaliers are not shy about socialising with much larger dogs. They will adapt quickly to almost any environment, family, and location. Their ability to bond with larger and smaller dogs make them ideal in houses with more than one breed of dog as long as the other dog is trained. The breed is great with people of all ages, from children to seniors, making them a very versatile dog. Cavaliers rank 44th in Stanley Coren's The Intelligence of Dogs, being of average intelligence in working or obedience. Cavaliers are naturally curious and playful, but also enjoy simply cuddling up on a cushion or lap.Cavaliers are active and sporting. They have an instinct to chase most things that move including while on busy streets, and so most Cavaliers will never become "street-wise". As they tend to regard all strangers as friends, members of the breed will usually never make good guard dogs. Spaniels have a strong hunting instinct and may endanger birds and small animals. However, owners have reported that through training their Cavaliers live happily with a variety of small animals including hamsters and gerbils.

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German Shepherd
Old Fashion Large German Shepherd Dogs are the kind I breed. Our purpose is to produce a superior German Shepherd that is not only genetically but structurally sound. Our dog's are not over angulated and tho large have exquisite conformation.
Catalina Australian Shepherds has been raising quality aussies since 1992. We believe in Quality
We do our utmost to ensure that our pups are in excellent health, free of heredity diseases. We offer responsible Malamute enthusiasts the opportunity to own one of these special pups at a reasonable price
NY DOBERMANS have been carefully chosen from the finest European lines to have the best heath and temperament you can have in a doberman.
We breed fawn, brindle and blue Great Danes.
The World of Afghan Hounds - one of the true "Ancient" breeds with a heritage dating back 16,000 years to the mountains of central Asia, and the land we know today as Afghanistan.
Breeding on quality Afghans Scandinavian bloodlines.
looking for A Briard breeder? learn more about this captivating french sheepdog first!